Chapter 6 HW/Quiz

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Io experiences tidal heating primarily because __________.
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Saturn's rings look bright because __________.light from the Sun reflects off the material in the ringsWhich of the following statements correctly describes the motion of the particles in Saturn's rings?Particles in the inner rings orbit Saturn at a faster speed than particles in the outer rings.The largest moon in the solar system isGanymedeThe jovian moon with the most geologically active surface isloStrong evidence both from surface features and magnetic field data support the existence of a subsurface ocean onEuropais responsible for the tremendous volcanic activity on Io.Tidal Heatingis the most distant of Jupiter's four Galilean moons.CallistoThe fact that Europa orbits Jupiter twice for every one orbit of Ganymede is an example of a(n)Orbital ResonanceThe following figures show four positions (1-4) of a comet during its orbit of the Sun. Also shown is the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. Rank the positions of the comet from left to right based on the size of its tail, from shortest to longest. (Not to scale; tails not shown.)Shortest to Longest - Top right - Lower right - Left of Earth's orbit - Exactly on Earth's orbitListed following are some distinguishing characteristics of comets, meteors, and asteroids. Match these to the appropriate category of objects. Comets- form a coma when near the Sun - most are located either in Kuiper belt or Oort cloud - visible in the sky as a fuzzy patch of light that rises and sets with the starsListed following are some distinguishing characteristics of comets, meteors, and asteroids. Match these to the appropriate category of objects. Meteors- visible in the sky as a bright streak of light for only a few seconds - dust particles entering Earth's atmosphere at high speedListed following are some distinguishing characteristics of comets, meteors, and asteroids. Match these to the appropriate category of objects. Asteroids- typically orbit the Sun at approximately 3 AU - compositions similar to that of the terrestrial planetsWhich of the following gases is not a significant ingredient of the jovian planet atmospheres?Carbon DioxideAccording to our theory of solar system formation, why did Uranus and Neptune end up to be much less massive than Jupiter and Saturn?Particles in the solar nebula were more spread out at greater distances, so that accretion took longer and there was less time to pull in gas before the solar wind cleared the nebula.Uranus and Neptune have methane clouds but Jupiter and Saturn do not. Which factor explains why?Temperatures on Jupiter and Saturn are too high for methane to condense.Which of the following best explains why many jovian moons have been more geologically active than the Moon or Mercury?Jovian moons are made mostly of ice that can melt or deform at lower temperatures than can the rock and metal that make up the Moon and Mercury.All the following statements are true. Which one is most important in explaining the tremendous tidal heating that occurs on Io?Io orbits Jupiter on an elliptical orbit, due to orbital resonances with other satellites.Why do astronomers believe that Triton is a captured moon?Triton orbits Neptune in a direction opposite that of Neptune's rotation.Which of the following is not a general characteristic of the four jovian planets in our solar system?They are higher in average density than are the terrestrial planets.Overall, Jupiter's composition is most like that of ________.the SunWhat is the Great Red Spot?a long-lived, high-pressure storm on JupiterWhat atmospheric constituent is responsible for the blue color of Uranus and Neptune?MethaneWhich statement about Io is true?It is the most volcanically active body in our solar system.Which moon has a thick atmosphere made mostly of nitrogen?TitanSuppose you could float in space just a few meters above Saturn's rings. What would you see as you looked down on the rings?countless icy particles, ranging in size from dust grains to large bouldersIn which list are the jovian planets in order of increasing distance from the Sun?Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, NeptuneThe outer layers of most jovian moons are made primarily oficesWhich of the following statements best describes the size of the largest asteroid, Ceres?It is a little less than half the diameter of our Moon.If we could put all the asteroids together, their total mass would be ________.much less than the mass of any terrestrial planetWhy didn't a planet form where the asteroid belt is now located?Gravitational tugs from Jupiter prevented material from collecting together to form a planet.When you see the bright flash of a meteor, what are you actually seeing?the glow from a pea-size particle and the surrounding air as the particle burns up in our atmosphereIn science fiction movies, spaceships are often shown dodging through large numbers of closely spaced, boulder-size objects. Which of the following real things in our solar system would look most like such science fiction dangers?the rings of SaturnWhich of the following objects are probably not located in the same general region of the solar system in which they originally formed?Oort cloud cometsWhen we see a meteor shower, it means that ________.Earth is crossing the orbit of a cometThe asteroid belt is located ________.between the orbits of Mars and JupiterWhich statement is not thought to be true of all comets in our solar system?Comets always have tails.According to current evidence, Pluto is best explained as ________.a large member of the Kuiper beltIf the hypothesis tracing the extinction of the dinosaurs to an impact is correct, the dinosaurs died off largely because ________.of global climate effects initiated by dust and smoke that entered the atmosphere after the impactThe impact of a 100 meter asteroid could kill many people if it struck a major city. Suppose the probability of such an impact in any single year is 1 in 1,000, and suppose we know (somehow) that it has been 1200 years since the last impact. What would that tell us?Nothing, we would still presume that the chance of such an impact during the next year is 1 in 1000.