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Latin American Relations Midterm

Terms in this set (69)

-whole system is anarchic, doesn't see as much friends as "interests"
Sum: a paradigm based on the premise that world politics is essentially a struggle among self-interested states for power under a state of anarchy
A. MAIN ASSUMPTIONS
1. Conflict/War is a consequence of anarchy
-Hobbes: "We live in a world in which there is no common power"
-No central or global power exists to enforce peace
2. Self Help:
-Who ensures the survival of states without a world government?
-states are self-interested
-sovereignty is important (one of the most important self-interests)\
3. States as unitary actors (shouldn't be/are not influenced by other actors) states act similarly to protect their interests
4. Power
-How do nations survive? By acquiring power.
-Security Dilemma: possibility of war can never be excluded, therefore states need enough power to protect themselves
5. Balance of Power= solution to international conflict "countries only start wars that they think they will win"
6. Role of International organizations?
7. Morality?
B. Applied to United States-Latin American Relations
1) U.S. as the dominant partner (hegemon)
-"The history of U.S.-L.A. relations has always been characterized by significant differences in military and economic capability and the absence of effective international institutions to constrain the actions of the United States"-Gregory Weeks
2) United States Interests
a. strategic/geopolitical
b. Economic
c. Political
-the United States likes stable government that supports our interests
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
A. Monroe Doctrine: Overview
*President Monroe's state of the union address
-the Monroe Doctrine was not a bill passed in Congress but just was in speech and a general approach
-initially aimed at Russia, then catered towards Europe
-Major tenets
1. non-colonization by European powers: "The American continent is not to be considered as subject for future colonization by any European power"
2. Nonintervention by extra-regional powers
3. Non-transfer of existing colonies
4. U.S. would not interfere in Europe
*central principle of United States Foreign policy towards Latin America
B. International Reaction to the Monroe Doctrine
-at time, very weak international player
-euro chastised us for not having the teeth to enforce this grand proclamation
-Latin American countries really didn't talk about it much because
~1823-many independence wars
-Simone Bolivar was a little worried "the United States appears destined to plague us with misery"
C. Application of the Monroe Doctrine
-at first, enforcement was spotty
-in 1833, British took over islands and in 1843 the French and British did a naval blockade against Buenos Aires
-most flagrant when Mexico had an intervention by the French
-United States exercised only selective enforcement
-why was enforcement so haphazard?
D. Approaches to understanding The Doctrine: Western Hemispheric Idea and Sphere of Influence
1. Western Hemispheric Idea and Sphere of Influence
a) Two spheres: new sphere (religious freedom) vs. old sphere (everyone trying to escape)
b) democracy- political mission of the United States to spread democracy- John Quincy Adams said fundamental differences in character
2) Sphere of Influence= an area in which one Great Power assumes exclusive responsibility for maintenance of peace; it denotes a situation in which one power has acquired a monopoly or near monopoly for its services in that area.", an area in which one Great Power assumes exclusive responsibility
*hegemony
*associated with realist approach
*driven by power asymmetry
Early Cold War:
-during war we had Latin America give us a lot of resources, economically trade and investment was good between them --> great relationship with them --> changed with COLD WAR
I. The Cold War
A. Defining Characteristics
1. Bipolar World
-economic and military strength of United States
-economically the United States was doing well during WWII
-worth mentioning that the U.S. territory was relatively unscathed during war
-Weakening of classic imperial powers
-wasn't just Axis powers defated, 35 million Europeans were killed during WWII --> economies had been decimated
-RISE OF THE SOVIET UNION
-embraced territorial and ideological encroachment --> imposed socialism
2. Atomic Bombs
-U.S. viewed A-bombs as being rather efficient, threat of nuclear holocaust might put Soviets at bay
-race to see who had larger nuclear stockpile
-two countries became locked in a nuclear stand-off
3. Ideological Battles
-the U.S. positions itself as the defender of the real world
-the Soviet Union is trying to extend communism throughout world
-any regime that embraced any socialist tendencies convinced U.S. of communist infiltration
4. Global Aspect
-looking for surrogate states (no part of 3rd world was exempt) 3rd world term becomes popular
B. Truman Doctrine
-initially our waging of the Cold War in 1947 --> leftist insurgency in Greece and it was fighting against Greek government
"I believe it must be the policy of the U.S. to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."
-typical since Roosevelt Corollary --> World Policeman
-Assumptions:
-USSR seeking to spread communism worldwide
-Soviet ambitions would produce long and continuous struggle =Cold War
-U.S. goal = halt the spread of communism= containment
-Marshall Plan
-used economic assistance in Western Europe to try and contain spread of communism
-poured $19 billion into these countries to help bolster them
-was no Marshall Plan for other struggling nations not in Europe
-NATO (1949)
(1958) A political revolution that removed the United States supported Fugencio Batista from power. The revolution was led by Fidel Castro who became the new leader of Cuba as a communist dictator.
U.S.-Cuban Relations
-Fidel used to be a pitcher said no to signing bonus with American baseball team
I. Precursors to the Cuban Revolution
A. Rise of Marxism in Latin America
-many L.A. writers/poets began embracing Marxism --> Frida Kahlo
-Soviets weren't trying to get them an offensive. largely response to imperialism --> nationalist
-definitely reaction against United States
B. Batista Regime (1933-1944, 1952-1959)
-he was a dictator and a good friend of the United States
-he had a reputation for harsh authoritarian rule
-was connected with corruption and organized crime
-politically a staunch anti-communist
-Cuba had a relatively robust middle class compared to neighbors
-50s had a lot of tourism to Cuba
-Cuba wasn't immune to nationalist theories that had spread throughout and didn't like Batista
A. Castro seizes power
-involved in student government, became lawyer
-July 26, 1953 -->attack on Moncada military barracks, Castro arrested and later released
-in exile in Mexico and meets Che and they plot to overthrow Batista, Invasion of Cuba from Mexico on the Granma -> now newspaper
-January 1, 1959: Castro comes to power
-Batista exiled
-nation unites in defense of Castro
-people who disliked Castro --> ultimately moved to Miami
B. U.S. Reaction
-Eisenhower doesn't embrace Castro and refused to give him official diplomatic recognition
C. Policies of the Revolutionary regime
-Castro takes very strong steps to redistribute land holdings
-Compensates owners of land and redistributes to peasants
-U.S. heavily invested in island -70 % --> all holdings taken by Castro --> wealthy humans also compensated
-still to this day, many Cubans hope to get land back
-he raised wages, public healthcare, reduction in rents, embraced public education but has strong ideological bent
-he established a dictatorship --> a congress that meets once every five years (all communist party members)
D. Relations with the Soviets
-Castro wants to diversify and he negotiates trade agreement (sugar) with Soviets in exchange Cuba would get technology, etc. from Soviets
-he traded U.S. dependency with Soviet dependency
E. End of U.S. -Cuban diplomatic relations, January 1961 --> we don't have diplomatic relations with them
-begins spying on Cuba a lot
-Program of Covert Action against regime
B. U.S. intervention in Chile
1. Election of Salvador Allende, 1970
-In 1970, Chile was one of the most stable democracies in L.A., certainly most stable in South America
-In 1970, Allende won election and in this election all 3 candidates basically split election with Allende coming out in little more on top
-because Chile had such a stable democracy, the U.S. couldn't claim that he was fraudulently brought to power
-he was not moderate centrist like modernization theory said
-U.S. gave $500 million to opponents
-he was leftist but not backed by Soviets, had few Cuban ties
-Allende embraced policies like Agrarian reform and raised minimum wage, called for nationalization of Copper industry --> problem for U.S., daily glass of milk to school children
2. U.S. strategy: provocation of a military-coup
-Nixon and his administration used propaganda tactics to try and destabilize regime and make it ripe for a military coup
3. U.S. interests in Chile: economic, geopolitical,
-geopolitical: fearful of domino theory
-economic: ITT (ATT) invested, Copper
-Henry Kissinger came up with 2 options:
-maybe we can persuade chilean congress to intervene then the military coup
C. Destabilization of Allende
1. Economic means: "make economy scream"
-ITT (ATT) gave a lot of $, council of Americas too
-try to create a financial blockade to make regime tank and ripe for a coup
-denied regime to be able to loan $, loans --> all countries need credit, cut its loans by about 90 percent apparently
-Chile was heavily reliant on Copper, basically U.S. gov maintained a stockpile of Copper
-prevented purchase of replacement parts for cars
2. Covert tactics
-poured over a million dollars to these other parties
-gave $7 million to other opposing conservative newspapers
-supported a strike of truckers, we paid their salaries so they could strike for a long time, had devastating effects on colony
-by September 1973, their economy was in shambles, political climate ripe for a coup
-September 11, 1973 began bombing, Allende was inside and committed suicide
D. Military coup, Rise of Pinochet, Chilean Dirty War
-After this, all the economic trade and stuff was renewed, a very brutal crackdown on Allende was pursued
-tortured his supporters and thrown to mass grave --> the Dirty War
-shortly after Pinochet was indicted, he died
I. Good Neighbor Policy
A. Background: Harding, Coolidge, Hoover
-thought corollary should be abandoned because redundant
-Hoover- Zeeth good will tour --> made statement that he hoped they could be good neighbors
-Roosevelt in '34 continued non-intervention and tried to repair relationship --> this shift in policy culminated in good neighbor policy
B. Aspects:
-repudiation of armed/military intervention
-emphasis on cooperation/multilateralism
C. Motives
-Western Hemispheric Idea vs. Realist Interpretation
-International Conditions: WWI/Great Depression
-Imminence of WW2
D. Tenets
1. abandon of intervention, respect for sovereignty
-FDR signed a document for no intervention in Latin America, in Buenos Aires the United States made another declaration that they wouldn't intervene, FDR repudiated corollary
2. Bolster economic ties-began negotiating trade agreements, 1934 we signed reciprocal trade ---> power to president to reduce tariffs and if Latin American president would do the same
3. Foster cultural understanding/exchange
4. Consolidate Collective Security
-have L.A.'s support should WWII happen
-if a threat emerges, they would act collectively --> '36
-we tried to get countries to break off w/powers, Argentina was reluctant to break off ties with Italy
-Latin America supported United States efforts in war, many Mexicans and Brazilians sent troops to fight in war
5. Other specific policies:
a. Withdrawl marines from Haiti
b. Repeal Platt Amendment
c. Increase payments to Panama for canal zone
d. Accept Mexican oil expropriation by Cardenas
-Mexican supreme court intervenes and United States companies refuse to
-Mexican President told Brits and Americans to get out
A. U.S. Foreign Policy objective= protection of national security/containment
-containment becomes primary concern of U.S. policy makers
-love believes it didn't get to Latin America until 1960s
B. Security Agreements
1. Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty) 1947
-an attack on our country would be viewed as an attack on all, trying to keep extraterritorial powers --> out
2. organization of American States, 1948
-OAS aims was to foster democratic governance and economic cooperation among member states
C. Political Relations:
1. Rise of the democratic left in L.A. in 1940s
-democracies brought into power by industrial working hours, they demanded strong unions and other things associated with socialism
-land reforms and large plots of land were distributed and given to peasants
-U.S. had just come off of U.S. most progressive history w/FDR --> many Latin American in 1950s had communist parties but not sponsored by soviet union --> now Latin America is all democratized and they had to open space for political left, U.S. explained rise of the left with communist infiltration --> in early 1950s most democracies failed and reverted back to some form of authoritarianism
-by 1954 only 4 democracies in Region, Chile, Uraguay..
-in contrast to loving democracy, U.S. embraced authoritarianism regimes b/c they tended to lean to right in Latin America and were rather staunch anti-communist
-do nothing to defend the dictators --> they're the only people we can depend on
-we encouraged authoritarian governments to crack down of leftist movements --> so anti-labor unions and communist parties were outlawed, in Mexico not allowed to run for office
-we tried to encourage L.A. to break off diplomatic relationships with Soviet
A. Background: Central American political and economic chaos
-world prices of coffee and bananas plummeted meanwhile world price of oil went up --> devastating effect
-gov responded not favorably, sparked violence in social movements
-guatemala had a string of military governments and beginning in the 1970s and accelerating into 1980s --> and began massacring individual indigenous peoples they believed to be making an insurgency --> 200,000 people killed because suspected --> the U.S. turns a blind eye to this because we had a friendly relationship with them
-estimated 2 million refugees b/c of these wars
-U.S uses honduras, Panama, and ? --> ?
B. El Salvador
-liberation theology: influential ideology
-catholic church was usually aligned with conservative elites
- wanted to embrace poverty in the region? --> all people deserve the right to lead a fulfilling life
-liberation theology had a strong marxist bent
-America's economic exploitation of L.A. was a SIN
-Represented Jesus Christ as a revolutionary --> this did not go over well with the Vatican
-FMLN (Frente Marti para la Liberacion Nacional) --> a guerilla insurgency that began to fight El Salvador's GOV
-the U.S. wants to keep the military gov. in power b/c its anti-communist so we sent 200 million a year by 1984 --> sent to a relatively small country
-In 1984, it was the third largest recipient of aid behind Egypt and Israel
-Reagan thought they needed help b/c domino theory
-U.S. support for Salvadoran military regime (1984: $200 million military aid)
-Emigration of Salvadoran refugees
-El Mozote Massacre
-a batallion of El Salvadorians had been trained by Americans (School of Americas) and were carrying American weapons and went into a village and just indiscriminately shot everyone -791 people were killed --> not reported on by American newspapers until 2 months after it happened
C. United States Response to Nicaraguan Revolution --> El Salvador (rightest government) --> US support
-Nicaragua (leftist gov) --> no US support
-El Salvador vs. Nicaragua
- Rise of the FSLN (SANDISTA FRONT for National liberation), 1979 revolution overthrows Somoza dynasty
-Samoza regime --> Carter had cut off aid so this chipped away at their staying power
-was an Earthquake and received International aid and it became clear that Somoza stole $32 million
-but US had supported them before
-60s/70s become an early staging of revolution
-Policies of Sandinistas: rooted in liberation theology, nationalism, Marxism
-close ties to castro, trade relations with Soviet Union, looking to cut illiteracy or embrace it?
-CONTRA WAR
-our intervention was because we were concerned the Sandinistas were giving arms (nic to El Salvador) and so the U.S. intervened
-thousands of disaffected Nicaraguans and we organized them into an insurgency and called them CONTRAS --> going against Sandinista revolution
-we trained them in Honduras and Costa Rica and from there they launched attacks against Sandinist government
-strong opposition at home because U.S. had just left Vietnam, etc.
-Boland amendment -> could only aid the Contras in an effort to stop the movement of arms to El Salvador
-other methods of destabilization:
"low intensity warfare", economic measures
-CIA also engaged in low-intensity warfare
-destroyed oil storage facilities (Nicaragua doesn't have own supply of oil)
-CIA dropped mines on Nicaraguan harbors
-CIA backed planes that bombed certain areas of Nicaragua
-Nicaragua won case of ICJ because U.S. funding of Contras and mines on harbors
-the ICJ demand the U.S. pay Nicaragua for the damage, the U.S. blocked enforcement of this
-economically --> trade embargo against Nicaragua and convinced allies to stop trade with them
-largely these efforts did not work
-Sandinistas keep going
-controversy stirred up because of U.S. involvement and intervention
-Iran Contra scandal
-when Congress refused to fund Contra war, so Reagan looked for private funding
-Cors (beer) gave $ to Contras, Saudi Arabia
-Reagan administration found to be selling arms to Iran and took those profits and gave to Contras
-Reagan didn't take fall for this one --> North did but did give a hit to Reagan's credibility
-Reagan testified and said that he couldn't recall anything
ARIAS PEACE PLAN, 1987
-Prez of Costa Rica-Arias
-peace plan was immediate plan of stopping hostilities --> so immediate cease firing and then began staging elections
-called for immediate end to others funding "unusual armies" (basically towards U.S.)
-no country could be used as a base to stage attacks on another country --> Panama, Honduras, Costa Rica --> used for staging attacks on Nicaragua
-U.S. wasn't happy about plan and we retaliated against Costa Rica
-U.S. denied Costa Rica access to credit, etc ????
-Arias won Nobel Peace Prize