134 terms

A&P Lab Exam I

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chemicals, injury, fatigue
three factors that may slow a reaction to a stimulus
ipsilateral
the pupillary response was ipslateral or contralateral?
reflex arc
the pathway an impulse travels to initiate a super quick unconscious reaction (stimulus, sensory neuron, integration center, motor neuron, response)
myelin
covers motor neurons and insulates the axons
afferent neuron
a neuron conducting impulses inwards to the brain or spinal cord
efferent neuron
a neuron conducting impulses outwards from the brain or spinal cord
effector
An organ (a gland or muscle) that becomes active in response to nerve impulses.
cns integration center
synapse between afferent and efferent neurons
sensory receptors
react to a stimulus
reflex
rapid involuntary response to a stimuls
schwann cells
cover the axon and provide a myelin sheath
lateral rectus
turns the eye laterally
inferior oblique
turns the eye up and laterally
superior oblique
turns the eye down and laterally
superior rectus
turns the eye superiorly and medially
medial rectus
turns the eye medially
inferior rectus
turns the eye inferiorly and medially
astigmatism
unequal curvature of the eye itself
hyperopia
farsightedness; inability to see close objects clearly
myopia
nearsightedness; and inability to see far away objects clearly
emmetropia
"normal" vision; 20/20
presbyopia
decreased flexibility of the lens that occurs with age
convergence
medial movement of the eyes while focusing on close objects
accomodation
ability to focus for close vision
relaxed
during close vision, the ciliary muscle is
contracted
during close vision, the suspensory ligament is
decreased
during close vision; lens convexity is
decreased
during close vision; light refraction is
vitreous humor
the clear colorless transparent jelly that fills the posterior chamber of the eyeball
aqueous humor
fluid in the eye, found between the cornea and the lens
sclera
white of the eye
retina
layer that contains rods and cones
unipolar
bipolar
multipolar
corpus callosum
thalamus
pineal gland
hypothalamus
reflex
involuntary response to a stimulus
somatic reflexes
involve skeletal muscle
stretch reflex
type of reflex initiated by tapping a tendon or ligament
autonomic reflex
control smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands to maintain homeostasis
glands
effectors of salivary reflex
femoris quadricep
effector of knee jerk reflex
sensory receptor
muscle spindle of quadricep femoris
dendrites
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
neurons
nerve cells
tracts
axons running through the central nervous system form ________ of white matter
oligodendrocytes
myelinate and insulate axons in the CNS
microglia
destroy harmful substances present in the CNS
ependymal cells
produce and circulate cerebrospinal fluid
astrocytes
provide physical support and organization for the cns
neurolemmocyte
forms myelin in the PNS
satellite cell
surrounds neuron cell bodies in ganglia in the PNS
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord collectively
neuroglia
speacialized supporting cells in the nervous sytem
synaptic cleft
junction or point of close contact between neurons
tract
bundle of axons in the CNS
interneuron
neuron that serves as part of the pathway between sensory and motor neurons, contains fibers of both
peripheral nervous system
ganglia and spinal and cranial nerves
nerve
collection of cell bodies found outside the CNS
neurotransmitter
chemicals released by neurons that stimulate or inhibit other neurons or effectors
gyri
elevated ridges
fissures
deep grooves
diencephalon
the portion of the forebrain that includes the thalamus and hypothalamus
medulla
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
dura mater
tough outer layer of the meninges
arachnoid mater
weblike middle layer of the three meninges
pia mater
thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges
temporal
in which lobe will you find the primary auditory cortex?
temporal
in which lobe will you find the olfactory cortex?
frontal
in which lobe will you find the primary motor cortex
occipital
in which lobe will you find the primary visual cortex
parietal
in which lobe will you find the primary somatosensory cortex
frontal
in which lobe will you find Broca's area
hypothalamus
site of regulation of body temperature and water balance; most important autonomic center
optic chiasma
site where medial fibers of the optic nerve cross
cerebellum
responsible for regulation of posture and coordination of complex muscular movement
thalamus
important synapse site for afferent fibers traveling to the sensory cortex; encloses the third ventricle
corpus callosum
large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
fornix
a fiber tract that extends from the hippocampus to the mammillary body, involved with olfaction
cerebral aquaduct
connects the third and fourth ventricles
basal nuclei
Controls muscle activity and posture; largely inhibits unintentional movement when at rest
choroid plexus
produces CSF
somatic reflex
effectors are skeletal muscles
autonomic reflex
effectors are smooth muscle and glands
conjunctivae
the mucous membrane that lines the internal surface of the eyelids and continues over the anterior surface of the eyeball
cornea
the transparent outer covering of the eye
sclera
white of the eye
choroid
vascular layer beneath the sclera that provides nourishment to the outer portion of the retina
ciliary muscle
smooth muscle portion of the ciliary body, which contracts to assist in near vision
suspensory ligament
attaches the lens to the ciliary body
iris
muscular diaphragm that controls the size of the pupil
pupil
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
cones
neurons in the retina that are responsible for color vision
rods
receptor cells in the retina allowing us to see in low levels of light
fovea centralis
area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
optic disc
region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina; blind spot
ciliary body
modification of the choroid that controls the shape of the crystalline lens and contains the ciliary muscle; ring of tissue behind the peripheral iris that is composed of ciliary muscle and ciliary processes
scleral venous sinus
drains the aqueous humor from the eye
ciliary processes
form (by filtration) the aqueous humor
ganglion, bipolar, photoreceptors
pathway of light in retinal cells
ganglion
axons of the __________ cells form the optic nerve which exits the eyeball
refraction
light bending
pinna
external ear, made of cartilage and filters sound waves into ear
external ear
consists of the auricle and external auditory canal (meatus)
middle ear
structures in the middle of the ear that vibrate sound from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear
inner ear
the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs
auditory canal
channel that leads from the pinna to the eardrum
tympanic membrane
the membrane in the ear that vibrates to sound
ossicles
malleus, incus, stapes
eustachian tube
connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx and allows passage of air
semicircular canals
fluid-filled structures in the inner ear that are associated with the sense of balance
utricle
fluid-filled chamber in the inner ear that detects changes in gravity
cochlea
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
cochlear duct
a fluid filled cavity within the cochlea that vibrates when sound waves strike it
saccule
the smaller of two sacs within the membranous labyrinth of the vestibule in the inner ear
organ of corti
Center part of the cochlea, containing hair cells, canals, and membranes
maculae
sensory receptors for static equilibrium
basilar membrane
hair cells of spiral organ of corti are rooted in this membrane
tectorial membrane
gelatinous mebrane overlying the hair cells of organ of corti
ampula
the swelled part of the semi-circular canal that contains the crista
cochlear nerve
the branch of the auditory nerve that transmits auditory information from the cochlea to the brain
cupula
gelatinous cap overlying hair cells of the crista
otolith
grains of calcium carbonate in the maculae whose movement stimulates ciliated cells in the utricle and saccule
oval window
membrane at the enterance to the cochlea through which the ossicles transmit vibrations
external auditory canal, pinna (auricle), tympanic membrane
structures composing the external ear
cochlea, semicircular canals, vestibule
structures composing the internal ear
pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube
involved in equalizing the pressure in the middle ear with atmospheric pressure; passage between the throat and the tympanic cavity
semicircular canals, vestibule
contain receptors for the sense of balance
round window
acts as a pressure relief valve for the increased fluid pressure in the scala tympani; bulges into the tympanic cavity
endolymph
fluid contained within the membranous labyrinth
perilymph
fluid contained within the osseous labyrinth and bathing the membranous labyrinth