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Living Things and Cells Unit Exam
Terms in this set (58)
a living thing
maintenance of a stable internal environment
smallest unit of living things
an undeveloped version of the organism
anything that takes up space and has mass
substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances, a pure substance
simplest and smallest particle of matter
a chart that organizes the elements according to unique characteristics
a process that breaks or makes atomics bonds between atoms
molecules built around the element Carbon and they are found in living organisms
sugars or long chains of sugars that store energy
molecules made up of amino acids
type of protein that speed up chemical reactions
organic compound made up of fats, oils, or waxes
organic compound made up of long chains of nucelotides, DNA and RNA
Who created the Periodic Table?
barrier between the inside of a cell and its environment
cell membrane definition
surrounds the cell, allows materials to enter or exit the cell, selective
single functional unit of life, make up all living things
cells make up all living things, cells are the smallest unit of living things, cells come from preexisting cells
strong wall, protects and supports the cell, outermost covering of the plant cell, also found in bacteria (prokaryotes)
characteristics of eukaryotes
1. they have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
2. they include plants, animals, protists, and fungi
3. these cells are larger and more specialized than prokaryotic cells
characteristics of prokaryotes
1. smaller and simpler than eukaryotes
2. do not have nuclei or membrane bound organelles
3. DNA, or genetic material, is circular in shape
4. belong to domain Archaea or Bacteria
structure uses the energy of the sun to make food for the plant, the green machine, contains chlorophyll
Which structures are found in plant cells but not animals cells?
chloroplast, cell wall, and central vacuole
strands of DNA wrapped around proteins, contain the genes of an organism, X-shaped in humans
jellylike substance, also referred to as the cytosol, and it contains the organelles
located between the nucleus and the cell membrane
cyto = think sits, the organelles sit in the cytoplasm
What is the advantage of a light microscope over a high powered electron microscope?
Even though it doesn't magnify as much as the electron microscope, it will not kill the cell! Living cells can be studied with the light microscope and not be harmed.
transports materials throughout the cell, moves proteins and lipids, rough ER has ribosomes that make it look "rough",
think long word, long cellular highway for transporting materials
has a true nucleus and membrane bound organelles
modifies, packages, and ships out proteins, the finisher
think FedEX Golgi Complex, it ships out protiens
small, round structure
involves digesting old organelles, the waste in the cell
garbage collector, recycler, it cleans the cell
supplies the energy for the cell, the powerhouse
Mighty Mouse Power House
-where the genetic material, DNA, is found
-controls all the cell's activities
-the brain or boss of the cell
structures a cell depends on to live, grow, and reproduce
simple cell, no nucleus or membrane bound organelles
protein making sites of the cell
-RIBS - MEAT- PROTEIN
Ribs are meat, meat is protein, ribsomes make the proteins!
the organelle that stores materials such as water, minerals, enzymes and wastes, in plant cells there is a large central vacuole
domain of prokaryotic organisms, live in EXTREME environments
domain of prokaryotic organisms, live in modern day, normal environments
a two-word naming system for organisms, scientific names include the genus and the species name
to arrange or organize into groups or types based on shared characteristics; to place in a category
Devious King Philip Came Over For Green Soup
taxonomic category above the kingdom level, largest groupings, three domains exist
-domain of all living organisms whose cells have nuclei
-protists, plants, fungi, and animals
How do organisms obtain energy?
photosynthesis, consuming plants and other animals, decomposing and breaking down decaying matter
developed taxonomy, scientific names, 7 taxa groups KPCOFGS
The scientific name for the black widow is Latrodectus mactans, which is the genus name? species name?
How should the scientific name be written?
-genus Lactrodectus, capitalized name
-species mactans, lower case name
-italicize the scientific name or underline it!
a group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
the science of classification
disease causing agents, they are not alive, they are made of DNA/RNA and proteins
How do we calculate the total power of magnification on the light microscope?
Multiply the optical lens by the objective number to get the total magnification.
10 x 4(red objective) = 40 X
10 x 10(yellow) = 100X
10 x 40(blue) = 400X
What happens to the field of vision if the magnification increases?
The field of vision decreases because we see a magnified area of a smaller part of the specimen. Think about what happened to the view of the letter e!
Which objective do we always start with when using a compound light microscope?
The red objective, which is the lowest power.
Which adjustment knob focuses on the object and moves the stage of the microscope?
course adjustment knob
Where does the microscope slide sit and rest on the microscope?
What does the diaphragm do?
allows for more or less light into the microscope to improve the view of the object.
What is the advantage of the compound light microscope over the electron microscope which is higher in power and magnification?
it will not kill the cell, so living organisms can be studied
* think cancer research or growing cells to study bacteria, etcetera
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