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Terms in this set (92)

1) Water
○ Makes up 85% or more of table wines.
○ Dilutes all other components this
can be both beneficial and detrimental.
2) Alcohol
○ Normal range for table wines is 7-14.5%
○ It affects body, mouthfeel,
and storage life.
○ Wines too high in alcohol will taste "hot" and give a burning sensation.
○ Body:
■ Light bodied wines = 7-10%
■ Medium bodied wines = 10-12%
■ Full bodied wines = 12-14.5%
○ The amount of sugar (potential alcohol) depends on the ripeness of the grape at harvest. Amount
of sugar is measured in Degrees Brix.
■ White grapes are generally 21-24
Brix and produce 11-13%
alcohol is fermented dry.
■ Red grapes are harvested at 22-26
Brix, producing 12-14%
alcohol.
3) Acids
○ Wines have several types of organic acids, including tartaric, malic, lactric, and citric.
○ They contribute to crispness, structure, and balance.
■ Low acidity flabby,
flat taste
■ Correct acidity crisp,
fresh, lively taste
■ Excess acidity green,
harsh, sour taste
4) Sugar (sweetness)
○ Wines with less than 0.4% sugar are technically dry.
○ Residual sugar balances high acidity.
○ Wines with high acidity can appear dry to the taste even though they have residual sugar.
5)Anthocyanins
○ From the grape skin.
○ Provide the color in red wine.
6) Tannins
○ From the grape skin.
○ Provide structure and aging potential. Can cause a mouth drying sensation and bitterness.
7) Resveretrol
○ From the grape skin.
○ Antioxidant in wine believed to be effective in lowering cholesterol levels.
8)Phenols
○ The phenols compounds in wine include a large group of several hundred chemical
compounds, known as polyphenols, that affect the taste, color and mouthfeel of wine.
This large group can be broadly separated into two categories, flavonoids
and nonflavonoids.
Flavonoids include anthocyanins and tannins which contribute to the color
and mouthfeel of the wine. Nonflavonoids
include stilbenes such as resveratrol and
compounds derived from acids in wine like benzoic, caffeic and cinnamic acid. In wine
grapes, phenolics are found widely in the skin, stems and seeds. In winemaking, the
process of maceration or "skin contact" is used to increase the influence of phenols in
wine. Phenolic acids are found in the pulp or juice of the wine and can be commonly
found in white wines which usually doesn't go through a maceration period. The
process of oak aging can also introduce phenolic compounds to wine, most notably in
the form of vanillin which adds vanilla aroma to wines.
9)Grape solids
10)Sulfites
11) Undesirable elements
We evaluate wines by:
● Sight
○ Appearance (brilliant, clear, dull, cloudy, precipitated)
○ Color
■ White wines pale
yellow/green, light yellow/straw, medium yellow, light gold,
medium gold, amber to brown (means possible defect)
■ Red wines purplered
(young immature); rubygarnet
red (youthful); brick red/rusty
edges (mature); tawny/brown edges (declining); brown/muddy (over the hill).
● Smell
○ Aroma = the fragrance associated with the grape variety
○ Bouquet = fragrances developed in the wine making and aging process (ie, wood influences,
esters during fermentation, barrel and bottle aging.
Taste
○ We taste four things: sweet, sour, bitter, salt (only the first three apply to wine tasting).
○ Progression of taste recognition on the palate:
1. Fruitiness (sweetness)
2. Acidity (sourness)
3. Bitterness
○ Components of taste:
■ Acidity
● Flat = low acidity. Soft and mellow can also describe low acidity.
● Tart = wines with a pleasing freshness and balance
● Green, acidulous, or unripe = unbalanced wines because of excessive acid
■ Sweetness
● Dry = less than 0.4% residual sugar
● Low Sugar = 0.4%-4%
residual sugar
● Medium Sugar = 4%-10%
residual sugar
● High Sugar = more than 10% sugar
■ Body or extract: The nonsugar
solids are referred to as body. Body is not primarily
detected by taste but rather by receptors sensitive to viscosity. Both alcohol and glycerol
influence the viscosity. Basically, body is the "feel" of the wine as it is swished in the
mouth.
● Light body or thin = wines with less than 2.0g/100mL extract. Related terms are
unbalanced or unharmonic.
● Medium body = extract content 2.13g/
100mL.
● Heavy body, rich, robust, full, or round = more than 3g/100mL extract.
■ Bitterness or Astringency (A wine impresses the palate as being smooth, rough, puckery,
or bitter depending upon its tannin content and the type of tannins present. Alcohol,
body, acidity, and particularly sugar have modifying effects upon the impression made
by the tannin. As a wine ages, the degree of astringency decreases because of the
oxidation and precipitation of the tannin substances.)
● Smooth or soft = low astringency
● Slightly rough to very rough = terms used to describe increasing degrees of
astringency.
■ Alcohol
● Weak = dry table wines low in alcoholic content
● Strong, alcoholic, heady = generous or excessive alcoholic content.
■ Age
● Young = fresh, without yeastiness, nor pronounced bouquet
● Mature = possessing balanced bouquet and ready for bottling
● Aged = wines possessing bottle bouquet
■ Other flavor descriptors:
● Fruity = describes the fresh, tart, generally pleasant fruitlike
impression given
by wellmade
young wines. Wines lacking fruitiness are described as flat,
uninteresting, overworked, or tired.
● Stemmy = describes the flavor of wines that have been fermented too long in the
presence of stems.
● Gassy = wines containing dissolved carbon dioxide are recognized by the
slightly biting sensation on the palate. When warmed, such wines will tend to
liberate small bubbles of gas.
● Metallic = impression of copper or zinc on the palate
● Bacterial = spoiled wines, in which it is not possible to identify mousiness,
butyric acid, ethyl acetate, or acetic acid may be generally described as
bacterial.
● Fresh = describes a fruity, tart, young wine. Antithesis of tired or overworked.
● Clean = a wine that is free of bacterial and processing defects.
● Tired = describe the impression made by wines which have been excessively
processed in the cellar. Such wines usually show lack of freshness, fruitiness,
and aroma.
● Yeasty = wines containing materials which have a flavor or smell of yeast are
described as yeasty.
● Wellbalanced
= when the many odor and flavor substances of wines are present
in quantities such that the concerted impression is pleasant, the wine is
described as balanced.
● Unbalanced = excessive amounts of one constituent or another cause
disharmony or palate impression, and wines so constituted are described as
unbalanced.
● Burnt = describes the burned sugar or cooked grape juice taste and odor. When
burned concentrate or overheated
wines are used to sweeten other wines, the
unpleasant flavors frequently become very objectionable in the wine.
● Rubbery = an unpleasant smell and taste associated with high pH dessert wines,
and reminiscent of old rubber.
● Nutty or Nutlike
= describe the desirable odor and taste or appetizer and dessert
wines and particularly well processed Sherries.
● Foxy = the aroma and taste traditionally found in wines made from Concord or
other Labrusca grapes. The smell is due to methyl anthranilate.
Located near the Atlantic coast in southwest France, about 300 miles from Paris and precisely on the 45th parralel, Bordeaux enjoys a temperate coastal climate as a region geographically dominated by its rivers, the Garonne and the Dordogne, which meet to become the broad Gironde. The interaction of the climate with the different types of site (slope, orientation, general topography) existing in the Bordeaux wine region produces the great number of highly localized micro-climates found in the Gironde. These micro-climates, together with the different nature of the soils, combine to form particular environments for the vine, which covere a limited area and are know as terroirs.

Maritime Climate
• The gulf stream that warms the temperature and influences the climate
• The pine forest that acts as a protective barrier against Atlantic storms
• Warm sunny summers
• Beautiful autumns and mild winters (rare frosts)
Diversity of the Soils
• Gravel—left bank; absorbs heat; encourages grapes to ripen, good for Cabernet
• Limestone—right bank; relatively warm ideal for Cabernet Franc
• Clay—right bank; relatively cool and humid; ideal for Merlot
Climactic Fears
• Coloure (berry failure due to the shattering of the flower), caused by:
o Spring frosts during the flowering of the vines (as in 1991)
o Cold rains at time of pollination
• Hail, which, right up to the time of the harvest can cause serious damage to the vine

Sweet White Wines—Where does Noble Rot Come From?
• Sunny summers and autumns
• Proximity of water (Ciron)
• Morning mists encourage noble rot drying out of the berries by Botrytis Cinerea