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epithelial membrane, connective tissue membrane

the two types of membrane

cutaneous membrane, mucous membrane, serous membrane

the three types of epithelial membrane


cutaneous membrane is also known as the _____.

mucous membrane

membrane that lines all body cavities that open to the exterior body surface

mucous membrane

membrane that lines the respiratory tract, urinary system

serous membrane

membrane that lines all open body cavities

stratified squamous epithelium, simple columnar epithelium

makes up mucous membrane

simple squamous epithelium

makes up serous membrane

serous membrane

separates organs from each other and from body cavity

serous membrane

reduces friction between organs

serous fluid

substance between serous layer


serous membrane inside the abdominopelvic cavity which surrounds the liver


serous membrane around the lungs


serous membrane around the heart

peritoneum, pleura, pericardium

the three types of serous membrane


layer of serous membrane closest to the organ it surrounds


layer of serous membrane which forms outside layer

visceral pericardium

layer of serous membrane closest to the heart

parietal peritoneum

outside layer of serous membrane surrounding the liver

visceral pleura

layer of serous membrane closest to the lungs

synovial membrane

example of connective tissue membrane

synovial membrane

membrane which lines fibrous capsules surrounding joints


skin is also known as the _____ system

37 degrees

body temperature in Celsius


drying up


outermost layer of the skin


middle layer of the skin


innermost layer of the skin


not a true part of the skin, mostly adipose tissue. serves as an insulator and shock absorber.

stratified squamous epithelium

epithelium which makes up the epidermis


most keratinized layer of skin


type of protein which hardens the skin

stratum corneum

most superficial layer of epidermis

stratum basale

most deep layer of epidermis

stratum corneum

strata which makes up 3/4 of epidermis

stratum corneum

strata which is mostly made of dead, keratinized cells and protects deeper living cells from damage

stratum basale

strata made mostly of living cells which undergo cell division and push dead cells to the surface of the skin

stratum basale

strata which contains melanocytes


produce melanin

interstitial fluid

tissue fluid


layer of skin made of dense fibrous connective tissue

papillary, reticular

the two layers of the dermis

papillary layer

most superficial layer of dermis

reticular layer

most deep layer of dermis

papillary layer

layer of skin which contains dermal papillae

papillary layer

contains blood vessels, capillary loops, pain receptors, touch receptors, nerve receptors, collagen, and elastic fibers

papillary layer

layer of skin which contains Meissner's corpuscles

Meissner's corpuscles

touch receptors

reticular layer

contains blood vessels, sweat and oil glands, deep pressure receptors, nerve receptors, phagocytes, collagen, and elastic fibers

reticular layer

layer of skin which contains pacinian corpuscles

pacinian corpuscles

deep pressure receptors

prevent bacteria that enter skin from entering deeper tissue

function of phagocytes in the dermis

reticular layer

layer of skin which contains phagocytes

reticular layer

layer of dermis which contains sweat and oil glands


blood vessels _____ to cool off the body


blood vessels _____ to retain heat in the body


blood vessels increase diameter


blood vessels decrease diameter

melanin, carotene, hemoglobin

the three pigments which give skin its color


pigment produced by melanocytes


pigment whose produced amount is dependent on genetics and exposure to sunlight


pigment which gives a pinkish hue to the skin


ducts which secrete substances to the outside of the body

sebaceous, sweat

the two types of cutaneous glands

sebaceous glands

glands which secrete sebum


substance which is a combination of oil, fragmented cells, and chemicals. antibacterial and lubricates skin.

sebaceous glands, apocrine sweat glands

glands which are activated at puberty

eccrine, apocrine

two types of sweat glands

eccrine sweat glands

type of sweat glands involved in heat regulation

eccrine sweat glands

major type of sweat glands, found throughout the skin

apocrine sweat glands

sweat glands found in genital and axillary regions

sweat glands

function is to dissipate excess heat, excrete waste products, prevent bacterial growth


hair is pigmented as protection from _____.


outermost layer of hair


middle layer of hair


innermost layer of hair


most heavily keratinized layer of hair

hair follicle

"live" part of hair

arrector pili

smooth muscle which contracts to make hair stand on end


substance which keeps hair soft and shiny


heavily keratinized, non-pigmented scale-like modifications of the epidermis


cause of athlete's foot


cause of boils


cause of carbuncles


cause of impetigo


cause of cold sores

psoriasis, eczema

skin homeostatic imbalances with unknown causes

the extent of burns

rule of nines determines _____.

first degree burn

burn where only epidermis is damaged

first degree burn

burn where skin is red and swollen

second degree burn

burn where epidermis and upper dermis are damaged

second degree burn

burn characterized by redness and blisters

third degree burn

burn where entire skin layer is destroyed

dehydration, infection, electrolyte imbalance, circulation shock

associated dangers of burns

rule of nines

way to determine the severity of burns. body is divided into 11 sections for quick estimation; each area represents about 9%

third degree burn

burn where skin becomes gray-white or black

third degree burn

burn which requires skin graft


abnormal cell mass which does not spread


abnormal cell mass which metastasizes to other parts of the body


to spread (cancers)

basal cell carcinoma

least malignant skin cancer

basal cell carcinoma

most common skin cancer

squamous cell carcinoma

skin cancer which metastasizes to lymph nodes. early action gives good chance of cure

malignant melanoma

most deadly skin cancer

malignant melanoma

cancer of melanocytes

malignant melanoma

skin cancer which metastasizes rapidly

Asymmetry (2 sides of mole do not match)


Border irregularity (border is not smooth)


Color (different colors in different parts of the mole)


Diameter (larger than 6mm)


vernix caseosa

coating on skin of fetus when floating in amniotic fluid

1. basal cell carcinoma 2. squamous cell carcinoma 3. malignant melanoma

three types of skin cancer in order of severity (least to most)

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