Inclusion - the desire to be a part of something. Affection - the need to feel liked or loved. Control - the need to influence others.
Self- Presentation goals
presenting yourself in a way so that others perceive you to be a particular kind of person
Practical goals that you want to achieve, or tasks you want to accomplish through your interactions
Building, maintaining, or terminating bonds with others
Information conveyed through words
Nonverbal cues that tel you how to understand the message
communication about communication
ability to reflect on your thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
the overall perception of who you are based on your beliefs, attitudes, and values you have about yourself
the overall value we assign to ourselves
self-concept, self-esteem, and self-awareness
observing and assigning meaning to others' behavior and then comparing their behavior against ours.
Inferior social comparison
the most common way to socially compare ourselves
looking glass self
how we see others seeing us (Charles Horton Cooley)
predictions about future interactions that lead us to behave in ways that ensure the interaction unfolds as we predicted.
your self-esteem is determined by how you compare to two mental standards - your ideal and ought self (Higgins)
what others wish and expect you to be
what you want to be; the perfect you
Secure attachment style
Individuals have low anxiety and low avoidance regarding relationship with others, seek closeness, and have confidence in their abilities to handle problems
Preoccupied attachment Style
Individuals seek closeness but have high anxiety about others accepting them
Dismissive attachment style
Individuals pride themselves on their self-reliance, preferring shallow relationship without emotional commitment
Fearful attachment style
Individuals avoid relationships because they fear closeness will only result in pain
presentation of public self
a public self designed to hide your private self
Typical Online Presentation
presenting oneself in ways that amplify positive personality characteristics such as warmth, friendliness, and extraversion.
Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values
Significant Others that impact our Self-Esteem
Ego boosters, Ego busters, and Vultures
People with High Self-Esteem
individuals who report greater life satisfaction, communicate more positively with others, and experience more happiness in their relationships; people who exhibit greater leadership ability, athleticism, and academic performance. (Fox)
Three phases of perception
Selection, Organization, and Interpretation
the first step in the perception process where we focus attention on certain sights, sounds, tastes, touches, or smells in our environment.
a way of looking at how things in our environment rise to the surface, while other stimuli fades into the background.
The degree to which particular people or aspects of their communication attract our attention
an organization process that involves an "idea" in our mind regarding aspects of a person such as appearance.
an organization process that involves bipolar terms we assign to individuals
predictive generalizations based on a category we place people in and is often done because it is simple
filling in missing information so that a stimulus makes sense
a process of structuring information into a chronological sequence that matches how you experienced the order of events.
the subjective process of creating explanations for what we observe and experience
factors in interpretation
attributions (internal and external), self-serving bias, actor-observer effect, and interpersonal impressions
the theory that we tend to give a casual explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
something that occurs when attributions serve the self-interests of the person constructing the attribution; we take credit for success.
Fundamental Attribution Error
Attributing others' behaviors to the kind of person they are rather than their circumstances
Something that happens when we are inclined to attribute failures to external factors over which we believe we have no control
interpreting everything a person does in a positive way
interpreting everything a person does in a negative way
a quick, general and global impression of a person based on limited information that's either positive or negative
Impressions of others that continually change as we add and subtract positive or negative information that we learn about them
A five-step provess to test your impressions of others and to avoid errors in judgement. The process includes: Checking your punctuation, Checking your knowledge, Checking your attributions, Checking perceptual influences, and Checking your impressions
old information we use to judge ourselves
messages from other people (either positive or negative) that can affect us
Emphasis on Perfection
messages conveyed primarily through media that can hurt our self-concept