61 terms

Interpersonal Communication Exam 1

Chapters 1-3 in Reflect and Relate by Steven McCornack
STUDY
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Communication
The process through which people use messages to generate meanings within and across contexts, cultures, channels, and media.
Communication Process
Ongoing, with interconnected actions.
Communication Context
The situation that influences communication and includes location, background, gender, age, mood, time of day, and relationships between the communicators.
Text Messaging and Email is...
Linear Communication
5 Communication Channels
Sound, Sight, Touch, Scent, Taste
Model of Communication Evolution
a relatively simplistic depiction of communication as a linear process changed to one that views communication as a complicated process that is mutually crafted.
I-It communication
a communication style that regards other people as "objects which we observe, that are there for our use and exploitation (Martin Buber)
I-You Communication
a communication style that acknowledges others, but keeps things light and surface level. (Martin Buber)
I-Thou
a communication style that regards others as "cherished and unique" (Martin Buber)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Physical, Security, Social, Ego, Self-Actualization
Schutz's Interpersonal Needs Theory
Inclusion - the desire to be a part of something. Affection - the need to feel liked or loved. Control - the need to influence others.
Self- Presentation goals
presenting yourself in a way so that others perceive you to be a particular kind of person
Instrumental goals
Practical goals that you want to achieve, or tasks you want to accomplish through your interactions
Relationship goals
Building, maintaining, or terminating bonds with others
Content Level
Information conveyed through words
Relationship Level
Nonverbal cues that tel you how to understand the message
Meta-Communication
communication about communication
Self-awareness
ability to reflect on your thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
self-concept
the overall perception of who you are based on your beliefs, attitudes, and values you have about yourself
self-esteem
the overall value we assign to ourselves
Self
self-concept, self-esteem, and self-awareness
Social Comparison
observing and assigning meaning to others' behavior and then comparing their behavior against ours.
Inferior social comparison
the most common way to socially compare ourselves
looking glass self
how we see others seeing us (Charles Horton Cooley)
self-fulfilling prophecy
predictions about future interactions that lead us to behave in ways that ensure the interaction unfolds as we predicted.
self-discrepancy theory
your self-esteem is determined by how you compare to two mental standards - your ideal and ought self (Higgins)
Ought Self
what others wish and expect you to be
Ideal self
what you want to be; the perfect you
Secure attachment style
Individuals have low anxiety and low avoidance regarding relationship with others, seek closeness, and have confidence in their abilities to handle problems
Preoccupied attachment Style
Individuals seek closeness but have high anxiety about others accepting them
Dismissive attachment style
Individuals pride themselves on their self-reliance, preferring shallow relationship without emotional commitment
Fearful attachment style
Individuals avoid relationships because they fear closeness will only result in pain
Face
presentation of public self
Mask
a public self designed to hide your private self
Typical Online Presentation
presenting oneself in ways that amplify positive personality characteristics such as warmth, friendliness, and extraversion.
Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values
Self Concept
Significant Others that impact our Self-Esteem
Ego boosters, Ego busters, and Vultures
People with High Self-Esteem
individuals who report greater life satisfaction, communicate more positively with others, and experience more happiness in their relationships; people who exhibit greater leadership ability, athleticism, and academic performance. (Fox)
Three phases of perception
Selection, Organization, and Interpretation
Selection
the first step in the perception process where we focus attention on certain sights, sounds, tastes, touches, or smells in our environment.
Figure-Ground
a way of looking at how things in our environment rise to the surface, while other stimuli fades into the background.
Salience
The degree to which particular people or aspects of their communication attract our attention
Prototypes
an organization process that involves an "idea" in our mind regarding aspects of a person such as appearance.
Personal Constructs
an organization process that involves bipolar terms we assign to individuals
Stereotyping
predictive generalizations based on a category we place people in and is often done because it is simple
Closure
filling in missing information so that a stimulus makes sense
Punctuation
a process of structuring information into a chronological sequence that matches how you experienced the order of events.
Interpretation
the subjective process of creating explanations for what we observe and experience
factors in interpretation
attributions (internal and external), self-serving bias, actor-observer effect, and interpersonal impressions
attribution theory
the theory that we tend to give a casual explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
Self-Serving Bias
something that occurs when attributions serve the self-interests of the person constructing the attribution; we take credit for success.
Fundamental Attribution Error
Attributing others' behaviors to the kind of person they are rather than their circumstances
Actor-Observer Effect
Something that happens when we are inclined to attribute failures to external factors over which we believe we have no control
Halo Effect
interpreting everything a person does in a positive way
Horn Effect
interpreting everything a person does in a negative way
Gestalt Construction
a quick, general and global impression of a person based on limited information that's either positive or negative
Algebraic Impressions
Impressions of others that continually change as we add and subtract positive or negative information that we learn about them
Perception Checking
A five-step provess to test your impressions of others and to avoid errors in judgement. The process includes: Checking your punctuation, Checking your knowledge, Checking your attributions, Checking perceptual influences, and Checking your impressions
Obsolete Information
old information we use to judge ourselves
Distorted feedback
messages from other people (either positive or negative) that can affect us
Emphasis on Perfection
messages conveyed primarily through media that can hurt our self-concept
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