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IB Psych SL SLOA Test Yazzie
Terms in this set (42)
Principle 1 of the sloa
human beings are social animals and we have a basic need to "belong"
Principle 2 of the sloa
culture influences behavior
principle 3 of the sloa
Because humans are social animals, they have a social self/identity
principle 4 of the sloa
people's views of the world are resistant to change
What are the common research methods used at the SLOA
covert observations, overt observations, experiments, interview
ethical considerations at the sloa
informed consent, deception, debriefing, withdrawal from a study, confidentiality, protection from physical or mental harm
What is Heider's attribution theory?
Attribution theories look at how people interpret and explain causal relationships in the social world.
What are the assumptions of Heider's attribution theory?
1) people tend to look for causes or reasons for other people's behavior because they feel there are motives behind their behavior
2) People construct their own theories of why people act the way they do
3) People do this because they want to understand, predict and control their environment.
What is the discounting principle of attribution?
(Kelley, 1972) We opt for the simplest explanation which means: 1) we discount other possible causes when we believe one is most likely and 2) we are more likely to give one factor all the credit for causing a behavior when, in fact, several factors may be at work
What is Fundamental Attribution error?
When people overestimate the role of dispositional factors in an individual's behavior and underestimate situational factors
What are the reasons for Fundamental Attribution Error?
-When we don't have enough information about a person to make a balanced decision it is easier to attribute their behavior to dispositional factors. Vice versa, we like to think of ourselves as flexible and not a certain "type" of person.
-Western culture tends to blames the individual. People are held responsible for their behavior, often without regard for situational factors, in our judicial system.
strengths of FAE
-the theory has promoted understanding of common errors in people's explanation of things that happen in the world
-It is supported by research
Limitations of FAE
-research has been primarily laboratory based and participants have been students
-cultural bias: individualistic cultures see the individual as the main cause for success and failure which can lead to dispositional attributions
-explanations solely on personality are incomplete. They disregard the power of the situation
when people take credit for their successes, attributing them to dispositional factors, but attribute their failures to situational factors
Reasons for SSB
-the reason we use the SSB is to protect our self-esteem
-argue that cognitive factors play a role in SSB. We expect to succeed at a task, so when we do we attribute it to our skill because it makes us feel more in control
-exception: people who are severely depressed tend to make more dispositional attributions, thus blaming themselves for being miserable
strengths of the SSB
explains why some people explain their failures as situational
weaknesses of the SSB
The theory appears to be culturally biased. It doesn't explain the modesty bias in some cultures.
what is modesty bias?
-an attribution of failures to ability (disposition)
-confirmed in Japan and Nepal
-Bong, Leung and Wan (1982) found that Chinese students who exhibited the modesty bias instead of the SSB were more popular with their peers. They reasoned that dispositional factors were mentioned in an effort to be more likable
-people attribute their own behavior to situational factors
-people (as observers) attribute others' behavior to dispositional factors
situational factors in behavior
attributing to situational or external factors (weather)
attributing to personal or internal factors (intelligence)
in-groups and out-groups
in-group = "us"; the group one belongs to; the group members of an in-group will seek to find negative aspects of an out-group, thus enhancing their self-image
out-group = "them"; the group we don't belong to; discriminated against
definition of stereotype
-cognitive process of categorizing people into groups based on visible cues, such as gender, nationality, race, religion, bodily appearance
-assuming that all members of a group share the same characteristics
-assigning individuals to these groups and presuming they all possess the same characteristics based on little information other than their possession of the noticeable trait or cue
problems with stereotype formation
-grain of truth hypothesis: we create generalizations about groups based on one experience
-illusory correlation: a false relationship is perceived between two variables
-confirmation bias: we seek out and remember information that confirms what we already believe
-false propaganda: groups/individuals with political or inter-group motives distort information
What is stereotype threat
-the effect of stereotypes on an individual's performance
-occurs when one is in a situation where there is a threat of being judged or treated stereotypically or a fear of doing something that would inadvertently confirm that stereotype
What is spotlight anxiety?
stereotype threat turns on something called spotlight anxiety which causes emotional distress and pressure that may undermine performance
What is social identity theory?
based on the assumption that individuals strive to improve their self-image by trying to enhance their self-esteem based on:
1) personal identity (from personal achievement)
2) social identity (affiliation with successful groups)
What are the 3 components of SIT?
-identification with a group (groups that hold higher value tend to help us meet our goals, hold traits and attitudes that match up with individuals, satisfy basic needs, have positive stereotypes, have high status, be ones we freely choose, be higher in authoritarianism and ethnocentrism)
-social comparison (the process of comparing one's own social group with others. We tend to exaggerate the similarities of those in the same group and exaggerate the differences between those in different groups)
-positive self-esteem (comes from being a member of the group. self-esteem is seen as a basic motivation for humans. if a group does not compare favorably with others we may seek to leave the group or distance ourselves from it.)
What is social learning theory?
based on observation learning, therefore meaning an individual observes a model and imitates their behavior
What are the 4 factors that affect social learning?
attention (an individual must first observe the model); retention (the person must be able to remember the behavior of the model); motor reproduction (the observer must be able to duplicate the action); motivation (observer must want to reciprocate the behavior they have learned)
a form of direct influence in response to a request
2 Compliance techniques
Compliance technique 1 - Rule of reciprocity:
-"we should treat people the way they treat us"
-rule obligates the recipient of an action to reciprocate the favor in the future
- a way of creating confidence among people in that what is given to another is not lost but rather a sign of a future obligation that enables development of various kinds of relationships and exchanges
-door in the face technique: a large request that the asker is certain will be turned down is asked first. Then, the askers asks a smaller, more feasible request (which is the true request) in an attempt to exploit reciprocity within the subject
Compliance technique 2 - commitment and consistency
-There is a tendency in individuals to remain consistent with the words they say, what they believe in, their attitudes, and their actions most due to the high value that good personal consistency holds in society, that a beneficial approach to daily life is a result of consistent conduct, and that a valuable shortcut can be found to help navigate the complexity of life with consistent orientation
-after people commit to something, they are more likely to continue to agree to requests that are similar to the initial commitment
-foot in the door technique: use when convincing people to make a minor commitment in hopes to convince them to commit to a much larger thing
the yield to social pressures and this pressure can be experienced as physical or imagined (pressure to conform to societal norms and expectations)
-can be physical or imagines
-implies that the change in behavior is approved by the group
-conformity and compliance differentiate in that conformity has to do with an alteration of behavior for a group or social norm and has to do with pressure from a group and not a request that only comes from an individual
factors affecting conformity
focuses on behaviors that are specific to culture
- the focus is on behaviors that are usually found in a specific culture
assumes that behavior can't be separated from its cultural context
behavior is determined by reasons, not by causes
has emphasis on self-determination and self-reflection
has to do with the universal rules for behavior through all cultures. It tries to be culturally neutral
all objects and ways to compare are the same throughout all cultures
phenomenon is not explained by comparisons, but rather comparisons examine the way that cultural influences can result in certain behaviors or certain thinking patterns
a dynamic system of rules, explicit implicit, established by groups in order to ensure their survival involving attitudes, values, beliefs, norms and behaviors
problems with defining culture
-multitude of accepted definitions
-culture is a very complex idea because it includes all of human life and its artifacts
-culture is ever-changing
-there are political aspects to the definitions of culture
-our assumption, theoretical orientations, and interests are reflected in our definitions
cultural norms defintion
patterns of behaviors are constant and typical in certain groups and can be passed down throughout generations by observational learning
an aspect of culture that can be measured relative to other cultures
a consequence of culture is the differences in behavior
culture can be defined as a mental programming
unlearning something that is programmed is hard because humans are naturally resistant to change
cultural dimension #1
individualistic vs collectivistic
-the way that people define themselves and their relationships with other people
-individualistic societies have more interest in the individual, have looser ties between people, look only after their immediate families and mostly themselves, and competition is seen as a way for individuals to reach their goals
-collectivist societies: group interests prevail over individual interests, many people are brought into lifelong in-groups that protect each other in exchange for the loyalty of each other
cultural dimension #2
long-term vs short-term orientation
-the time horizon of a society or how important being attached to the future is versus attached to the past and present
-in long term orientated societies, people value actions and attitudes that influence the future: persistence/perseverance, loyalty, trustworthiness, respect for tradition, savings
-in short-term oriented societies, people value action and attitudes that are influenced by the present: immediate stability and appearances in the moment, innovation, fast results
what is ecological fallacy?
when looking at two cultures it should not be assumed that they must be different from one another or that just because a person is from a culture that the dimensions necessarily apply to that person
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