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Geography 5 Final
Terms in this set (171)
growth as a percentage of the whole
dN/dt = rN (exponential growth)
potential of a population to grow in absence of expansion limits
logistic growth is graphed as a ________
carrying capacity (k)
the number of individuals that can be indefinitely supported in a given area
population approaches k
growth slows as _________
environmental resistance (limited resources, disease, predation)
growth slows because of ______
do all populations exhibit a smooth s curve?
when a population surpasses the carrying capacity of the environment
1. time lags in response to resource limitation 2. environmental variability
the two causes of overshoot
j (exponential growth)
human growth recently has taken shape of _____ curve
decrease in death rate (greater food production, medical care, improvement in water quality)
recent human population growth is due to _________
human population tends to increase exponentially, but food production increases slowly; therefore, human pop will inevitably outstrip its food supply and collapse
positive checks (disease, famine) and/or preventative (moral restraint, late marriage, etc.) checks
According to Malthus, population can be only be stabilized by...
humans are too lazy and immoral to voluntarily regulate birth rates - it is therefore disadvantageous to aid the poor
Malthus' opinion of human nature and how it affects the human population
we are approaching, or have already passed, the earth's carrying capacity
neo-malthusians believe ...
who wrote the population bomb?
Who theorized the following: societies need to take action to curb population, such as penalties, incentives, and mandatory population control
who theorized that scientific progress and human ingenuity will take care of population/resource issues
example of a technological optimist
total fertility rate (TFR)
number of children born to average woman (couple) in a population during reproductive life
Replacement level fertility rate
number of children a couple must produce to replace themselves
What is the replacement level fertility rate?
social ramifications for fertility rates
The following are examples of what?
abortions, infanticide, forced sterilizations, tough fating life, less support for parents
6, 1.8, 20
China's one child policy reduced the fertility rate from ______ to _______ in _________ years.
1. growing prosperity, social reforms, and urbanization that accompany development reduce need/want for large families
2. less developed countries have historic patterns to follow
3. modern communications (TV) caused revolution of rising expectations
4. women's empowerment
What are four factors that help stabilize human populations?
global gag rule / mexico city policy
removes funding for health care, family planning, etc. to organizations / places that advocate for abortion rights
pre-modern, high birth and death rates
stage 1 of the demographic transition model
development, rising standard of living causes death rates to fall, while birth rates stay constant or even rise (net population growth)
stage 2 of demographic transition model
urbanization / modernization, birth rates begin to fall, reducing the growth rate (but population is still increasing)
stage 3 of demographic transition model
fully developed, transition is complete and both death and birth rates are low and population stabilizes at the new higher number
stage 4 of demographic transition model
population size will continue to grow for some years because large distribution of young people entering reproductive age (called population momentum)
how does age structure in ethiopia
The US age structure is an example of ...
Ethiopia age structure is an example of ...
China and Russia age structures are examples of ...
the number of non-working compared to working individuals in a population
What kind(s) of growth (rapid, stationary, declining) lead to problems with the dependency ratio?
In ______ over 50% of the world's population lived in urban areas.
1. urban sprawl into natural areas and farmland (habitat destruction)
2. untreated urban runoff
3. buildup of airborne emissions
4. spread of diseases
What are some ecological challenges of cities?
1. efficient use of space and resources
2. containment of human impact on natural areas
3. easier to get food and water to people in cities
4. well planned cities can reduce pollution
5. urban living reduces birth rates
What are some ecological benefits of cities?
increased integration of economic, political, and cultural processes operating around the world
increase fragmentation of production and integration of different production tasks across regions
1. decline in transportation costs
2. developments in information and communication technology
3. policies and institutions
What were/are the drivers of globalization?
demand: [increased consumption]
1. greater access to goods (quantity and variety)
supply: [increased production]
1. minimize costs (increase profits)
2. increased access to resources
3. "race to the bottom"
What are the implications of globalization on demand and supply of goods?
tragedy of the commons
how the logic of personal gain will inevitably overfill and destroy the common
tragedy of the commons
individuals acting independently and rationally according to each's self interest behave contrary to the best interests of the whole group by depleting some common resource
negative externalities (expenses borne by someone not involved in the transaction)
What is the tragedy of the commons often driven by?
1. new equipment and technology
2. many companies had invested heavily in boats and equipment
3. ecological uncertainty
4. lack of government intervention
What are the reasons for collapse of the Atlantic northwest cod fishery?
By how much have pacific populations of bluefin tuna declined? Atlantic populations?
How much did a 500 pound bluefin tuna recently sell for?
What is a non-governmental solution to the tragedy of the commons?
1. definable boundaries
2. clear threat of resource depletion
3. community with strong social norms
4. small and stable populations
5. community based incentives and punishments
What are the conditions needed for communal management?
What are some governmental solutions to the tragedy of the commons?
1. problem of scale (commons can occur on several levels -- local, nation, global, etc.)
2. role of the nation/sovereignty varies
3. role of economic forces (i.e.: coal mines, keystone XL pipeline)
How does globalization make solutions to the tragedy of the commons difficult to implement?
Environmental Kuznets Curve
shows the relationship between economic development and environmental quality
Kuznets curve (original version)
shows the relationship between economic development and economic inequality
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
measures the value of goods/services produced, divided by population (may externalize costs)
Genuine progress indicator (GPI)
alternative measure to evaluating wealth of nation. economic value of degradation divided by enhancement of environment
Environmental performance index (EPI)
measures environmental health and ecosystem
What are the following examples of?
indoor air pollution, child mortality, drinking water, adequate sanitation
What are the following examples of?
water consumption, wilderness protection, overfishing, energy efficiency, co2 emissions
True/False: Developing countries tend to have the largest impact on the environment
True/False: There is some evidence that a relationship exists between pollution and development
consumption and production have different geographies (how does consumption in country A lead to negative effects in country B)
sovereignty and economics can interfere
Why is it hard to implement international environmental regulation?
success: montreal protocol
failure: climate change regulation (i.e.: kyoto protocol)
What are examples of both succeeding and failing environmental policies?
The UN estimates that _______ of the world's population has inadequate clean water supply, and that by 2025 ________ will face such shortages.
surface water 0.01%
What are the water compartments?
1000 to 10,000 years (slow)
What is the turnover of glaciers / ice sheets?
they store more water in wet years, and release more in dry years
How do glaciers provide a stable water supply?
up to 10,000 years (slow)
What is the turnover of groundwater?
precipitation that remains on the surface of the land and does not seep down through soil
weeks to decades
What is the residence time of surface water?
lakes, rivers, wetlands, etc.
What are examples of surface water?
10 days (rapid)
What is the turnover of water in the atmosphere?
atmosphere's rapid turnover rate -- precipitation
What is the most important mechanism for delivering water around the world?
water stored in plants
biospheric water (i.e.: which type of ecosystem, how many plants, etc.)
impacts the transfer of water to other compartments
1 week (rapid)
What is the turnover rate of biospheric water?
Agriculture used about ______ of the worldwide water withdrawal.
Domestic use accounts for about ______ of worldwide water withdrawal.
Industry accounts for about _____ of worldwide water withdrawal.
2/3; lack of infrastructure in developing countries
More than ______ of world's households retrieve water from outside the home. Why does this problem occur?
True/false: Global water supplies are abundant, but they are unevenly distributed.
withdrawing groundwater faster than it can be replenished
What causes a cone of depression in the water table?
sinking of land in areas with porous sediments
movement of seawater into a freshwater aquifer near the coast
subsidence, saltwater intrusion
What are two consequences of a cone of depression?
trap surface water for storage/transfer; provide means for flood control
What are the pros of dams/reservoirs/canals?
loss of fish/wildlife and fish habitat; loss of water, sediment nutrient supply to downstream floodplains and wetlands; displacement of people
What are the cons of dams/reservoirs/canals?
removal of water subsidies
What could influence farms to implement conservational irrigation practices?
point source pollution
pollution that comes from specific locations (factories, power plants, oil wells)
non-point source pollution
pollution that is scattered or diffuse, having no specific location of discharge (agricultural fields, feedlots, golf courses, atmospheric deposition)
acids, salts, heavy metals (Pb, Hg, As) ; mercury released from coal burning power plants
What are examples of inorganic water pollutants?
improper disposal of industrial and household waste; runoff pesticides
What are examples of organic water pollutants?
human activities (removing forests, development) accelerate erosion rates (humans move more sediment than any other process on earth)
What causes sediment pollution?
rising water temperatures adversely impacts water quality and aquatic life; water solubility in water decreases as temp increases
What are negative implications of thermal pollution?
safe drinking water act 1974
uniform federal standards for drinking water; EPA determines max contaminants allowed; 1996 amendment requires municipalities to inform which contaminants are present
clean water act 1977
oversees the quality of rivers, lakes, coastal waters, etc; eliminate discharge of pollutants in waterways; attain water quality levels that are safe for fishing and swimming
________ people in the world do not have access to safe drinking water
________ people don't have access to sanitation systems
250 million, 5 million
how many cases of water-related illness each year? How many result in death?
Freshwater pollution is linked to coastal ocean pollution.
1. coastal development (highly polluted and overfished)
2. conversion of mangrove to aquaculture
What are human impacts on coastal zones?
_________ of the world's population lives within 150km of the coast
1. offshore extraction of mineral and energy resources
2. plastic waste
What are human impacts on oceans?
petroleum, manganese nodules
Large deposits of what two minerals are commonly extracted from under the sea floor?
200 nautical miles
A country has exclusive ocean rights (to explore, exploit, conserve, etc.) up to _____ miles off the coast.
What type of current: wind driven and primarily horizontal motion
what type of current: driven by differences in density caused by temp/salinity variations (thermohaline circulation); vertical and horizontal motions
Ocean gyres are an example of what type of current?
Which way do ocean gyres flow in the NH and SH?
True/false: circulation patterns are complex and hard to predict.
Coral reefs support _____% of marine fish species.
provides medicine, tourist attractions, prevent erosion and protect from storms
What are some of the ecosystem services of coral reefs?
Coral depends on a symbiotic relationship with _________.
false (the zooxanthellae photosynthesize)
Coral reefs photosynthesize.
Coral bleaching has impacted coral cover in at least ______ countries/islands.
transition from hunter-gathering lifestyle to diet of cultivated foods
transition from wood to coal; increased use of steam/water power; development of chemical manufacturing processes; transition from hand to machine production
dramatic increases in agricultural production in the developing world (due to technological advances and transfer of existing technologies)
1. synthetic fertilizers
2. synthetic pesticides
3. expansion of irrigation infrastructure
4. breeding of high-yielding varieties of grains
What are the four main developments of the green revolution?
production of ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen gas
1/3 to 1/2
fertilizer produced by nitrogen fixation sustains ________ of human population
Up to ______ of current crop yields could be lost in the absence of pesticides
toxic to wide range of organisms; endocrine disruptor
As much of ______ water withdrawn for irrigation never reaches the intended destination
After the green revolution: average person in the developing world consumes _____ more calories per day
production for export
requires less land and manual labor
What are some of the characteristics of industrialized agriculture?
production to feed family, land and labor intensive, methods vary
What are some of the characteristics of subsistence agriculture?
How many people don't have enough to eat today?
In 1960, _______ people in developing world were chronically undernourished, vs. ______ today.
By 2050, farmers will have to grow _____ more food to feed growing population
make crops more drought tolerant, give crops ability to fix nitrogen, change crops into C4 plants (more efficient photosynthesis)
How have GMOs been used to reduce a plant's use of water and fertilizer?
1. cultivation practices
2. resistant crop varieties
3. natural enemies
4. pheromone traps
5. judicious use of pesticides
Integrated pest management tools
maximum sustainable yield
the largest catch that can be taken over an indefinite period
fish stocks, pop growth, natural variation, impacts of different kinds of fishing - IGNORES ecosystem effects
what info is considered in calculating maximum sustainable yield?
focus on preserving the health of the entire marine ecosystem
gives rights to catch a certain amount of fish to individuals or corporations
Catch share rights can not be bought and sold.
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
(1994) set of rules governing international waters
Un Fish Stocks Agreement
(1995) regulates marine fishing and attempts to manage highly migratory fish stocks
nutrient pollution, land degradation, chemical inputs, disease and parasites, escapes, social issues
What are some of the negative impacts of aquaculture?
waste products from aquaculture used to fertilize agriculture / plants used to filter water for aquaculture
carbon dioxide 0.04%
What gas percentages make up the atmosphere?
blocks uv radiation, moderates climate, redistributes water via hyrdologic cycle
What are the ecosystem services provided by the atmosphere?
Which layer of the atomosphere is the ozone in?
In the stratosphere, temp decreases with altitude
Which layer of the atmosphere protects us from uv radiation?
greatest solar energy input is at __________
the equator to the poles
circulation transports heat from ______ to _______
short and long term health effects, acidification (acid rain), depletion of ozone layer, global warming
What are the consequences of air pollution
irritation of eyes, nose, throat; allergies; asthma; headaches, nausea
Examples of short term health consequences from air pollution
respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, damage to brain, liver, kidneys
Examples of long term health consequences from air pollution
primary air pollutants
pollutants that enter directly into the atmosphere
carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter
Examples of primary air pollutants
secondary air pollutants
form when original chemicals released into air react with one another
ozone, sulfur trioxide, photochemicals
Examples of secondary air pollutants
Ozone in the troposphere is a pollutant
the clean air act
sets federal air quality standards and sets emission standards for stationary and mobile sources
Are concentrations of toxic pollutants higher indoors or outdoors?
solar radiation that is absorbed by ozone
solar radiation that mostly passes through the atmosphere (except when blocked by clouds)
solar radiation comes in at _______ wavelengths, and leave at _________ wavelengths
infrared radiation (heat)
absorbed by carbon dioxide and water in the troposphere
fraction of solar energy reflected from the earth back to space
absorbed solar radiation:
reflected solar radiation
particles in atmosphere 3%
What are the following percentages:
absorbed solar radiation:
reflected solar radiation
particles in atmosphere
infrared radiation, space or to surface, greenhouse gases
Warmed surface re-emits heat as ____________, which is ___________, by _____________.
the capacity of gasses to retain heat in earth's atmosphere
negative feedbacks slow warming
US (largest emitter then) did not ratify and did not require china or india to reduce emissions
Why was the kyoto protocol a failure?
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