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Terms in this set (291)
—considered to be the least tangible of the arts.
It is defined as an arrangement of sounds to create a continuous and unified composition.
radio, television, and Internet
Popular music can easily be heard in areas that can be reached by __, __ AND __
refers to a succession of consecutive notes or tones changing in pitch and duration
considered to carry the overall theme of music
inseparable from rhythm
has something to do with the patterns in time
it has three qualities: tempo, meter, and rhythmic pattern
—describes how fast or slow the music is
—refers to the unit of time that is made up of a group of accented and unaccented beats or pulses
refer to a combination of different tones or pitches played or sung together
is notes played or sung together at the same time
Refers to the relationship of melodic and harmonic line in music;
music is considered to have ____ if it has more melodic lines.
Refers to the degree of softness and loudness of music
May also include the way of changing from soft to loud or vice-versa
Also known as tone color
Refers to the quality of sound generated by an instrument or by voice.
Refers to how the other elements of music are organized.
Music can be described if: there are repeating ___ OR ___
musical instruments, rhythm
there is contrast among ___ and ___
there is ____ of the musical composition.
Ethnic Traditional Music, European Influences Religious and Secular Music, American-inspired Popular, classical, and semi-classical music.
FORMS AND TYPES OF PHILIPPINE MUSIC THREE KINDS OF MUSIC IN THE PHILIPPINES
Ballad, Chant, Song debate
Ethnic Traditional Music:
Refers to a song that explains an event occurring in a community
Loosely described as a popular romantic song in the urban areas.
- liyangkit parang sabil
Influenced by Spaniards such as composo and
- Ing Bangkeru
Song with an unaccompanied melody and variable rhythm
Usually found in epic songs
Song involving male and female singers who try to outsmart each other about a certain topic
Themes usually include love, courtship, and marriage.
Composition characterized by merging the voice part, lyrics and the accompaniment together "to achieve an artistic musical whole.
Requires skill, especially when performed during concert or recital
Considered as the signature love song of the Philippines.
Written in triple time, and played starting in the monitor key.
Theme is about "the faithful and true, but often forlorn, pleadings of a lover who knows nothing but sacrifice in behalf of his beloved." (Padilla de Leon, as cited in CCP, 1994)
social dance in duple time
originally from Cuba. Usually performed on a stage or in a ballroom.
influential as its tempo is used in some contemporary compositions like Nicanor Abelardo's "Ikaw Rin" and Antonio
refers to vocal and instrumental compositions that go together with the official rites of Christian churches.
began as early as the Spanish colonial period and the rise of Roman Catholicism
____ century- vernacularization of the liturgical rites began.
____ century- musicians employed more innovative styles and forms, including fusion of Asian and indigenous elements to church music.
19__'s- birth of Pentecostal churches and charismatic groups
- refers to a group of contemporary musical styles with religious lyrics.
dance of love accompanied by a guitar and bajo de uñas (string bass)
its quasi-recitative melody is played by these instruments in ¾
its elements are utilized in some compositions such as Nicanor Abelardo's "Mutya ng Pasig" and Lucio D. San Pedro's "Lahing Kayumanggi.
Refers to the various styles used throughout the country for singing of pasyon.
Typically performed in two groups, 1st is with two persons or groups singing alternatively 2nd is involving each person taking his/her turn in singing.
Instrumental played by small ensemble.
each part of music is played by one performer.
involves music written for a group of singers.
—sung together or in unison without accompaniment
—consist of one melodic line that is accompanied by chords or instrumental accompaniment
—entails two or more distinct and equally significant melodic lines at the same time.
essentially drama that is sung and accompanied by instruments.
It has a set structure consisting of an overture, songs for a variety of number of singers, other vocal combinations, and interludes
involves librettist, composer, and often choreographers are all involve in creating opera.
entails a lot of work from other persons helpful in staging grand theatrical production.
Some foreign libretti were translated into tagalog, such as Lucia di Lammermoor, La Traviata, and Rigoletto.
Before the early ___ Filipinization of opera began
- Original Filipino operas were created
a piece for a solo instrument, or a group of solo instruments, and an orchestral ensemble.
derived from four-movement sonata form
minuet or scherzo, features of concerto which means omitting the third movement.
a work of solo instrument with four movements.
Minuet or scherzo is often omitted. Fast-slow-fast order movements
- musician who has composed sonatas for piano, flute, and violin during 1980s.
-lengthy orchestral composition Symphony
Considered as a sonata written to be played by an orchestra.
Has three or four different movements
Composing it started as early as the American period
A well-arranged set of individual movements which are unified because of using either a common form or key, or a nonmusical element.
Usual themes include scenery and folk songs.
a composition that is typically written in a sonata-allegro form. has one movement with many sections.
also called the tone poem
based on a nonmusical poetic or realistic idea
include biblical themes and personalities, historical events, literary works, and local scenery.
Musical forms under this category include band and rondalla music, hymn and marches, sarswela music, stylized folk songs
refers to compositions created for the band, which is a group of bras, percussion, and woodwind instruments.
a group of instruments such as an accordion band or bamboo band.
brass band, symphonic band, military band, jazz band
Examples of band:
a composition with music played in regular phrases, and a s strongly accented rhythm, usually 4/4 signature
played in some dances or with marching groups.
includes popular music composed by Filipinos which utilizes western and local musical influences
gave birth to pinoy pop
19__'s emergence of Original Pilipino Music (OPM) first began in translation of foreign lyrics into the vernacular.
1973- Joey "Pepe" Smith and Juan de la Cruz Band
released "Ang Himig Natin" as a result of experimenting with the fusion of rock music with Filipino lyrics
- involves the use of drums, electric guitars, synthesizers, and other electronic instruments.
Safe Pinoy pop/ "middle-of-the-road"
- as shown in the composition of Apo Hiking Society and Jose Mari Chan
- inspired by simple and repetitive tunes made popular by Western folk singers
Pinoy disco music
- essentially a Filipino adaptation of Western disco music
- described as musical form involving a fast-paced rhythmic narration accompanied by electronic musical instruments.
Pinoy rap introduced by ____
became highly popular during 1970s, during the time where student activism emerged.
-created the social and political system at that time
-aimed to inspire bravery, heroism and nationalism.
1928- Most popular protest song is "___", which was written by Jose Corazon de Jesus (lyrics) and Constacio de Guzman (music)
an art form involving a series of rhythmic human movements that are purposely selected.
Should be easily differentiated from movement
involves mindful effort to combine movements spatially, dynamically, rhythmically, and artfully
describes how the body of a dancer moves, what part of that body is moving, what actions are performed, and how
the body aligns and support itself.
Focuses on the area where the dance is performed.
Direction, size, focus, distance, level and elevation can be used in describing the use of space in dance
Terms such as accent, beat, duration, meter, rhythm and acceleration can be used in describing time
describes how energy is directed through the body and how the body releases it
referred to as dynamics (dancing)
May mean how dancer relates to another dancer, how he or she relates to an objects or how he or she relates to the group of dancers
Also mean how a person relates to the stage and to production elements
Involves dancers on the awareness of dancers to their environment
COURTSHIP AND WEDDING DANCES
ceremonial dance which involves the male pursuing the female.
typically performed during special occasions (ex. Kumintang and kuratsa)
performed by newlyweds
aims to celebrate relationships that have been newly-formed by the couple, family or relatives. (ex: mascot in Cagayan and Isabela and pantomina in Bicol)
usually acted for fun, but have a set of rules and structure.
done in informal gatherings and also played to test the skills of the dancer
Combative in nature and is used to enact battle.
May exhibit unharmed execution or confrontation using arms or weapons. (ex: langka of Samal)
Aim to imitate actual or real life movements.
May be categorized into animal dance or occupational dance. Portrays latter activities in the community
Involves dancing to spiritual beings ad gods
usually directs the dance, and supplicants perform the dance to ask for blessings, good health, or victory in war.
may also perform ritual dancing as from of gratitude to the gods for blessings received or prayers answered.
Performed to celebrate important milestones in life, and to mark harvest.
Performed by Christians as a way of celebrating the feast of patron saints (ex: balse, escotis, habanera, jota, lanceros, polka, rugodon de honor, and subli)
Dance performed to a song
dance that Describes history and traditions of a community
Involves acting out the meaning of the song using gestures and movements. (ex: Balitaw and lunsay)
Theatrical dance presentation in which plot is integrated with dancing, music, and stage design.
Defined as styles and technique based on theatrical dance schools
utilizes the technique and style of classical ballet in portraying contemporary content.
bound and rebound, and contraction and release. may use natural movement.
A dance within the context of an opera
Rock opera Ballet
ballet that began in the 1970,s
Rock opera Ballet
An offshoot of the opera ballet
Involves stylizing and editing stories, motifs, and styles found in the culture of ordinary people, and adapting these to contemporary theater.
dance form that emerged during the 20th century.
Primarily dancing to the tune of popular music with the purpose of increasing consumption of oxygen over a long period of time.
Bodabil Dancing (vaudeville)
Popular during the American period. Include popular dances from the United States, and Philippine folk dances
Bodabil Dancing (vaudeville)
When combine with mime, singing of ballads, and acrobatics, offers a perception of life during those times in satirical way.
Bodabil Dancing (vaudeville)
Popularity of this ___ act became confined in provincial fiestas, television and radio variety shows Jazz Dance
Bodabil Dancing (vaudeville)
Uses African dance techniques like isolation of individual human boy parts, rhythm and polycentrism Modern Jazz
Bodabil Dancing (vaudeville)
a mix of original jazz dance and steps from dances during the second half of the 20th century
Polynesian and Tahitian Dances
Began from people living in the Polynesian chain
Polynesian and Tahitian Dances
Dances such as hula, they were introduced in the Philippines during the late 1950's
A dance that entails tapping with toes and heels to generate rhythmic patterns.
refers to an art form that involves performing carefully planned actions and emotions in front of an audience. It has six elements, which will be discussed below - performers, audience, director, performance space, design, and text.
- is described as a wide range of mimetic performances that were created and presented with specific social objectives in mind.
these are persons who are onstage and portray their characters in a convincing way for the audience
the performers have to present in front of an audience and connect with the. tend to respond to the energy shows while watching the play
serves an overseer to the entire production, ensures that the performers are doing their job well, ensures that the production design works well
space in which the actors can perform
may also refer to the space for the audience to sit or stand
essential in placing the overall feel of the production
visual aspects and nonvisual aspects
two aspects of design:
include lighting, send, and costumes
refers to the script
FORMS AND TYPES OF PHILIPPINE THEATER
Dr. Prospero R. Covar
A typology of Philippine theater was developed based on another typology created by ___, a Filipino anthropologist.
- described as a way to communicate with gods or spirits
usually a babaylan or an albularyo, calling the spirit and being possessed by that spirit. While in that particular state; performs a sacrifice or pours water over the offerings
described as a poetic debate, in which the balagtasan was derived from
: involves poems with four lines with 12 syllables per line
: a Maranao mimetic joust
: poetic debate between a man and a woman; may also refer to the song and its lyrics or the dance; may also refer to the entire performance itself since it exhibits an exchange of words in a hypothetical situation
: evolution of balitaw, which involves portraying a particular story on stage with minimal set
Dulambayan (people's theater)
- people's theater, considered "theater in the context of social movements"
- refers to allegorical nationalist drama which began during the American regime; revived during the Marcos regime
- refers to theater that is presented outside the theater building and without the stage area; can also be applied in rituals and religious plays
- A form of street theater
-this type of theater is concerned with spriritualit
-usually performed depending on the events in the church calendar Catholic, Protestant)
- a play in verse that portrays the lives of saints; may also depict actual events, or tales about royalty in the kingdoms of Africa, Europe, Arabia, and Persia
- refers to the tradition of fetching the image of the community's patron saint; done the night before the fiesta or even on the day itself
- involves escorting the image from the house of the caretaker to the church, accompanied with music played by the brass band and dance
- presented in the month of May
-May refer to the festival of flowers in honor of Mary, mother of Jesus (flores de Mayo)
- everyday offering of flowers to the image of the Virgin
Flores de Maria
- closing procession on the last Sunday of May
- another variant of the flores, which involves males fetching young ladies and going together with the procession; people participating in the sunduan carry beautiful arrangements of flowers
- refers to the burning of the image of Judas Iscariot; popular in Bulacana, Pampanga, and Cebu; usually held on the evening of Black Saturday or on the morning of Easter Sunday
- actual supper enacted to commemorate the last supper of Jesus with his disciplines on the night before His crucifixion
- a short street play portraying the capture and beheading of Roman soldier Longinus, who was involved in the crucifixion of Jesus Christ
Paghuhugas ng Paa
- short ritual reenacts Christ washing the feet of his disciples before the Last Supper; demonstrats humility and serving others
- procession that reenacts Mary and Joseph's search for an inn in Bethlehem
Involves using two karo or floats, whciH bear the images of Mary and Joseph
Pastores or Shepherds' Dance
- reenactment of shepherds honoring the infant Jesus typically presented before Christmas Day
- short reenactment of the triumphal entry of Jesus Christ to Jerusalem
- refers to a tradition involving carolers who go to each house in the community to act like souls in purgatory and beg for alms
- reenactment of the last three hours of Jesus Christ on the cross; it was during this time when the Seven Last Words were situated
- play performed during the Holy Week; depicts the story of salvation, starting from the creation of the world up to the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ
- focused on the final triumph of good over evil
___ evolved and is now depicting the struggle between sectors and classes
- short reenactment focuses on the meeting of Mary, mother of Jesus, and Jesus Christ who rose from the dead
- procession, which is usually performed late in the evening, portrays Mary's grief after burying Jesus Christ
- reenactment of the travel of the Magic to worship the Infant Jesus in Bethlehem
- way of remembering the events leading to Christ's death and burial
THEATER AS ART
- theater under this category is based on Western models
- may refer to plays with children as actors; may also include plays performed by adults for an audience of children; can also be community based, which aims to educated the children and the rest of the members of the community on basic rights of the children and issues concerning them
- form of drama in which puppets portray the roles of the characters in the story.
Flat figures - (puppet theatre) that cast shadows on a screen
Rounded miniature figures
- controlled by the puppeteer can also be used; can be manipulated using hands, rods, strings or wires.
- another example of theater as art; refers to a form of musical theater that was introduced in the Philippines during the late 19th century
- plays with Spanish influence, and theater with Anglo-American influence; usually seen in the form of rituals, mimetic customs, and dances
Plays with Spanish Influence
- include drama, komedya, sinakulo, and sarswela
- considered to be the most popular form of musical theater in the Philippines; musical play with a particular structure and standards
Filipino domestic, Social situations
-Themes depicted in sarswelas usually revolve in:
- a stage presentation that consists of a range of musical and comedy acts, skits and monologues, novelty and acrobatic numbers, solos and chorus lines; Nowadays, it is performed during town fiestas, in film musicals, and in radio
Modern or Original Plays by Filipinos
- themes of these plays still revolve around social, economic, political, and cultural issues in the country; other developments in theater include the existence of the pro-gay culture movement, and the growing number of theater scholars.
Representational style, Representational play
- Two types of modern plays written by Filipinos:
- involves making an illusion of reality with well-rounded characters
- can be psychological which gives emphasis on the problems of individuals, or social, which focuses on individual problems within the context of the society
- performed to connect historical persons and events to be present
- known as theater of instruction; inspired by Bertolt Brecht; features a social orientation and utilizes mime, dances, songs, stylized sets and costumes, and typical characters
- situations are deliberately exaggerated to prove an idea and whose characters are seen as types instead of as individuals
- variant of the dramatic monologue, which involves one actor speaking while acting our his emotions and thoughts
-First performed by UP Repertory Company during the early 1970s
- refers to a sequence of moving pictures, which is typically shown on television or in a cinema
- became an industry in the Philippines during the 1950's.
- called alternative filmmakers, started producing highly critical and imaginative works
- include animation, traditional documentaries, docu-dramas, experimentals films, mixed media, short features, and many others
- continued to be produced in order to cater to the female population
- created for male patronage
- (film)most significant element of cinema
- refers to time for an action to take place as it is being filmed and projected on the screen; can be altered through accelerated motion, slow motion, stopped motion, and reverse motion
- refers to the impression of the viewer on how long does it take for a certain action to take place and how he or she feel when watching that particular action
- signifies the timeline of events portrayed in the film
- (film) like in a painting or a photograph, a film, when projected on the screen has two dimensions
indicates the size of the objects on the screen and how these objects relate with the area surrounding them
denotes the location or angle from where the camera records the scene. Shots may be taken with the camera directed:
- position of lights can affect how the illusion of depth
is created in the film
Relationship of light and dark
- ___ on the object can give that illusion of depth to the object
- Aside from dialogue, sound also includes background music, theme melodies, and silence
Cutting or Editing
- joining one shot with another, making sure that these two shots are logically connected
- used for emphasis or for smooth changing of one shot to another, such as dissolve, fade, and turn-over.
- done in order to have a smoother change of view, to help in gradual growth of emotions, or to stimulate a familiar experience
- helps in bringing balance to the film as it is being view; can also get the attention of the audience and sustain that attention
- American-influenced type of film, mainly uses physical conflict as emphasis
Nardong Putik (1972)
- starred by Ramon Revilla Sr.
- a film that involves creating illustrations or inanimate images and bringing them to life
- used to capture images of a series of arranged drawings; the shots are run in a movie projector on 10 or 24 frames per second
- involves the use of drawings for a certain image; a single movement requires creating another image on a separate sheet of celluloid (cel) or acetate sheet
- used in creating drawings on cel or acetate
- involves cutting out images from photos, cardboard, or other flat materials; collage is formed out of these materials; process is simpler, relatively cheaper and does not take too much time; final output does not have the smooth flow of movement compared to that in drawn animation
Model or live animation
involves moving three-dimensional objects made from sand, clay, wire, or other solid objects
- used to record movements
- film that primarily depicts nudity and sex; different from X-rated pornography
- motion picture that narrates or discusses news events
- reports events based on facts and gives emphasis on timeliness
- primarily informs the public on a particular subject (travelogue)
- brings knowledge about the physical world
- tackles social problems and issues like injustice and poverty
- presents reality using a unique point of view, language, and technique
- refers to a motion picture that dwells on personal problems and conflicts; meant to be a tearjerker. Drama draws sentiment and emotion
- attempts to create something radically innovative or something that is never done before with the camera; explores hidden potentials of film
- depicts scenes in an imaginary world; Komiks stories, folklore, and science fiction all fall under fantasy
- shows actual events that occurred in the past; may depict real stories of famous persons, or historical events and places that are recreated in the film
- shown to bring fear to the audience; includes supernatural beings like ghosts, goblins, vampires, and imaginary monsters to the story; this genre is very appealing to most Filipinos, may be attributed to the fondness of the Filipino for the supernatural and the unkown.
- induce laughter in the audience
- love story that is presented with music and humor, usually focuses on chance encounters, mistaken identity, and use of disguises
- focuses on using a physical or psychological defect, or on using ill-mannered behavior of characters as sources of laughter
Musical - essentially a romantic comedy that is presented with dances, skits, and songs
Sarswela, Sarswela-type musical, Hollywood-type musical, New musical
Four types of musical:
- centers on characters and events, which are recreated in the movie, occur in a historical place and time.
Oro Plata Mata (1982) - tries to reconstruct life in Negros before, during, and immediately after the occupation of the Japanese; centers on a fictional extended family of a sugar baron
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