63 terms

Test 2 Study Set Part 1: Oil

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What is oil composed of?
Petroleum is basically a mix of naturally occurring organic compounds from within the earth that contain primarily hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. When petroleum comes straight out of the ground as a liquid it is called crude oil if dark and viscous, and condensate if clear and volatile.
What is a Dalton?
synonymous with the unified atomic mass unit
How did oil form?
The current best answer is the "Biogenic Origin" in which for millions of years, dead organisms have accumulated in sediments and been transformed under heat and pressure into a waxy material called, 'kerogen', the basic building block for crude oil.
When did it form?
originated approximately 80-150 million years ago
What is the evidence for its origin?
All the available evidence points to a recent catastrophic origin for the world's vast oil deposits, from plant and other organic debris, consistent with the biblical account of earth history. Vast forests grew on land and water surfaces17 in the pre-Flood world, and the oceans teemed with diatoms and other tiny photosynthetic organisms. Then during the global Flood cataclysm, the forests were uprooted and swept away. Huge masses of plant debris were rapidly buried in what thus became coal beds, and organic matter generally was dispersed throughout the many catastrophically deposited sedimentary rock layers. The coal beds and fossiliferous sediment layers became deeply buried as the Flood progressed. As a result, the temperatures in them increased sufficiently to rapidly generate crude oils and natural gas from the organic matter in them. These subsequently migrated until they were trapped in reservoir rocks and structures, thus accumulating to form today's oil and gas deposits.
Where does it exist on earth? (for this you can refer to the maps with oil reserves listed by country)
Plate tectonics determines the location of oil and gas reservoirs and is the best key we have to understanding why deserts and arctic areas seem to hold the largest hydrocarbon reserves on earth. But there are other important locations of large reserves: river deltas and continental margins offshore. Together, these four types of areas hold most of the oil and gas in the world today.
How much oil does the USA use?
In the USA oil is used to provide energy for more than 95% of our transportation. Recently the US has decreased reliance on imported oil through increased domestic production and slightly decreased demand.
How much oil does the USA import?
In 2016, the United States imported approximately 10.1 million barrels per day (MMb/d) of petroleum from about 70 countries
What are the major sources of imports?
top 5: Canada, Saudi Arabia, Mexico, Venezuela and Russia.
What is the ANWR?
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
Why was it an issue?
From internet: Established in 1960 to protect its extraordinary wildlife, wilderness and recreational qualities, the Arctic Refuge is a place where natural processes remain mostly uninfluenced by humans. But for all its unique beauty and importance for wildlife, the Arctic Refuge is under assault. The oil industry and its political allies continue to launch attacks to open this national treasure to destructive oil drilling, while climate change threatens to disrupt its habitats faster than wildlife can adapt. Defenders of Wildlife is committed to protecting the Arctic Refuge and the wildlife that calls this remarkable place home.

From slides: In 1998, the USGS estimated that between 5.7 and 16.0 billion barrels (2.54×109 m3) of technically recoverable crude oil and natural gas liquids are in the coastal plain area of ANWR, with a mean estimate of 10.4 billion barrels (1.65×109 m3), of which 7.7 billion barrels (1.22×109 m3) lie within the Federal portion of the ANWR 1002 Area.
The DOE reports there is uncertainty about the underlying resource base in ANWR. "The USGS oil resource estimates are based largely on the oil productivity of geologic formations that exist in the neighboring State lands and which continue into ANWR. Consequently, there is considerable uncertainty regarding both the size and quality of the oil resources that exist in ANWR. Thus, the potential ultimate oil recovery and potential yearly production are highly uncertain."
The total production from ANWR would be between 0.4 and 1.2 percent of total world oil consumption in 2030 if we began production in 2018.
How much oil is there? How long would it last at some specific rate of production?
In short, global oil reserve estimates are fictional. We have no idea how much we have, because it doesn't pay to tell the truth when it comes to oil.

*(from 2010) According to BP's Statistical Review of World Energy (pdf), released on wednesday, we still have 1,333 billion barrels out there to pump, enough for 40 years at current usage.
What is oil (tar) sand?
Oil is most often extracted from oil sands using steam assisted gravity drainage.

a naturally occurring mixture of sand, clay or other minerals, water and bitumen, which is a heavy and extremely viscous oil that must be treated before it can be used by refineries to produce usable fuels
Where does it occur?
The Athabasca oil sands in Alberta, Canada, are a very large source of bitumen, which can be upgraded to synthetic crude oil.
How do we get oil from it?
From Slides: Surface mining
The oil sands themselves are typically 40 to 60 metres deep, sitting on top of flat limestone rock. Originally, the sands were mined with draglines and bucket-wheel excavators and moved to the processing plants by conveyor belts. In recent years companies such as Syncrude and Suncor have switched to much cheaper shovel-and-truck operations

From internet: The tar sands yield a form of hydrocarbon called bitumen that is carbon rich and hydrogen poor. ... It is sometimes labeled as an extra-heavy crude oil but is essentially bitumen or tar. Refineries convert crude oil into light hydrocarbons such as gasoline and diesel.
What is kerogen?
A waxy material that is a precursor to crude oil and natural gas.
What is bitumen?
A major component of tar sands which is diluted to form dilbit.
What is dilbit?
Diluted bitumen
What is syncrude?
is one of the world's largest producers of synthetic crude oil from oil sands and the largest single source producer in Canada.
Why do we make dilbit?
Diluting bitumen makes it much easier to transport, for example in pipelines.
How do we convert crude oil to refined products?
Petroleum refineries change crude oil into petroleum products that are used as fuels for transportation, heating, paving roads, and generating electricity.
Separation. Modern separation involves piping crude oil through hot furnaces.
Conversion.
Treatment.
Storage.
What is the difference between oil from different places? (for example, Gulf of Mexico compared with Alaska)
oil from different geographical locations will naturally have its own very unique properties. These oils vary dramatically from one another when it comes to their viscosity, volatility and toxicity.

"If you think it's tough to clean up an oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, it's nothing compared to Alaska,"
What are the impacts of an oil spill in the ocean? What determines the type and degree of this impact?
Harms the animals and plants in marine environments
Know about the Persian Gulf, Ixtoc, Amoco Cadiz, Deepwater Horizon, and Exxon Valdez oil spills
The Gulf War oil spill was one of the largest oil spills in history, resulting from the Gulf War in 1991.

Ixtoc I was an exploratory oil well being drilled by the semi-submersible drilling rig Sedco 135 in the Bay of Campeche of the Gulf of Mexico, about 100 km northwest of Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche in waters 50 m deep.

Amoco Cadiz was a very large crude carrier (VLCC) under the Liberian flag of convenience owned by Amoco. On 16 March 1978, she ran aground on Portsall Rocks, 5 km (3 mi) from the coast of Brittany, France; and ultimately split in three and sank, resulting in the largest oil spill of its kind in history to that date.

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill, the BP oil disaster, the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, and the Macondo blowout) began on April 20, 2010, in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Killing eleven people,[6][7][8][9] it is considered the largest marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry and estimated to be 8% to 31% larger in volume than the previous largest, the Ixtoc I oil spill. The US Government estimated the total discharge at 4.9 million barrels (210 million US gal; 780,000 m3).

The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, March 24, 1989, when Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker owned by Exxon Shipping Company, bound for Long Beach, California, struck Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef at 12:04 am[1][2] local time and spilled 10.8 million US gallons (260,000 bbl; 41,000 m3) of crude oil over the next few days.[3] It is considered to be one of the most devastating human-caused environmental disasters.[4] The Valdez spill is the second largest in US waters, after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, in terms of volume released
What is "peak oil"?
1980's - Colin Campbell: oil will peak in 1989 (Peak oil concept)

the hypothetical point in time when the global production of oil reaches its maximum rate, after which production will gradually decline.
What is oil shale?
This is essentially oil (kerogen and other materials) that is absorbed into the crystalline structure of sedimentary rock, specifically shale.

And there is a LOT of it. There is so much fossil fuel in it that these rocks can be burned by merely touching a match.
Where is oil shale located?
in USA- Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado
How much oil is in oil shale in the USA?
110-130 billion barrels of oil
How is it extracted?
The shale is mined crushed and heated (retorting).
What is the problem with oil shale?
its rock and its hard to extract so you lose more energy to extract so it's not efficient
What is steam assisted gravity drainage?
In SAGD, two horizontal wells are drilled in the oil sands, one at the bottom of the formation and another about 5 metres above it. These wells are typically drilled in groups off central pads and can extend for miles in all directions. In each well pair, steam is injected into the upper well, the heat melts the bitumen, which allows it to flow into the lower well, where it is pumped to the surface. SAGD has proved to be a major breakthrough in production technology since it is cheaper than CSS, allows very high oil production rates, and recovers up to 60% of the oil in place.
What are some other method of extracting tar (oil) sands?
cold flow, steam, cyclic steam simulation, vapor extraction
What environmental impacts are there for tar sands?
global warming and greenhouse gas emissions, disturbance of mined land; impacts on wildlife and air and water quality.
What is the primary source of energy for the process of getting the oil out of the sands?
heat- hot water, steam
Know some of the 'doomsday' predictions about running out of oil.
"By 2025, the US will depend on foreign countries for 70% of its oil" -dept. of energy
Who did President Roosevelt meet with on the USS Quincy in 1945?
King Abdulaziz (king of Saudi Arabia)
What was the contrast between an absolute monarch and a fervent believer in democracy? What was the nature of that meeting?
Roosevelt is a believer in democracy and King Abdulaziz, an absolute monarch. First face to face meeting, served as the foundation for the long standing relationship between the US and Saudi Arabia.
How much of the energy for WWII was supplied by the USA?
the US supplied 6/7 billion barrels of oil to allied forces in WWII.

By the eve of World War II, U.S. companies accounted for nearly 40 percent of oil production outside the United States and the Soviet Union.
How much of the US reserves at that time was used as a result of the war?
? a lot im assuming since we provided so much oil
What Presidents after Roosevelt continued to honor that original agreement?
? Bush and Obama
What was the Truman Doctrine, as it relates to oil and energy?
De-classified documents show that the Truman Doctrine, which is commonly defined as a response to a Soviet threat to Greece and Turkey, was intended to prevent Soviet access to the flow of oil from the Middle East. (
****What change occurred during Nixon's presidency regarding the use of proxies to conduct foreign policy?
*the USA shifted foreign policy from fighting wars directly to the use of surrogate regimes

Nixon established a new relationship w the middle east, eliminating soviet dominance in the region.

Nixon Doctrine (in Persian Gulf focused mostly on Iran) Any assault or threat on Persian Gulf is a direct threat to US.
During the Nixon administration and later the Carter administration, who was our proxy in the middle east, to help protect oil supplies?
Saudi Arabia
****What happened and whose presidency did it happen in?
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan; President Carter
What was the Carter Doctrine?
was a policy proclaimed by President of the United States Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on January 23, 1980, which stated that the United States would use military force if necessary to defend its national interests in the Persian Gulf
What did President Carter create in response to the need to protect access to oil?
"Crisis of Confidence" speech urging Americans to reduce their energy use to help lessen American dependence on foreign oil supplies.
What is CENTCOM?
US Central Command

The CENTCOM Area of Responsibility (AOR) includes countries in the Middle East, parts of northern Africa, and Central Asia, most notably Afghanistan and Iraq. CENTCOM has been the main American presence in many military operations, including the Persian Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm, 1991), the War in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom, 2001-2014), and the Iraq War (Operation Iraqi Freedom, 2003-2011).
Who created it and when?
Reagan; established in 1983
What reasons were given initially for going to war during Desert Storm?
a military operation to expel occupying Iraqi forces from Kuwait, which Iraq had invaded and annexed months earlier
What reasons were eventually given in order to gain approval for Desert Storm?
Protecting Saudi Arabia

Hussein defied United Nations Security Council demands to withdraw from Kuwait by mid-January 1991, and the Persian Gulf War began with a massive U.S.-led air offensive known as Operation Desert Storm.
Who was President during Desert Storm?
George W. Bush
Who had been an ally of the US prior to Desert Storm?
Osama bin Laden
Why did he switch from being an ally to being a sworn enemy of the USA?
Because he was banished from countries and established a new base in Afghanistan.
What did he say was the fundamental reason for war in the middle east?
oil
What is AFRICOM?
The United States Africa Command is one of nine unified combatant commands of the United States Armed Forces, headquartered at Kelley Barracks, Stuttgart, Germany
When was it created? By whom?
2007; George W. Bush
What does AFRICOM have in common with CENTCOM?
Its area of responsibility covers all of Africa except Egypt, which is within the area of responsibility of the United States Central Command.
What is EROI (EROEI)?
From slides: Energy return on investment (EROI) is the ratio of the energy delivered by a process to the energy used directly and indirectly in that process.

From internet: Energy Return on Investment- a key determinant of the price of energy
What is net energy analysis?
a quantitative way to compare the amount of energy a technology produces over its lifetime with the energy required to build and maintain it.
How do the two concepts relate to each other?
net energy analysis (tool of EROI) which is focused on sources of energy.
In the 1940s how did the EROI for oil compare to later years?
It lowered drastically throughout the years
1940s >100
1970s 8

*roughly a 9 now
How does the EROI relate to 'payback' time? Understand the EROI model diagram.
If output is greater than input, power is generated. EPBT- time vs. the payback or return of energy. EROI output/input ratio
What is the curse of oil? What different kinds of undesirable outcomes can come from sudden wealth and what factors determine whether sudden wealth from oil is a blessing or a curse? Any examples of this in countries around the world
refers to the social and political instability that can occur if countries with unstable governments suddenly acquire great wealth, through sale of newly exploited oil deposits.

Countries with more abundance of natural resources tend to have less economic growth, less democracy and worse development outcomes. (Saudi Arabia)