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APUSH Ch. 23 and 24 Test study guide
Terms in this set (64)
"Big Bill" Haywood.
A prominent figure in the American labor movement. Haywood was a leader of the Western Federation of Miners (WFM), a founding member and leader of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and a member of the Executive Committee of the Socialist Party of America.Haywood favored organizing all workers in an industry under one union, regardless of the specific trade or skill level.
"Golden Rule" Jones.
Toledo Mayor that helped established the Ohio Oil Company which was later bought by Standard Oil Company, making Jones a wealthy man.
-asked his workers to work hard, be honest, and follow the golden rule
-opened free kindergartens, built parks, instituted an eight-hour day for city workers, and reformed the city government
-was not well liked by other businessmen, the average citizen supported him. When his term was over Jones was not renominated by the Republicans.
President William Howard Taft's foreign policy was called 'Dollar Diplomacy'. Taft sought to address international problems by extending American investment overseas, believing that such activity would both benefit the US economy and promote stability abroad.
President Wilson's goals such as to condemn imperialism, spread democracy, and promote peace., Policy was adopted to reject the approach of "dollar diplomacy". Rather than focusing mainly on economic ties with other nations, Wilson's policy was designed to bring right principles to the world, preserve peace, and extend to other peoples the blessings of democracy.
1916 presidential campaign
-President Wilson ran for a second term on the slogan, "He kept us out of the war"
-Republicans nominated Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes; Theodore Roosevelt supported Hughes
- In this election, main concern of voters was whether or not the United States would become involved in World War I.
-Close election, with Wilson winning the electoral vote 277 to 254
African American participation in the war
Nearly 400,000 blacks enlisted or were drafted into army & navy. Most performed menial tasks on bases in US, <50,000 went to France. They served in segregated unites under white commanders; even in Euro, assigned noncombat duty. Only some fought in great offensives in 1918. They hoped their military service would ultimately improve racist status
a Wall Street broker before being chosen by President Wilson in 1918 to head the War Industries Board. He helped the U.S. Manage war production.
Bull Moose party.
Progressive Party; political party created by a split in the Republican Party in the presidential election of 1912; formed by Theodore Roosevelt when he lost the Republican nomination to William Howard Taft and pulled his delegates out of the convention; known as the Bull Moose Party after the party's emblem and after Roosevelt's boast that he was "as strong as a bull moose"
Clayton Antitrust Act.
Completed Wilson's initial legislative program. It reflected confusion on how to discipline a growing economy without putting a brake on output. It outlawed such directories and prohibited unfair trade practices. It forbade pricing policies that created monopoly, and it made corporate officers personally responsible for antitrust violations.
Committee on Public Information
It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.
direct election of senators
17th amendment ; Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
Dr. Alice Hamilton
A pioneer in American research on the causes of industrial disease & was a member of the Women's Trade Union League; physician, later investigator for US Bureau of Labor, pioneer in identifying pollution in the workplace, (e.g. she identified lead poisoning), lead to the Public Health Service
election of 1912
In this election, the Democrats nominated Woodrow Wilson, giving him a strong progressive platform called the "New Freedom" program. The Republicans were split between Taft and Roosevelt's Bull Moose Party with its "New Nationalism" program. By the division of the Republican Party, a Democratic victory was ensured. Woodrow Wilson won. The Republicans were thrust into a minority status in Congress for the next six years.
1903; Roosevelt worked with Congress to pass the Elkins Act to prohibit railroad rebates and increase the powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). The Elkins Act, a moderate law, was framed with the consent of railroad leaders. In 1904 and 1905, the president wanted much more, and he urged Congress to empower the ICC to set reasonable and nondiscriminatory rates and prevent inequitable practices.
Eugene V. Debs.
An American union leader and leader of the Pullman Strike of 1894; several times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States; eventually became one of the best-known socialists living in the United States.
federal income tax.
taxes based on income created during the 16th amendment
Federal Reserve System
reformed banking system and created the federal reserve board which oversaw a nationwide system of 12 regional reserve districts each with its own central bank and had the power to issue paper money.
was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905-1910) and the Governor of Pennsylvania (1923-1927, 1931-1935). He was a Republican and Progressive. Pinchot is known for reforming the management and development of forests in the United States and for advocating the conservation of the nation's reserves by planned use and renewal.
Hammer v. Dagenhart decision
Court decision involving the power of Congress to enact child labor laws. The Court held regulation of child labor in purely internal (to a single state) manufacturing, the products of which may never enter interstate commerce, to be beyond the power of Congress, distinguishing the Lottery line of cases, which concerned Congressional regulation of harms (e.g. interstate sale of lottery tickets) that required the use of interstate commerce
Harry A. Garfield
directed efforts to save coal
Put Daylight Savings time into effect
(1903) treaty that granted the US land to build the Panama canal in exchange for $10 million and annual payments to Panama. Occured shortly after Panama's independence.
The Hay-Herran Convention (1903) gave the United States leasehold on a strip of land in the Isthmus of Panama, then part of Colombia. The Colombian government failed to ratify the agreement, Panama declared its independence, and the United States leased the area from Panama.
The Hepburn Act is a 1906 United States federal law that gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to set maximum railroad rates and extend its jurisdiction. This led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers.
Elected Republican governor of California in 1910, he oversaw numerous progressive reforms, including the passage of woman suffrage at the state level. In 1917 he entered the Senate, where he proved an isolationist in foreign affairs. He is famous for declaring that "the first casualty when war comes, is truth."
Interstate Commerce Commission.
Established during the Interstate Commerce Act. Monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
League of Nations
After the war, Wilson proposed the League in the 14th point of his peace plan. He envisioned it as an Assembly with seats for all nations and a special council for the great powers. The US voted not to join the League because in doing so, it would have taken away our self-determination, and Congress could not decide whether to go to war or not.
Madam C. J. Walker
A highly successful ex-slave who worked her way up the economic ladder and eventually owned a mail order business and several beauty parlors and training schools. Famous for being an African American icon, supporting welfare, education, and civil rights for blacks with large donations. Supported the want for social equality for all blacks and was a member or speaker of/for the NAACP, several African American womens' organizations, and the Negro Business League. First Black Female Millionaire.
Signed by Taft, it bolstered the regulatory powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission and supported labor reforms. It gave the ICC the power to prosecute its own inquiries into violations of its regulations.
Meat Inspection Act.
Required strict cleanliness requirements for meat packers and created a program of federal meat inspection. It came about in 1906 as a result of president Roosevelt reading Upton Sinclair's The Jungle. Roosevelt appointed a commission of experts. To investigate the meat packing industry. Then the commission issued a report backing up Sinclair's account of the disgusting conditions in the industry.
Wilson's policy that favored the small business, entrepreneurship, and the free functioning of unregulated and unmonopolized markets.
Progressive policy of Theodore Roosevelt--1912 Progressive party platform--favored a more active government role in economic and social affairs--favored continued consolidation of trusts and labor unions and the growth of powerful regulatory agencies in Washington--favored women's suffrage and social welfare programs (including minimum-wage laws and "socialistic" social insurance).
1920, gave women the right to vote
Northern Securities case
1904 Supreme Court refused railway promoters' appeal and ordered the Northern Securities Company to be dissolved, angered big businesses, enhanced TR's reputation as a trustbuster
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
A famous justice of the Supreme Court during the early 1900s. Called the "Great Dissenter" because he spoke out against the inposition of national regulations and standards, and supported the states' rights to experiment with social legislation.
Paris Peace Conference
January - May 1919; Conference in which negotiations over the fate of Central Powers took place
signed by Taft in 1909.
-this signing contradicted his campaign promises of progressive reforms (lower tariffs)
-it was supposed to lower tariff rates but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions that raised tariffs.
-This split the Repulican party into PROGRESSIVES (lower tariff) and CONSERVATIVES (high tariff).
Roosevelt brought Russian and Japanese diplomats to New Hampshire in this meeting to resolve the Russo-Japanese war. This soured relations with both countries, as the Russians were mad they had been deprived a military victory, and Japan was mad that they were given no indemnity and only the southern half of the strategic island of Sakhalin.
designed to strengthen US military forces after the outbreak of WWI
This 1920 law defined the liquor forbidden under the Eighteenth Amendment and gave enforcement responsibilities to the Prohibition Bureau of the Department of the Treasury.
Pure Food and Drug Act.
Passed in 1906, the first law to regulate manufacturing of food and medicines; prohibited dangerous additives and inaccurate labeling.
Reasons for War in Europe
M.A.N.I.A. - Militarism, Assassination of Arch Duke Francis Ferdinand, Nationalism, Imperialism, Alliances
Shortly after the end of World War I and the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, the Red Scare took hold in the United States. A nationwide fear of communists, socialists, anarchists, and other dissidents suddenly grabbed the American psyche in 1919 following a series of anarchist bombings. The nation was gripped in fear. Innocent people were jailed for expressing their views, civil liberties were ignored, and many Americans feared that a Bolshevik-style revolution was at hand. Then, in the early 1920s, the fear seemed to dissipate just as quickly as it had begun, and the Red Scare was over.
Robert M. La Follette.
Governor of Wisconsin nicknamed " Fighting Bob" who was a progressive Republican leader. His "Wisconsin Idea" was the model for state progressive government. He used the "brain trust", a panel of experts, to help him create effective, efficient government. He was denied the nomination for the Republicans in favor of Theodore Roosevelt.
addendum to the Monroe Doctrine, asserted right of the US to intervene and stabilize economic affairs in Central America if they could not pay off their international debts
1918, Prohibited anyone from making "disloyal" or "abusive" remarks about the US government.
Selective Service Act
This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of WWI, 24.2 million had registered; 2.8 million had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.
It was adopted in 1913 and stated that Congress shall have the power to lay and collect income taxes. This amendment was passed because earlier the Supreme Court had declared that an income tax was unconstitutional. It was part of the progressive movement. It was created to shift the burden of taxes to the wealthy.
A torpedo from a German submarine hit a french passenger liner, called the Sussex in march 1916. Wilson demanded the Germans refrain from attacking passenger ships. In this statement, Germany said they would temporarily stop these attacks but might have to resume in the future if the British continued to blockade German ports.
Taft toward foreign affairs
created dollar diplomacy ; The foreign policy conducted by President William Howard Taft from 1909-1914. This policy favored increased American investment in the world as a way of creating American influence. However, this was not always peaceful (Nicaragua). An example of this policy is the U.S investment to build railroads in China in 1911.
Agreement in which the US disavowed claims to Korea and Japan disavowed claims to the Philippines.
The Adamson Act of 1916
This law established an eight-hour day for all employees on trains involved in interstate commerce, with extra pay for overtime. It was the first federal law regulating the hours of workers in private companies, and was upheld by the Supreme Court Wilson v. New .
The Eighteenth Amendment
ratified in 1919, this Constitutional amendment prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages. It ushered in the ear known as Prohibition
The Hepburn Act of 1906
Proposal for railroad regulation enacted in 1906 that extended the authority of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) and gave it the power to set maximum freight rates.
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
Progressive who reformed the political process. Reformed public ownership of utilities in Chicago.
Underwood Tariff Act of 1913
This tariff provided for a substantial reduction of rates and enacted an unprecedented, graduated federal income tax. By 1917, revenue from the income tax surpassed receipts from the tariff, a gap that has since been vastly widened.
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
War Industries Board
Created in July 1917, the War Industries Board controlled raw materials, production, prices, and labor relations It was intended to restore economic order and to make sure the United States was producing enough at home and abroad.
William Howard Taft
27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.
Wilson's attitude toward antiwar dissent
the Espionage Act and Sedition Act.
The National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) was an American women's rights organization formed in May 1890 as a unification of the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA). The NAWSA continued the work of both associations by becoming the parent organization of hundreds of smaller local and state groups, and by helping to pass woman suffrage legislation at the state and local level. The NAWSA was the largest and most important suffrage organization in the United States, and was the primary promoter of women's right to vote. Like AWSA and NWSA before it, the NAWSA pushed for a constitutional amendment guaranteeing women's voting rights, and was instrumental in winning the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1920.
Woodrow Wilson won the presidency.
Wilson won the election of 1912 largely because the Republican Party split in two.
Germany, Turkey, Austria - Hungary
England, France, and Russia
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