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ALH 111 Chapter 8
Terms in this set (118)
Female sex cell
Male sex cell
Half the number of chromosomes needed to create a new organism.
A sex cell
Two gametes combine to form a single nucleus that has half of its genetic code from each parent
Special organs that are in male and females that produce the egg and sperm cell
Sex process (Coitus)
Sperm travels its way up the Fallopian tubes where it penetrates the ovum.
After many divisions
A ball of cell forms
3-38 or 3-40 weeks
Gestation / Pregnancy
The period of development in the uterus
The occurrence of the first cycle
When all eggs have been release, hormone production diminishes, and menstruation ends.
Where does a fertilization occur?
In the uterus
A new, blood vessel-rich organ
Connected to the embryo by the umbilical cord
Develops to nourish the embryo
Estrogen / Progesterone
Hormones in the ovaries
Play important roles in the process of menstruation and pregnancy, and in the development of secondary sex characteristics
Located at the base of the brain
Secretes other hormones that govern the reproductive functions of the ovaries, breasts, and uterus
The study of the female reproductive system (organs, hormones, and diseases)
The study of the care and treatment of the newborn
Organs of the female reproductive system
Holds all the female's eggs
Connects the ovaries to the uterus
A fibromuscular organ situated between the urinary bladder and the rectum
The uterus (womb) is normally the size and shape of a pear and is about 3 inches long in a nonpregnant woman,
Midway between the uterus and the rectum is a region in the abdominal cavity
A tubular strcuture, extends from the uterus to the exterior of the body
Two small, rounded glands on either side of the vagina oriface.
These glands produce a mucous secretion that lubricates the vagina
An organ of sensitive, erectile tissue located anterior to the vaginal orifice and in front of the urethral meatus
The region between the vaginal orifice and the anus
External genitalia of the female
External genitalia of the female
Labia Majora - outer lips of the vagina
Labia Minora - Inner lips of the vagina
Hymen - a thin membrane partially covering the entrance to the vagina. (broken apart during first episode of intercourse)
Organs of the female reproductive system
Holds each ovary on either side of the uterus
Small sacs (thousands of them) in the ovary.
Each contains an ovum
During ovulation ...
ovum matures, and its follicle ruptures through the surface and releases the ovum from the ovary. A ruptured follicle fills with a yellow, fat-like material
What the ovum is after it is released from the ovary
Secretes hormones (both estrogen and progesterone) that maintain the very first stages of pregnancy
5 1/2 long and lies near each ovary.
The finger-like eds of the fallopian tubes.
They catch the egg after its release from the ovary
small hairs that line the follopian tube, and through their motion, sweep the ovum along.
It usually takes the ovum 2-3 days to pass through the fallopian tube
Sperm cells and the fallopian tubes
If sperms cells are present, fertilization may occur
If sperm cells are NOT present, the ovum remains unfertilized and eventually disintegrates.
A pear-shaped organ with muscular walls and mucous membrane lining filled with a rich supply of blood vessels.
Rounded upper portion of the uterus
Larger, central section
(Body of the organ)
The inner layer, a specialized epithelial mucosa of the uterus
The middle, muscular layer of the uterine wall
The outer, membranous tissue layer.
A lining that produces a watery, serum-like secretion.
The narrow, lowermost portion of the uterus.
3-inch long muscular, mucosa-lined canal, wihch opens up the outside of the body.
Breast - glandular tissue
contains milk glands or lobules that develop in response to hormones from the ovaries during pregnancy
The dark pigmented area around the mammary papilla
Breasts during pregnancy
The hormones from the ovaries and the placenta stimulate glandular and other tissues in the breast to their full development
After parturition (giving birth)
Hormones from the pituitary gland stimulate the normal secretion of milk (lactation)
Onset of menstruation with the first menstrual cycle, occurs at the time of puberty
Average menstrual cycle
Last for 28 days but may be shorter or longer, and cycles may be irregular in length.
Menstrual days 1-5
Discharge of bloody fluid containing disintegrated endometrial cells, glandular secretions, and blood cells
Menstrual days 6-12
After bleeding ceases, the endometrium begins to repair itself. The maturing follicle in the ovary releases estrogen, which aids in the repair. The ovum grows in the follicle during this period
Menstrual days 13-14
The follicle ruptures and the egg leaves the ovary (ovulation), passing through the fallopian tube
The empty follicle fills with a yellow material and becomes the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum functions as an endocrine organ and secretes the hormone progesterone into the bloodstream. This hormone stimulates the building up of the lining of the uterus in anticipation of fertilization of the egg and pregnancy.
If fertilization does not occur,
the corpus luteum in the ovary stops producing progesterone and represses.
PMS Prementrual syndrome
At this time, lowered levels of progesterone and estrogen probably are responsible for some women's symptoms of depression, breast tenderness, and irritability before mentruation.
Often occurs 14 days before the end of the cycle
Woman with a 42 day cycle will get it on day 28.
Woman with a 28 day cycle will get it on day 7
the outermost membrane that surrounds the developing embryo
The innermost of the embryonic membranes, holds the fetus suspended in an amniotic cavity surrounded by fluid called amniotic fluid. The amnion with its fluid is known as the "bag of waters" or amniotic sac, which ruptures (breaks) during labor
fluid that holds in the embryo / baby
hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
the hormone produced by the placenta as it develops in the uterus.
How to determine if a woman is pregnant
When women test their urine with a pregnancy test kit, presence of absence of hCG is the deciding factor.
Low levels of progesterone
can lead to spontaneous abortion in pregnant women and menstrual irregularities in nonpregnant women
Normal delivery, where the baby's head appears first
3 phases of labor
Dilation of the cervix.
Expulsion or birth of the infant
Delivery of the placenta
Female hormone / effect
FSH - Stimulates maturation of the ovum
LH - Stimulates ovulation
Estrogen - Builds up the endometrial lining
Progesterone - Sustains uterine lining and placenta during pregnancy
hCG - sustains pregnancy
Carcinoma of the cervix
Malignant cells within the cervix (cervical cancer)
Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Most important cause of cervical cancer
Some HPV causes genital warts
- benign growths on the vulva, cervix, vagina, or anus
Inflammation of the cervix
Carcinoma of the endometrium (endometrial cancer)
Malignant tumor of the uterine lining (adenocarcinoma)
Endometrial tissue located outside the uterus
Benign tumors in the uterus
Malignant tumor of the ovary (adenocarcinoma)
Collections of fluid within sacs (cysts) in the ovary
Pelvis inflammatory disease (PID)
Inflammation and infections of organs in the pelvic region.
Leading cause of PIDs are Sexual Transmitted Infections (STI)
Different Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
Gonorrhea (gonococcal bacteria)
Chlamydial Infection (chlamydial bacteria)
Syphilis (spirochete bacteria)
Genital Herpes (Herpes simplex virus - HSV)
HPV infection and genital warts (human papillomavirus)
Carcinoma of the breast (breast cancer)
Malignant tumor of the breast (arising from milk glands and ducts)
Breast cancer spreads first to lymph nodes in the axilla (armpit) adjacent to the affected breast and then to the skin and chest wall.
From the lymph nodes it may also may metastatsize to other body organs, including bone, liver, lung, and brain.
Procedures for breast cancer
Lumpectomy - for small primary tumors, the lump with immediately surrounding tissue can be removed
Mastectomy - Surgical procedure to remove the entire breast.
If lymph nodes are involved in either procedure, adjuvant (aiding) chemotherapy is given to prevent recurrence of the tumor.
Fibrocystic Breast Disease
Numerous small sacs of fluid surrounding by dense strands of fibrous tissue in the breast
Premature separation of the normally implanted placenta.
Implantation of the fertilized egg in any site other than the normal uterine location
More than one fetus inside the uterus
Implantation of the placenta over the cervical opening or in the lower region of the uterus
Abnormal condition associated with pregnancy, marked by high blood pressure, proteinuria, edema, and headache
A system of scoring an infant's physical condition at 1 and again 5 minutes after birth.
Heart Rate, Respiration, Color, Muscle Tone, and Response to Stimuli each are rated 0,1, or 2.
Infants with a score below 7 require immediate medical attention such as suctioning of the airways or oxygen to help breathing.
Chromosomal abnormality (trisomy 21) results in mental retardation, retarded growth, a flat face with a short nose, low-set ears, and slanted eyes
Hemolytis disease in the newborn (HDN) caused by a blood group (Rh factor) incompatibility between the mother and the fetus.
Hyaline Membrane Disease
Acute lung disease commonly seen the premature newborn
Also referred to as, Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn (RDS) is caused by deficiency of surfactant (a protein necessary for proper lung function)
Accumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brain.
Meconium Aspiration Syndrome
Abnormal inhalation of Meconium produced by a fetus or newborn.
Meconium is the a thick, greenish, blackish substance which is the fetus's first intestinal discharge (stool). If the Meconium circulates in the Amnitonic fluid, the fetus can potentially inhale the Meconium into the lungs which becomes problems in the future.
Narrowing of the opening of the stomach to the duodenum.
Pap Test (Pap Smear)
Microscopic examination of stained cells removed from the vagina and cervix.
Blood or urine test to detect the presence of hCG.
X-ray imaging of the uterus and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast material
X-ray imaging of the breast
New, method called digital tomosynthesis.
- in this method, an x-ray tube moves in an arc around the breast as several images are taken. The images are sent to a computer to digitally create 3D pictures
Breast Ultrasound Imaging and Breast MRI
Technologies using sound waves and a magnetic field to create images of breast tissue.
Recording images of sound waves as they bounce off organs in the pelvis region
Withdrawal of fluid from a cavity or sac with an instrument using suction.
Destruction of tissue by burning
Visual examination of the vagina and cervix using a colposcope
Colposcope is a lighted magnifying instrument resembling a small, mounted pair of binoculars.
Removal of a cone-shaped section (cone biopsy) of the cervix
The physician resects the tissue using a LEEP (loop electrocautery excision procedure) or with a carbon dioxide laser or surgical knife (scapel)
Use of cold temperatures to destroy tissue.
A liquid nitrogen probe produces the freeezing temperature. Also called cryocauterization
Needle aspiration of fluid from the cul-de-sac.
Dilation (Dilatation) and curettage (D&C)
Widening the cervix and scraping off the endometrial lining of the uterus.
Removal of internal organs with a cavity
Visual Examination of the abdominal cavity using an endoscope (Laparoscope)
A form of Minially invasive surgery (MIS), small incisions (5-10mm long) are made near the woman's naval for introduction of the laparoscope and other instruments.
Blocking the fallopian tubes to prevent fertilization from occurring.
Sterilization ( making an individual incapable of reproduction)
Ligation ( tying off and does not pertain solely to the fallopian tubes)
Termination of pregnancy before the embryo or fetus can exist on its own.
- Spontaeous abortion, called "miscarriages" occur without apparent cause.
- Induced, therapeudic abortions are performed when the health of the pregnant woman is endangered.
- Induced, elective abortions are performed at the request of the woman.
Needle puncture of the amniotic sac to wthdraw amniotic fluid for analysis.
Cesarean Section (C-Section)
Surgical incision of the abdominal wall and uterus to deliver a fetus.
Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)
Sampling of placental tissues (chorionic villi) for prenatal diagnosis.
Continuous recording of the fetal heart rate and maternal uterine contractions to assess fetal status and progress of labor.
In Vitro Fertilization
Egg and Sperm cells are combined outside the body in a laboratory dish (in vitro) to facilitate fertilization.
- After an incubation period of 3-5 days, the fertilized ova are injected into the uterus through the cervix.
Recommended textbook explanations
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Michelle Provost-Craig, Susan J. Hall, William C. Rose
Anatomy and Physiology
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb, Suzanne M. Keller
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb
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