Biol 1 112 Exam 3 Study Guide
Terms in this set (50)
Know characteristic of the group of flowering plants known as the monocots
- one cotyledon,
- parallel leaf venation,
- scattered vascular bundles,
- flower parts in threes or multiples of three, and
- fibrous roots
Know traits that is or that are characteristic of the plants known as the Eudicots
- two cotyledons,
- branched leaf venation,
- a ring of vascular bundles,
- flower parts in fours or fives (or multiples), and
- a taproot system.
You are purchasing flowers for your garden at a local nursery. One variety that is available for purchase is the Bearded Iris. You notice that the Bearded Iris has 3 petals, 3 sepals, and 3 stamens. You also notice that the plant's leaves have veins that run parallel to each other from the base to the tip. Based on this information, you conclude that Bearded Iris is a (an) _____________
Azaleas are a common component of the pine forests of the Southeastern United States. These shrubs are members of the rhododendron family and thrive in the acidic red clay of the region. Members of the rhododendron family all have 5 petals, 5 stamens, and leaves with branching veins. Based on this information, Azaleas would be classified as _____________
Which of the following structures would be classified as part of a plant's shoot system?
- stems, leaves, and structures for reproduction.
Along a section of tree branch, every location where a leaf is attached to the stem is known as a _________, while the sections in between the leaves are known as _____________.
- Nodes, Internodes
Plants are unique organisms in that they exhibit ________, where the plant will continue to grow in some capacity over its entire lifespan. Animals on the other hand exhibit _______, where their adult size is determined by the genetic information.
- Indeterminate growth, Determinate growth
Plants exhibit a type of growth known as apical dominance, but gardeners often desire plants that are more compact and shrubby which can be achieved by removing part of the plant. What part of the plant would gardeners remove to achieve this effect?
- Terminal Buds
Strawberries and other trailing plants often reproduce by cloning and produce specialized above-ground root-like structures in order to spread and create new plants. What are these above-ground root-like structures called?
- Axillary bud
Which of the following is a type of vascular tissue that transports water and minerals from the roots to the shoots of plants and is composed of cells that are dead at maturity?
The potato is an underground storage organ composed of modified root tissue. The primary purpose of the potato is to allow the plant to bank significant stores of the polysaccharide starch so that it possesses an energy source throughout the winter when photosynthesis is not feasible. The potato is an example of a(n)
______ is a type of vascular tissue consisting of living cells that transport sugars from the site of photosynthesis in the leaves to storage organs such as tubers.
What type of plant tissue is described as a tough outer covering which protects the plant from pests and diseases and also prevents water from evaporating?
- Dermal Tissue
______ are small pores located on the underside of the leaf that allows gases to diffuse in and out. The open and closing of these pores are regulated by ______ cells
- Stomata, Gaurd
Which type of plant cell has a thick secondary cell wall made of lignin, forming a rigid skeleton and cannot grow of elongate when mature?
- Sclerenchyma cells
You are buying seeds for your garden at your local nursery. A package of sunflower seeds states that they will only grow for a single year, will die in the winter, and will not grow back the next spring. Based on this information, this type of sunflower has a(n) ____________ life cycle.
The American Holly is a common evergreen that flowers in late spring. These plants grow and flower year after year, eventually growing to the size of a small tree. Based on this information, American Holly has a(n) _________ life cycle.
Roots have a specialized structure at the tip which is composed of dead cells that protects the fragile area where cell division occurs. This structure is known as the ______________.
- Root cap
Which of the following is defined as the old layers of xylem tissue that no longer transport water and instead store resins and wastes? (This area is the innermost part of a tree)
The female reproductive structures of an angiosperm flowers consist of a stigma, style, and ovary. All of these female reproductive structures are collectively referred to as the __________.
- Embryo Sac
Development of the male gametes (pollen grains) occur inside of what structure?
When germinating, the tender leaf of a moncot seed is protected by a specialized structure as it breaks through the soil (this structure is not found in eudicots). What is the name of this unique structure?
- Protective sheath
The roots of most plants are covered in small projections made of extensions of the cell membrane.These structures increase the surface of the roots and aid in water uptake. These structures are known as _____________.
- Root hairs
Know statements about the structure known as the Caspasrian strip which is found in the roots of plants?
- Stops water from entering the xylem through cell walls and instead forces them to cross a plasma membrane into an endodermal cell
Which of the following statements is true of xylem sap?
- a solution of water and inorganic nutrients that flows from the roots through the shoot system to the tips of the leaves.
Plants must constantly balance their need for carbon dioxide with their need to prevent water loss. They regulate gas exchange and prevent unnecessary water loss by opening and closing pores on the bottom of the leaf known as _______.
The tension created by _______ pulls water and minerals upward from the soil into the xylem cells of the roots.
a difference between xylem and phloem?
- Xylem transports water and dissolved minerals.
- The phloem cells are laid out end-to-end throughout the entire plant, transporting the sugars and other molecules created by the plant.
The opening and closing of stomata are influenced by several factors. Which of the following is NOT one of the factors that affect the opening and closing of stomata?
- Low CO2
- An internal timing mechanism
You are doing research in the soil sciences laboratory at the University of Georgia. Your task is to determine what soil horizon a sample of soil is from. You observe that a sample has a high concentration of humus, small rocky particles, and a high concentration of worms and insects. Based on this information, you conclude that the soil you are observing is from the ___ horizon.
The dry weight of plants is measured by drying the tissue in an oven. Experiments using the dry foliage of plants determined that 98% of a plant's mass is composed of only 6 elements. Which of the following is NOT one of those six elements?
- sulfur, and
You are watering the plants in your garden and notice that many of the leaves are discolored. Upon closer inspection, you see that the edges of the leaves have begun to turn purple. This type of discoloration indicates a deficiency of what essential nutrient?
Overuse of chemical fertilizers and malfunctioning waste water treatment facilities can have devastating effects on aquatic ecosystems. Input of excessive nitrogen (or other nutrients) can cause massive algal blooms which choke out all life in an ecosystem. This phenomenon is known as
What could potentially result from poor farming practices?
Which of the following actions could a farmer use to reduce the amount of erosion on his land?
- water-conserving irrigation, erosion control, and the prudent use of herbicides and fertilizers.
In order to take up certain essential elements, plants must engage in a process known as _________ in order to take up positively charged soil ions.
- Cation exchange
Plants rely on symbiotic soil bacteria to fix nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into a usable form, nitrate. Why is this symbiotic relationship important?
- The bacteria have enzymes that catalyze the conversion of atmospheric N2 to ammonium ions (NH4+), a form readily used by the plant.
- When conditions are favorable, root nodule bacteria fix so much nitrogen that the nodules secrete excess NH4+, which increases the fertility of the soil.
Certain plant species host symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria in the _______ of their roots. Examples of plants that host these symbiotic bacteria include the ________.
- Root Nodules, Legumes
Over 80% of land plants establish symbiotic relationships with _________, a phylum of beneficial nonpathogenic fungi that supply plants with phosphorus in exchange for sugars.
Know facts about the plants known as the epiphytes?
- grow anchored on other plants and absorb water and minerals from rain.
Most plants do NOT obtain their mineral nutrients from living organisms. However, some plants that live in poor soils- such as the acid bogs of North Carolina- obtain their nutrients by killing and digesting insects. Which of the following is an example of a carnivorous plant?
- sundew plant or Venus flytrap
You are growing some seedlings in the windowsill of your kitchen. You notice that as the seedlings grow, they appear to bend toward the light coming from the window. This is an example of...
- Positive Phototropism
_______ are chemical signals that act on target cells to change their functioning.
Chemical signals in plant cells are produced in very low concentrations. Binding of the ligand molecules triggers a __________ which amplifies the signal and leads to one or more responses inside of the plant cell.
- Signal transduction
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is a type of plant hormone produced in the apical meristem which promotes seedling elongation, induces cell division, and promotes the growth of fruit. Based on this information, IAA is classified as a(n) ___________
This type of plant hormone stimulates cell elongation and cell division in stems and leaves. Hundreds of varieties are known, although a particular species will use only a few.
This type of plant hormone stimulates cell division, is made in the roots and reaches target tissues by moving through the xylem sap.
This type of plant hormone stimulates fruit ripening and apoptosis. It is also produced as a stress response during drought, flooding, injury, and infection.
This type of plant hormone is produced in response to shorter days and is responsible for autumn color changes and leaf abscission in the deciduous trees.
Death Valley National Park is one of the hottest and driest locations in the United States. Yet rare winter rain storms will cause this normally barren desert to bloom with many species of wildflowers. The seeds of these wildflowers can remain dormant for many years until conditions are favorable. What plant hormone, that is responsible for seed dormancy until conditions are suitable, allows these rare super blooms in Death Valley to occur?
- Abscisic acid (ABA)
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