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BIOL 2085 Chapter 6
Terms in this set (53)
Provides support, flexibility, and resilience; contains collagen fibers only; most abundant type of cartilage in skeletal system; articular- cover ends of most bones and movable joints; Costal- connect ribs to sternum; respiratory-form skeleton of larynx and reinforce other respiratory passageways; Nasal cartilage- supports external nose.
Similar to hylaine cartilage, but contains elastic (stretchy) fibers; found only in two skeletal locations (external ear and epiglottis)
Highly compressible; thick collagen fibers- has great tensile strength; parallel rows of chondrocytes alternating with collagen fibers; menisci of knee and vertebral discs.
Cells in perichondrium secrete matrix against external face of existing cartilage.
Chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding cartilage from within.
Long axis body (Skull, vertebral column, rib cage)
Bones of upper and lower limbs; girdles attaching limbs to axial skeleton
Long bones (classification)
Longer than they are wide; has a shaft with two ends that can be expanded; limb (except patella, wrist, and ankle bones); Named for shape not overall size.
Short bones (classification)
Cube-shaped bones (in wrist and ankle); vary in size and number in different individuals.
Sesamoid bones (classification)
Special type of short bone (within tendons, patella)
Flat bones (classification)
Thin, flat, slightly curved ; Sternum, scapulae, ribs, most skull bones.
Irregular bones (classification)
complicated shapes, vertebrae, coxal bones
Support (function of bones)
Support body and soft organs
Protection (function of bones)
Protection for brain, spinal cord, and vital organs.
Movement (function of bones)
Act as levers for muscle action, design on joints determine types of movement possible.
Mineral and growth factor storage (function of bones)
Calcium and phosphate, and growth factors reservoir; released into bloodstreams as ions.
Blood cell formation (function of bones)
Hematopoiesis in red marrow cavities of certain bones
Triglyceride storage (function of bones)
Stores fat in bones cavities as an energy source.
Hormone production (function of bones) Osteocalcin
Regulates bone formation; protects against obesity, glucose intolerance, diabetes mellitus.
Bones (different tissues)
Bone (osseous) tissue, nervous tissue, cartilage, fibrous connective tissue, muscle and epithelial cells in its blood vessels.
tubular shaft forms ling axis; compact bone surrounds medullary cavity (yellow marrow cavity)
Broader than diaphysis; external compact bone; internal spongy bone; articular cartilage covers articular surface.
Epithyseal plate (growth plate)
disc of hyaline cartilage that grow during childhood to lengthen bone
Delicate connective tissue membrane covering internal bone surface; covers trabeculae of spongy bone; lines canals that pass through compact bone; contains osteogenic cells that can differentiate into other bone cells.
Projections (bone markings)
Most indicates stresses created by muscle pull or joint modifications. Includes heads, trochanters, spines
Depressions and openings (bone markings)
Usually allow nerves and blood vessels to pass; Include fossae, sinuses, foramina , and grooves
large rounded projection; may be roughened.
Narrowing ridge of bone; usually prominent.
Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process (only examples are on the femur)
Narrowing ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest.
Small round projection or process
Raised area on or above condyle
Sharp, slender, often pointed projection
Any bony prominence
Bony expansion carried on a narrow neck
Smooth, nearly flat articular surface
rounded articular projection
Armlike bar of bone
Narrow, slitlike opening
Round or oval opening through a bone
Indentation at the edge of a structure
Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane
Shallow, basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface
Osteogenic cells (Osteoprogenitor cells)
Mitotically active stem cells in periosteum and endosteum; In growing bones, they are squamous cells, when simulated differentiate into osteoblasts or bone lining cells.
Bone-forming cells; secrete unmineralized bone matrix or osteoid; actively mitotic; when active they are cubelike; when they are inactive they look like osteogenic cells differentiate into bone lining cells; when completely surrounded by matrix, become osteocytes.
Mature bone cells in lacunae; monitor and maintain bone matrix; if they die, matrix is reabsorbed; act as a stress or strain sensor (responds to and communicate mechanical stimuli to osteoblasts and osteoclasts (cells that destroy bone) so bone remolding can occur.
Bone lining cells
Flat cells on bone surfaces believed to help maintain matrix; on external bone surface called periosteal cells; Lining internal surface called endosteal cells
Derived from hematopoietic stem cells that become macrophages; Giant, multinucleate cells for bone resorption.
Osteon or Haversian System
Structural unit of compact bone; elongated cylinder parallel to long axis of bone
Collagen fibers in adjacent rings run in different directions (withstand stress and resist twisting)
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