Terms in this set (52)
weather refers to the state of the atmosphere at any given what?
average weather components of the atmosphere?
mainly nitrogen,oxygen,carbon dioxide,argon(nitrogen and oxygen make up 99%,argon is .93%,carbon d is .039%)these don't affect the weather as much
what is the vapor source?
all clouds and precipitation(like carbon d, this absorbs heat given off by the earth also some solar energy)
is a form of oxygen that combines three oxygen atoms into each molecule
what would happen if the ozone layer didn't filter most UV radiation?
our planet would be uninhabitable for many living organisms
the atmosphere thins as you travel away from the earth until...
there are too few gas molecules to detect
the bottom layer of atmosphere where temperature decrease with an increase of altitude,most molecules(most mass), contains most oxygen,affects us the most,convection currents(created by the suns heat, most weather occurs here
second layer,temperatures remains constant to about 20 kilometers then it begins to gradually increase,contains ozone layer,prevents some UV radiation,UV light reaching the earths surface, where airplanes fly
third layer, temperature decreases with height until the mesopause,meteors burn up when they hit this layer
forth layer, contains only a tiny fraction of atmosphere mass,temperature increases bc of oxygen&nitrogen absorbing short waves and high energy radiation,satellites&radio waves travel in this layer,hottest layer
the suns energy heats up...
the molecules causing air
incoming solar radiation from electromagnetic energy from the sun that reaches the earth NOT insolation from ultra violet, inferred, and visible light(basically exposure of suns rays)
what determines the angle of insolation?
latitude,seasons,time of day
the energy transferred from one object to another bc of a difference in their temperatures
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual atoms or molecules in a substance
what 3 mechanisms of energy transfer as heat?
conduction, convection, radiation
the transfer of heat through mater by molecular activity(direct contact through transferring heat)...heat transfer from molecule to molecule,most common in solids, earths surface heats the air that is "touching"the ground
heat is transferred by a fluid(gas or liquid) rising circulating or moving...density differences in temps cause heat to rise and cool to sink,this applies to gases and liquids,transfer of heat through a fluid
heat transferred through electromagnetic waves,travels in all directions from its source...end result,heats as your hands absorb it
how does radiation differ from convection and conduction?
conduction and convection need to travel through,but the transfer of heat energy by radiation can occur through the vacuum of space
how is the atmosphere heated?
all object at any temp emit radiant energy, hotter object radiate more total energy per unit area then colder objects,hottest radiating bodies produce the shortest wavelengths of max radiation,last the objects that are good absorbers of radiation strike an object
occurs when an electromagnetic wave bounces off an object
produces a larger number of weaker rays that travel in different directions
phenomenon that greenhouses were heated in similar manner
solar energy is the main source of what?
energy for virtually all life
what determines the duration of insolation?(how long the sun is above the horizon)
latitude and seasons
what determines atmosphere transparency?(how much insolation reaches earths surface...reflection&absorption of insolation)
clouds,texture,color of surface,good absorbers,specific heat
the suns energy reaches earth(most is visible light),ultra violet radiation is absorbed by the ozone layer
radiation from the earth,earths surface absorbs suns radiation and re-radiates
% of reflected energy
10-60, varies with suns altitude
angle of isolation
the angle that the sunlight makes as it strikes the earth's surface
pressure increases as altitude decreases
the state of the atmosphere at any given time or place
based on observations of weather over many years describes the weather conditions
purpose of ozone layer
it absorbs potentially harmful UV radiation from the sun
what is atmospheric pressure?
weight of the air above
What is absorption?
50% of solar radiation is absorbed and re-radiates
what happens to solar radiation when it strikes an object?
it's absorbs, transmits, or reflects
what reflects energy?
clouds, aerosols like dust, atmosphere, earths surface
temperature changes in the atmosphere when as...
the higher you climb and colder it gets
3 factors affects amount of insolation received by earth are what?
angle of insolation, duration of insolation, atmospheric transparency