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Exam 3 - Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Disorders (Chapter 20)
Terms in this set (43)
major difference between upper and lower respiration
- upper is for transportation and (susceptible to infection)
- lower is for gas exchange (is sterile)
function of the mucociliary apparatus
- moves mucus up and out of the respiratory system
- traps particles
oxygen carried by the hemoglobin
mechanisms to breathe
- muscles (intercostals and diaphragm)
stimulus to breathe
- carbon dioxide (hypercapnia)
- lack of oxygen (hypoxic drive)
act of moving air
how oxygen gets to the tissues
oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve
- pressure of oxygen in blood associated with saturation of oxygen
- correlates together
collapsing of the alveoli
upper respiratory infections
acute rhinitis is often a result from what?
due to inflammation
- nasal discharge
- sore throat
rhinitis symptoms caused by rhinovirus vs allergies?
- rhinovirus: green/yellow discharge
- allergies: clear discharge
causes of sinusitis?
viral or bacterial
common symptoms of sinusitis
facial pain, headache, purulent nasal drainage
cause of tonsillitis
as per pharyngitis, EBV, and other viruses
s/s of tonsillitis
- difficulty swallowing
- reddened & enlarges tonsils
- cervical lymph node swelling
cause of epiglottitis
common strep pneumonia and haemphilus influenza
symptoms of epiglottitis
- swelling @ base of throat
- airway obstruction
T/F; epiglottitis is life threatening
the steeple sign is an indication of what?
- hoarseness or loss of voice
- high pitched cough
pharyngitis is caused by what?
viruses and bacteria
what bacteria causes pharyngitis?
symptoms of pharyngitis
- red pharynx
- swollen lymph nodes
- sore throat
- NO cough
progression of S. pyogenes can lead to what?
- scarlet fever
lower respiratory infections
bronchitis, pneumonia, TB
bronchitis is commonly caused by what?
viral, bacterial, environmental
what happens when someone has bronchitis?
bronchioles become obstructed by mucous and leukocytes
pneumonia is a result of...
inflammation and alveolar air spaces filling with fluid
- decreased appetite
- weight loss
what causes pneumonia
bacteria, viral, and chemical
which infection may develop as a secondary infection?
what is the most common infectious disease in the world?
Tb can be acquired through...
community, hospital, or ventilator
transmission of Tb
inhalation of airborne droplets
progression of Tb
mycobacterium inhaled > bacteria settle in lungs > WBC wall off infection resulting in tubercles
cause of Tb
signs of Tb
- chronic cough
- weight loss
- 20% are asymptomatic
assessment findings of Tb
diminished breath sounds, tactile fremitus, egophony, and crackles
T/F: caseous necrosis is a result of Tb
True; the immune system causes damage to the lung tissue while attempting to destroy the bacteria
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