late antiquity & early middle ages chapter 6
creating a new european society 476-1000
Terms in this set (68)
Who were Visigoths?
The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the East Germanic tribe known as "Goths" (the other tribe is the Ostrogoths). The Goths were among the Germanic peoples who disturbed the late Roman Empire during the Migration Period, following a Visigothic force led by Alaric I's sacking of Rome in 410., Germanic tribe that was forced into the Roman Empire by the Huns. They cut off food, supplies, robbed the homes of the wealthy, and burned what they could not take in their quest to capture Rome.
Migrating Germanic peoples spread throughout Europe in Late Antiquity (300-600) and the Early Middle Ages. Germanic languages became dominant along the Roman borders (Austria, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium and England), but in the rest of the (western) Roman provinces, the Germanic immigrants adopted Latin (Romance) dialects. All Germanic peoples were eventually Christianized.
Europe's Germanic peoples, such as the Franks, Saxons, Vandals, Lombards, and Goths, destroyed the Roman Empire, transformed it into Medieval Europe and were later instrumental in defending Western civilization from invasions by the Huns, Muslims, Magyars and the Ottomans. Today Germanic languages are the most widely spoken languages in the world, represented principally by English, German, Dutch and the Scandinavian languages., 376 German migration began to accelerate until it overwhelmed the western half of the empire. It began when the eastern emperor admitted the Visigoths into the empire because they were fleeing from the Huns of Mongolia. The Visigoths enlisted in the army but were exploited. They rebelled and destroyed the roman army. They were persuaded to invade Italy where they crossed the Rhine unopposed. Even though the German tribes were not very big Roman population offered little resistance due to overextention, internal struggles in the government, famine and overtaxation.q
In A.D. 284, Diocletian, a strong-willed army leader, became the new emperor. He ruled with an iron fist and severely limited personal freedoms. Nonetheless, he restored order to the empire and increased its strength. Diocletian doubled the size of the Roman army and sought to control
inflation by setting fixed prices for goods. To restore the prestige of the office of emperor, he claimed descent from the ancient Roman gods and created elaborate ceremonies to present himself in a godlike aura. He divided the empire into the Greek-speaking East (Greece, Anatolia, Syria, and Egypt) and the Latin-speaking West
(Italy, Gaul, Britain, and Spain). He took the eastern half for himself and appointed a co-ruler for the West. While Diocletian shared authority, he kept overall control.
His half of the empire, the East, included most of the empire's great cities and trade centers and was far wealthier than the West.Because of ill health, Diocletian retired in A.D. 305. However, his plans for orderly
succession failed. Civil war broke out immediately. By 311, four rivals were competing for power. Among them was an ambitious young commander named Constantine.
Name applied to barbarian tribes living on the fringes of the Roman Empire and who formed an alliance by treaty with Rome. Ancient societies sought to create empires wherein the conquered people might prove useful and valuable as slaves/vassals. The Roman Empire was able to mount and sustain complex, expensive, and long-term military operations and to maintain elaborate colonial administrations. Therefore, had less to fear from "barbarians" than their predecessors.
(500 C.E. - 1453 C.E.) The eastern portion of the Roman Empire which survived beyond the collapse of the Roman Empire with its capital at Constantinople; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; later lost Palestine, Syria, and Egypt to Islam.
Reign of Justinian
Justinian(527-565) ruled the Byzantine empire during its territorial and cultural peak. While the urban life in the west was disappearing the east was the center of economic and intellectual activity. Theodora, his wife, was his chief counselor, and was helpful in dealing with religious quarrels that threatened the unity of the empire. Justinian codified Roman law and his policy emphasizen central governmental control and social conformity. Religon also provided conformity throughout the Byzantine empire. The church functioned as a department of state and religious institutions used some of their wealth to provide welfare services. Justinian pressures Jews to convert but it didn't not succeed, they were protected under roman law as long as they didn't build synagogues, enter certain professions and attempt to convert Christians.
She was the wife of Justinian. She was originally a prostitute in the Byzantine Empire, but the two fell in love and she became Empress when he inherited the throne. She was a very strong ruler and helped her husband run the empire. She fought for the rights of women and for religious freedom.
members of local city councils in Rome that were held personally responsible for the payment of local assessments, whether or no they could be collected by the other inhabitants. A flaw in Diocletian's program around 320 BCE.
Corpus Juris Civilis
New code of the Roman Law decided by Justinian I in 529 CE that made Orthodox Christianity the law of the land. It means the "body of civil law"., New code of the Roman Law decided by Justinian I in 529 CE that made Orthodox Christianity the law of the land. It means the "body of civil law". The policy of One God One law One Religion
split from Catholic Church because they did not believe in Pope as supreme ruler of Church, : New Rome (Constantine moves capital here, renamed Constantinople. Modern day Turkey)Emperor dominated church in the east at this time
The new leader after Justinian, who defeated the persians and regained Constantinople's boundaries., Ruler of the Byzantine empire from 610 -641, he came to power amid repeated military disasters. During his reign, he opened a successful war against the Persians in 622, forcing them to agree to a humiliating peace in which they returned the Holy Cross they had removed from the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. These wars however left the empire exhausted, allowing Muslim forces after the death of Muhammad in 632 to overrun much of the Empire in scarcely more than 10 years.
believing that there is only one god
existence of God is at the center of all that one evaluates, our thinking
"reflecting the unity of the Blessed Trinity." The Church is Trinitarian because it reflects the unity of the Trinity by being the People of God, the Body of Christ, and the Temple of the Holy Spirit.
A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one God, Allah, and that Muhammad was Allah's prophet. Islam is based in the ancient city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of Muhammad.
The sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina.
One of Arabia's holiest shrines located in Mecca, the birth place of Muhammed
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era
the body of mullahs (Muslim scholars trained in Islam and Islamic law) who are the interpreters of Islam's sciences and doctrines and laws and the chief guarantors of continuity in the spiritual and intellectual history of the Islamic community
Office established in succession to the Prophet Muhammad, to rule the Islamic empire; also the name of that empire. (See also Abbasid Caliphate; Sokoto Caliphate; Umayyad Caliphate.) (p. 232)
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
Refers to the dual role of head of State and leader of the Church in which the temporal ruler extends his own powers to ecclesiastical and theological matters. The Church in the East, influenced by the growing power of the patriarch of Constantinople at the hands of the emperor, tended to accept a role for the Church in which it was subservient to the interests of the State.
pieces of land, instead of money given to knights for their military service
A group of territories in central Italy ruled by the popes from 754 until 1870. They were originally given to the papacy by Pepin the Short and reached their greatest extent in 1859. The last papal state—the Vatican City—was formally established as a separate state by the Lateran Treaty of 1929.
, a region around Rome that was captured from the Lombards by Pepin the Short and given to the pope
-Pepin III helped the pope defeat the Lombards
-gave the pope land which became the Papal States
-Charlemagne's coronation demonstrated close ties of the Franks and the CHurch
-crowned "king by the grace of God
-produced a readable Bible
-ordered bishops to create libraries
-people were encouraged to convert to Christianity
the early medieval church drew much of its strength from its monasteries. The first monks opted for harsh environments and ascetic disciplines that made their lives a kind of living martyrdom. The suffering they embraced as a witness to faith made them the church's new heroes. Medieval Christians viewed monastic life as as humanities highest calling. Monks were expected to meet higher spiritual standards than ordinary Christians. The monastic movement was inspired by the lives of hermits but soon monks abandoned solitude and formed communal institutions. They were focused less on personal ascetism and more on caring for the needy outside their communities. The monastic practices evolving in the East were introduced to the west and governed a monks every activity. Time was set aside for prayer, worship, study and manual labor that supported them. The objective was to create religious communities that were economically, spiritually and intellectually self-sufficient. The monks did not turn their back to the world but were responsible for the missionary work that converted England and Germany to Christianity and they kept civilization alive during the darkest of the Dark Ages.
..., the cultural and political atmosphere that came into existence during the High Middle Ages in Europe when nearly everyone was Catholic and Catholicism influenced every aspect of people's lives., The Church dominated all aspects of society (including politics) as it presided over "Christendom"The Church owned 1/3 of the land in Europe. The power of the Church can be,in part, attributed to an uneducated and highly superstitious population that believed it need the Church to avoid eternal damnation
The supporters of a doctrine in the early Christian Church that held that the incarnate Christ possessed a single, wholly divine nature. they opposed the orthodox view that Christ had a double nature, one divine and one human, and emphasized his divinity at the expense of his capacity to experience real human suffering. Believers in an immortal nature of christ not both eternal god and mortal man in one and the same person.
religious controversy within the Byzantine Empire in the 8th century; "breaking of the images"; emperor attempted to suppress veneration of icons opposition to the use of images
a doctrine that raised the pope to untouchable supremacy within the church when it came to defining all other church doctrines. He could also make important secular claims. It caused many conflicts b/w the church and state in the Middle Ages.
the high priest of Rome, the head of Roman state religion; he appointed and oversaw the vestal virgins. Pope leo I
edict of milan 313
Constantine prevailed and issued this which gave Christains freedom of worship throughout the empire. , permanently established religious toleration for christianity within roman empire. outcome of political agreement between constantine and licinius @ milan.
Council of Nicaea
Christian council that met in 325 to determine the question of the trinity; decided on the divinity of all three persons., , The first gathering of Christian Bishops to try to find a clearly defined doctrine, set up by Emperor Constantine
city of god
title of a book written by St. Augustine of Hippo, in 5th century A.D., prompted the barbarian sack of Rome, states that fortune of Rome does not depend on individual souls, but rather on the grace of God.
council of Chalcedon
451) Reaffirms the Christological definitions of Nicaea and Constantinople, declares Christ to be one Person in two unconfused natures, Divine and human
the legal code of ancient Rome, One of the enduring contributions of Ancient Rome was a system of law that protected the rights of all people in the Empire. Most important principles- All people to have equal treatment under the law; the 12 Tables were the first written laws in Ancient Rome
romes first written law code. Strict seperation between patricians and plebians. , First Roman Code of Laws written. Gave Plebeians some protection against unfair and oppressive Patrician officials who could interpret customary law in an arbitrary way.
the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslimsin the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him. , Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe.
pope stephen II
Had a relationship with Pepin that was one of the most important in history, 2nd to crown Pepin king. Crossed the Alps into France and threatened excommunication for any one who might try to overthrow Pepin.
Germanic people who had settled in northern Italy and were pushing south, threatening Rome; crushed by Charlemagne, earning him the papacy's gratitude
king of the Franks who unified Gaul and established his capital at Paris and founded the Frankish monarchy, under his rule, the Franks became Christians and created one of the strongest kingdoms in Europe, Early Frankish king; converted Franks to Christianity c. 496; allowed establishment of Frankish kingdom.
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival. (250), Who built the largest empire since the Roman Empire?
reign of charlemagne
The district court in Charlemagne's government.(250) received testimony from witness
Holy roman empire
the lands ruled by Charlemagne
Royal officials under Charlemagne who traveled around the country to enforce the king's laws
Royal laws issued by Charlemagne and Carolingians
Alcuin of york 735-804
He was sent by Charlemagne to educate the population in Aachen during the Carolingian Renaissance.
period of intellectual, cultural, and economic revival occurring in the late eighth and ninth centuries, with the peak of the activities occurring during the reigns of both Charlemagne and Louis the Pious. , name for the renaissance started by Charlemagne to improve writing and reading in his empire
A reform which increased the uniformity, clarity and legibility of handwriting. It was evidently developed in the late 8th century scriptorium of Charlemagne, or in those of the monasteries under his patronage, in the course of his conscious efforts to revive the literate culture of Classical Rome. , new font created during Charlemagne's rule
Louis the Pious
the only surviving son of Charlemagne who inherited Charlemagne's empire; was unfit for the job; had three sons: Charles [France], Lothair [midlands between France and Germany], and Louis [Germany]. , ruled from 814-840
the code of laws of the Salian Franks and other German tribes, German law that crown must be passed through male relatives; used by France in 100 Years War to keep crown from Edward III
treaty of verdun
Charlemagne had left three sons all who were fighting over whose land was whose. The treaty divided the empire into three kingdoms for them. This was signed in Verdun in 843.
The Vikings, a Scandinavian people, were independent farmers ruled by land-owning chieftains. They were also skilled sailors. Beginning in the late 8th century C.E., the Vikings began raiding and pillaging communities along the coasts and rivers of Europe. The Vikings also engaged in trade and exploration in northern Europe, the Mediterranean, and even North America, where they briefly established a colony.
Refers to the social, political, military, and economic system that emerged; The exchange of land for goods and services. Regional prince or lord is dominant, and the highest virtues are trust and fidelity.
vassalage and fief
A vassal promised to serve his lord and to refrain from action contrary to his lord's interests. Louis the Pious extended vassalage to the higher clergy. He required bishops and abbots to swear fealty and to accept their appointments on the same terms as the fiefs given knights. This was offensive to the church because it implied the subservience of the church to the state. A lord was obligated to protect his vassal from physical harm, to stand as his advocate in court, and to provide for his maintenance by giving his a fief. A fief varied in size from a small villa to several mansi. In the short run, oaths of vassalage marshaled the nobility behind the king but in the long run, grants of fiefs undercut royal power. King found it difficult or impossible to reclaim land once it was granted to a vassal.
extensive landed property (especially in the country) retained by the owner for his own use
an endowed church office giving income to its holder
property free from claims of an overlord
peasants on a manor; they were bound to the land; they were not slaves who could be bought and sold—still they were not free
three field system
a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.
How did Germanic migration contribute to the fall of the Roman empire?
On the eve of the Frankish ascendancy. In the late 4th century the western empire was weaking and the Visigoths were being forced out of their home territories by invading Huns. The visigoths defeated the Romans in the ensuing conflict. Soon other Barbarians had established territories within the western empire. By the mid 5th century Rome had been sacked repeatedly and by the end of the century the western empire was history. Roman culture endured, although it was transformed through its contact with germanic people. Christianity too, endured and changed through germanic contact.
How did the Byzantine empire continue the legacy of Rome?
The eastern portion of the Roman empire endured as the Byzantine empire. although the empire lasted until Constaninople fell to the Turks in 1453, it peaked under Justinian, in the mid 6th century. Although Justinian and his wife Theodora, were both christians, she was a believer in Monophysitism, a heresy that influenced the later course of the empires history. Justinian codified roman law, which was to prove influential in the west for centuries. Justinian supported orthodox christianinty although some of his successors supported other forms of christianity. constaninople and smaller urban centers formed the economic, adminstrative, and cultural back bone of the empire. The empire eastern orientation increased under Heraclius in the early 7th century. In the early 8th century Leos caseropapism led him to ban the use of images in churches
How did Islamic culture influence the west?
In the 7th century, Muhammed founded a new religion on the Arabian peninsula. In 624, Muhammed Medina based army conquered Mecca, and in the following years the basic rules of Islam expanded substantially, until 750 the Islamic empire strected from Spain through North Africa, the southern and eastern Mediterranean, and eastwasrd into India. But this was the peak of Muslim territorial expansion, and Islam did not spread further than Spain into the remnants of the western roman empire. The west profited from its contact with Islam since much of the Arabs technology and scholarship was superior.
worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion; temporal
Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries. , Muslims that believe the caliph doesn't have to be related to Muhammad and should be chosen by the leaders of the Islamic community. Followers of the Sunna tradition. They emphasize loyalty to the fundamental principles of Islam
How did the developing Christian church influence the Western society during the early Middle ages
As trade declined throughout the west, people migrated from cities to farmlands. new types of relationships between landowners and peasants emerged, including serfdom, the manorial system and the feudal system. The christian church provided a strong element of continuity with the educational and administrative achievements of the roman empire. Monastic culture took shape. Christianity was potent unifying and civilizing force within the west, although it was also the source of fundamental rift with the eastern empire. by the middle of the 8th century, the papacy in Rome faced military threats from the north and doctrinal threats from the east. Pope Stephen boldly initiated an alliance with the Franks that influenced history for the next millennium
How did the reign of Clovis differ from that of Charlemagne?
Clovis founded the first Frankish dynasty, the Merovingians. Then the Carolingian dynasty made strategic alliances with the landed nobility and with the church. The most illustrious Carolingian ruler Charlemagen, conquered additional lands, and on Christmas day in 800had himself crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III His capital Aachen was a center of scholarship and intelligent administration. The social organization of the manor