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bio test 2
Terms in this set (100)
The capacity to cause change
Conservation of energy
You can't destroy or create energy, it can only be converted
A type of kinetic energy contained in the random motion of atoms and molecules. It is generated through the conversion of energy.
A measure of disorder or randomness in a system
Each time energy is converted from one form to another, what increases?
The molecules of food, gasoline, and other fuels have a form of potential energy called
arises from the arrangement of atoms and can be released by a chemical reaction.
how much do humans convert food to useful work
The rest of the energy released by the breakdown of fuel molecules generates what?
is the amount of energy that can raise the temperature of 1 gram (g) of water by 1°C.
Food Calories are kilocalories, equal to
acts like an energy shuttle,
stores energy obtained from food, and
releases it later as needed.
The release of the phosphate at the tip of the ____ ____ makes energy available to cells
is the total of all chemical reactions in an organism.
proteins that speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by the reaction. They enable metabolism to occur by reducing the amount of activation energy required to break the bonds of reactant molecules
The ____ has a shape and chemistry that fits the substrate molecule.
the entry of the substrate induces the enzyme to change shape slightly, making the fit between the substrate and active site snugger.
The ability to _______ is a key characteristic of enzymes.
the movement of molecules spreading out evenly into the available space.
the diffusion of a substance across a membrane without the input of energy
In passive transport, a substance diffuses down its _______________ from where the substance is more concentrated to where it is less concentrated
assisted transport is called ________, a type of ______ because it does not require the cell to expend energy.
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
A substance that is dissolved in a liquid solvent, such as the salt in salt water, and the resulting mixture is called a solution
solution has a higher concentration of solute
solution has a lower concentration of solute
solution has an equal concentration of solute
A normal animal cell has what type of solution
A lysing animal cell has what type of solution
A shriveled animal cell has what type of solution
A wilting (flaccid) plant cell is in what type of solution
A normal (turgid) plant cell is in what type of solution
A shriveled plant cell is in what type of solution
requires that a cell expend energy to move molecules across a membrane.
Cellular energy (usually provided by ATP) is used to drive a transport protein that pumps a solute _______ the concentration gradient.
Active transport allows cells to maintain internal concentrations of small solutes that differ from environmental concentrations.
the movement of materials out of the cytoplasm of a cell via membranous vesicles or vacuoles that fuse with the plasma membrane.
a cell takes material in via vesicles that bud inward
("cellular eating"), a cell engulfs a particle and packages it within a food vacuole
hierarchy of organization
cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism
_______ is the study of the structure of an organism's parts.
_________ is the study of the function of those parts.
an integrated group of similar cells that performs a specific function
epithelial, connective, muscle, smooth, nervous
four main tissues
covers the surface of the body and
contains cells scattered throughout a material called the extracellular matrix. the two functions: are to support and join other tissues. There are six major types
loose connective tissue
is the most widespread connective tissue in thebody of vertebrates and
binds epithelia to underlying tissues.
fibrous connective tissue
has a dense matrix of collagen. It forms
tendons, which attach muscles to bones, and
ligaments, which strongly join bones together at joints
connective tissue that is strong but flexible,
has no blood vessels, so it heals very slowly, and
functions as a flexible, boneless skeleton.
a rigid connective tissue with a matrix of collagen fibers hardened with deposits of calcium salts.
This combination makes bone hard without being brittle.
connective tissue that stores fat in closely packed cells of a sparse matrix,
functions as an energy bank, and
insulates and cushions the body.
connective tissue that consists of cells suspended in a liquid matrix called plasma and
transports substances in the plasma from one part of the body to another,
plays major roles in immunity, and
seals broken blood vessels.
is the most abundant tissue in most animals,
consists of bundles of long, thin, cylindrical cells called muscle fibers, and
has specialized proteins arranged into a structure that contracts when stimulated by a signal from a nerve.
attached to bones by tendons,
moves your skeleton, and
is responsible for voluntary movements
is found only in heart tissue. The contraction of the cardiac muscle produces a coordinated heartbeat.
found in many organs and can contract slowly for a long period of time. found in blood vessels .Rings of smooth muscle in blood vessels widen, causing blood to quickly flow to your face andneck.
makes communication of information possible,
is found in your brain and spinal cord, and
consists of a network of neurons.
consists of two or more tissues packaged into one working unit that performs a specific function.
teams of organs that
work together and
perform vital body functions.
supports body and
exchanges O2 and
CO2 between blood
moves the body
breaks down food and absorbs nutrients
rids body of certain wastes
Secretes hormones that regulate the body
protects the body
lymphatic and immune system
defends against disease
processes sensory information and controls responses
Every organism is an______ ______ that continuously exchanges chemicals and energy with its surroundings
The internal environment of vertebrates includes the _______ ________that
fills the spaces between cells and
exchanges nutrients and wastes with microscopic blood vessels.
the tendency to maintain relatively constant conditions in the internal environment even when the external environment changes.
the results of a process inhibit that same process, such as a thermostat that monitors temperature and switches the heater on and off.
The ability to maintain a body temperature substantially warmer than the surrounding environment is characteristic of _____________, animals such as mammals and birds that derive most of their body heat from their own metabolism.
obtain their body heat primarily by absorbing it from their surroundings.
the control of the gain orloss of
dissolved solutes, such as the ions of NaCl and other salts.
_________ ______ lose water by osmosis because there is less salt in their tissues than the water they swim in.
_________ ______ have the opposite problem: The external solute concentration is low, so water enters the fish by osmosis
four stages of food processing
ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination
Chemical digestion happens via ____________, chemical reactions that break down large biological molecules by the addition of water molecules. Like most biological reactions, it requires enzymes.
a digestive compartment with a single opening that functions as both the
entrance for food (like a mouth) and
the exit for undigested wastes (like an anus).
Food moves through specialized regions that digest and absorb nutrients in a stepwise fashion.
This adaptation allows for much more efficient food processing
connects the mouth to the esophagus and
opens to the trachea, or windpipe, which leads to the lungs
a door like flap used to close the trachea entrance so food can be swallowed and passed on to the esophagus
a muscular tube,
connects the pharynx to the stomach, and
moves food by peristalsis
alternating waves of muscular contraction and relaxation that squeeze the food ball along the esophagus.
cells lining the stomach's interior secrete a digestive fluid called
digestive enzymes including pepsin, which breaks proteins into smaller pieces, and
Gastric juice is made up of what three things?
Mucus coating the stomach lining.
Nerve and hormone signals regulate the secretion of gastric juice so that it is discharged only when food is in the stomach.
But gastric juice can still erode the stomach lining, requiring the production of new cells by cell division.
What keeps the stomach from digesting itself?
once every three days
how often does the stomach lining replace itself
the longest part of the digestive tract and
the major organ for chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream.
receives digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and intestinal lining. The first foot (25 cm) of small intestine where the enzymes are mixed with chyme
neutralizes the stomach acid that enters the duodenum and
contains enzymes that aid in digestion.
A juice produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and
secreted through a duct into the duodenum.
It contains salts that break up fats into small droplets that are more susceptible to dismantling by digestive enzymes
The intestinal lining has large folds and villi, making it similar to a fluffy towel. Each cell of the epithelium has microvilli which add more surface area
How is the epithelium specialized for nutrient absorption?
forms the main portion of the large intestine. It absorbs water and minerals and produces feces
The rate at which your body consumes energy
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
metabolic rate consists of the _____ the amount of energy it takes to maintain body functions and
cannot be made from any other materials, so the body needs to receive them in preassembled form
how many amino acids are essential and must be obtained through diet
organic molecules required in the diet in small amounts. They assist enzymes
How many vitamins are essential
We require smaller amounts of __ other chemical elements that are acquired mainly in the form of inorganic nutrients called ________.
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