Film Lecture Midterm and Final 1003 Sharman
Terms in this set (68)
4 approaches to Film History
the aesthetic, technological, economic, and social
Who were some of the pioneers of filmmaking in the late 19th century?
George Melies, DW Griffith, Edwin S porter, Lumiere Brothers
What were studios like during Hollywood's Golden Age?
Movies started including sound and shot in studios, Defined by a classical conventional narrative style with large studio funding, actors were under contracts
What lead to the studios' decline?
People watched tv, not movies, Rapid shift to independent production
What made the New Hollywood of the 1960s and 70s different?
-Rapid shift to independent production,
-Message movies popular (alienation of youth)
-Changing values toward sex
- By 1960, studios made more money from television than from films; still so today.
- Sparked by the end of the 1970s, with films like Jaws & Star Wars.
- New era of cable TV, along with pay-cable movie channels (new market), and the VCR period (now home movies).
- Increased reliance on spectacles
- Intensifying "blockbuster syndrome"
focuses on the elements of film form, such as cinematography, editing, sound, and design, which have been assembled to make the film.
is the name given by the authors to the conventions of filmmaking that have evolved over time to become something like an overall film grammar. As we do with spoken language, we often take the conventions and structures of cinematic language for granted, allowing our brains to passively experience them without much, or any, conscious interpretation. The result is a sort of invisibility of the techniques and strategies employed by the filmmakers.
Just as the techniques of filmmaking can go unnoticed during a casual viewing of a movie, so too can the cultural mores and prejudices lurking under the surface of a movie.
What is the relationship between movies and culture
The culture of the time can influence the movie
What do we mean by implicit versus explicit meaning?
implicit- an association, connection, or influence that the viewer has to make on the basis of the given meaning
explicit- everything on the movie surface
Two Major Components of Mis-En-Scene
design and composition.
What is Mise-en-scene?
the arrangement of scenery and stage properties in a play.
The person with the responsibility of the visual appearance of a production. They design, plan, organize, and arrange set design, equipment availability, as well as the on screen appearance a production will have.
Spine of any story
2. pursuing a goal
3. confronted by obstacles
What or who is the primary narrator in film?
camera, which narrates film by showing us events in the movie's narrative
What's the difference between omniscient and restricted narration in film?
omniscient: commentary NOT spoken by a character in a movie
Restricted: provides a view from the perspective of a single character- it reveals information to the audience only as a specific character learns of it
What do we mean by theme or narrative intent?
implicit motifs. an abstract subject that occurs in the narrative
What constitutes the typical Hollywood narrative structure?
Prevalent in the 1930s to 1950s. The plot features a clear, main line of action marked by the protagonist's pursuit of a goal. The conclusion cleanly resolves all issues.
A complex character possesses numerous, subtle, repressed, or contradictory traits; progresses as story develops
relatively uncomplicated character exhibiting few distinctive traits; does not change as story progresses
hero like character in pursuit of a goal
the character, creature, or force that obstructs or resists the protagonist's pursuit of their goals
What are the responsibilities of a cinematographer on a film production?
The responsibilities can fall into four categories
- cinematographic properties of the shot (film stock, lighting, lenses)
- framing the shot
- speed and length of the shot
- special effects
Key Shooting Terms
Shot - one uninterrupted run of the camera
Take - the number of times a particular shot is taken
Setup - one camera position and everything associated with it
4 Properties of Lighting
What are some traditional lighting techniques?
-Natural (sunlight): reflector boards, a device used to help control natural light
-Artificial (instruments) - focusable spotlights and floodlights
-Hard lighting- shining directly on the subject, creating crisp details
-Soft lighting- diffused; light hits the subject from many directions
What are some of the considerations a cinematographer must take into account
when composing a shot?
Film stock, lighting, and lenses
What are some of the key differences between film versus digital cinematography?
•Types: black and white or color
•Gauges (also called formats) -8mm, super 8mm, 16mm, 35mm, 65mm, 70mm, IMAX
•Speed (exposure) the degree to which it is light sensitive: fast/slow
•Format: NTSC or PAL
•Resolution- HD 1080 (1920x1080) pixels the P stands for progressive scan) 4K (4096x2160) pixels
•Sensor size: 2/3rds, APS-C full frame, super 35
Different types of camera movement
Any movement of the camera within a shot changes the image because the elements of framing are modified
Camera movement must be smooth to be tolerable
To make steady moving shots, the camera is usually mounted on a tripod or dolly, crane, etc.
Pan Shot - horizontal movement of a camera mounted on a stationary tripod
Tilt Shot - vertical movement ...
Dolly-in - subject grows larger in the frame, gaining significance
Dolly-out - moving away from subject; often used for slow disclosure
Tracking - a type of dolly shot that moves the camera along w/ the action (alongside, over, behind, etc. )
Crane Shot/Long Take: Basically, dolly-shots-in-the-air. A crane (or jib), is a large, heavy piece of equipment, but is a useful way of moving a camera - it can move up, down, left right, swooping in on action or moving diagonally out of it.
Handheld Camera: camera is literally held in the camera-operator's hands--as opposed to being placed on a tripod. The result is an image that is perceptibly shakier than that of a tripod-mounted camera.
Steadi-Cam: Device attached to the operator's body that steadies the camera and is used for smooth, fast and intimate camera movement
small, portable, lightweight instrument
What are the responsibilities of an editor on a film production?
Decides what shots should be used and how to use the
Spatial relationships between shots
Temporal relationships between shots
Overall rhythm of the film
What are some foundational editing techniques?
Freeze Frame:A n editing technique whereby the same frame is seen (without any movement) for however long the filmmaker wishes to hold the frame there.
Split Screen: An editing technique whereby two stories are told at the same time
How does an editor shape the rhythm of a film?
The editor controls a film's rhythm by varying the duration of the shots.
What are some basic cuts and transitions that editors use?
-Parallel Editing: Two or more actions happening at the same time in different places
-Crosscutting: Cutting together two or more lines of action that occur simultaneously at different locations, doesnt matter when the action occurred
What is continuity editing and how is it achieved?
A style of editing that seeks to achieve logic, smoothness, sequential flow, and temporal and spatial orientation of viewers.
-Ensures flow from shot to shot
use an arrangement of shots that seem out of place or confusing relative to a traditional narrative.
What is the Master Scene Technique and how does it relate to the 180 degree rule?
This technique is based on the principle of coverage, which mean it is photographed with a variety of individual shots, running from genreral to specific
-All the shots that comprise the cinematography of that scene
-This is related to the 180 degree rule because both are focused on making sure the viewer is oriented towards that action and understands what is going on
Invented montage, meaning in clashing juxtapositions between shots (conflict)
how shots are assembled the audience will attach a specific meaning or emotion to it
a single scene that covers characters and action in one continuous shot
which mean it is photographed with a variety of individual shots, running from genreral to specific
the 180 rule
cinematography guideline that states that two characters in a scene should maintain the same left/right relationship to one another . When the camera passes over the invisible axis connecting the two subjects, it is called crossing the line and the shot becomes what is called a reverse angle.
Break the rules of continuity editing by seeking transitions that are not smooth, contiguous, or coherent
two or more actions happening at the same time in different places
Cutting together two or more lines of action that occur simultaneously at different locations
production sound mixer, sound recordist, sound mixer, a microphone boom operator
Double/Dual system recording
Sound is recorded on a medium separate from the picture
refers to the creation of all the sound elements besides music, included in the movie
stand for "Automated" or "Automatic" Dialog Replacement. re-recorded in a process called looping or ADR. An actor watches the image repeatedly while listening to the original production track on headphones as a guide.
-created and recorded in sync with the picture
-Foley sounds are unique
is the reproduction of everyday sound effects that are added to film, video, and other media in post-production to enhance audio quality.
mixing of the sound elements to achieve the proper balance between music, dialogue, sound effects and any other elements
Comes from within the movie and is heard by both the audience and the characters
Non Diegetic Sound
comes from a source outside a films world
aka music, like the dun-nun song from Jaws
How filmmaking Affects Acting
Little time for rehearsals
Movies are shot out of sequence and fragmented
Actors must repeat the same action/line/emotion
Schools of Acting
Classical acting: roots in shakespearean performance, action oriented, rather than emotional, based on script analysis
Method Acting: Rooted in work of Moscow theater director, Konstantin Stanislavsky, Seeks the truth of a character, emotionally oriented, based on actors experiences
Meisner Technique: Rooted in the work of Sanford Meisner, Action oriented and external, based on reacting to other actors
Identifies gender bias & degree in which women are present in a film.
1) There has to be at least two women in the film.
2) They have to talk to each other.
3) They have to talk about anything other then men or a man.
What is the role of sound design in a film?
A state of the art concept pioneered by director Francis ford Coppola and film editor Walter Murch, combining the crafts of editing and mixing and involving both theoretical and practical issues
Makes people think about the movies sounds not just the movies pictures
- Sound should be integral to all three phases of film production (pre-production, production, and postproduction)
- A film's sound is potentially as expressive as its images
- Image and sound are co-expressible
What are the different types of sound?
Sounds are recorded in a study by a folley actor. The noise are recorded outside the film and later edited into the film
Double System Recording
The standard technique of recording film sound on a medium separate from the picture. Allows for maximum quality control of the medium and the many aspects of manipulating sound during postproduction editing, mixing, and synchronization
Vocal sounds (dialogue and narration)- in terms of narration- when is it recorded. typically dialogue is the only thing recorded during production.
- Ambient sounds- stems from background or setting. Ex. Slumdog Millionaire taking place in Mumbai/Bombay so you can expect to hear traffic, shouting, talking, lots of people walking.
-Sound Effects- added after the fact. sound effects- include all sounds that are artificially made for the soundtrack.
-Foley sounds- unique sounds made from different props/equipment to simulate everyday sounds. Ex) doors opening; the sound comes in after because it is not loud enough when being filmed. If you didn't go back and add the sounds in, it might not have as much emphasis on the scene
Music- sets moods or emotions, Musical Themes are often associated with individual characters (quiz question i missed)
Silence- IS one of the major types of sound, if you suppress a certain type of sound we expect to hear, that is the strategic use of silence. Interplay between silence and sound can create a rhythm for the movie that draws attention to the characters' perceptions.
How does sound mixing affect the experience of a film?
The process of combining different sound tracks onto one composite sound track synched with the picture.
-Makes an audio miss-en-scene that allows the viewer to distinguish between background noise and significant noise within the film
How is music used effectively in a film?
- Created when sound accentuates and strengthens the visual image
- Can be subtle or forceful
- May be symbolic
What are some of the specific challenges of acting on film?
Little time for (acting) rehearsals
actors must repeat the same action/line/emotion
- Framing and Composition: brings actors together or keeps them apart
- The character you are acting with may not be there
- Physical relationships of the actors to each other and to the overall frame can be significantly affect how we see and interpret a shot
How does editing effect an actors performance?
Editors have the power to shape an actors performance
selects, arranges, and juxtaposes shots to cover errors
Controls how much screen time an actor sees
What is cultural invisibility and how does it effect filmmakers and audiences?
- Filmmakers favor stories and themes that reinforce viewers' shared belief systems
- The stories tap into and reinforce viewers' most fundamental desires and beliefs
- The people making movies may be just as oblivious to their own cultural attitudes as the viewers are
How are films both works of art and cultural documents?
- Alternative approaches analyze movies more as cultural artifacts than as traditional works of art
- Search beneath a movie's form to expose implicit and hidden meanings
- Explore cinema's function within popular culture as well as the influence of popular culture
- Cinematic Language
- Cinematic conventions and individual experiences shape the "reality" depicted by films.
- The film becomes a text that we read
- Connects the viewer to the story while deliberately concealing the reasons by which it does so.
How were women and African Americans represented in the early period of American
How has the representation of women and African Americans changed over the past
Who are some of the important figures in those histories?
Blaxploitation films targeted African American audiences and starred primarily black actors
Soundtracks of funk and soul music
Movies we've watched
Citizen Kane: Orson Welles
The Graduate: Mike Nichols
Moonlight: Barry Jenkins
Shape of Water: Guillermo Del Toro
Whiplash: Damien Chazelle
There Will Be Blood: Paul Thomas Anderson
Thelma and Louise: Ridley Scott
Do the Right thing: Spike lee