ABeka Chemistry - Test 9 (Chapters 10-14)
Terms in this set (47)
A gas found in air that is necessary for the survival of humans and animals
Halogen used in the disinfection of drinking water and the synthesis of medicines, crop=protection chemicals and PVC plastics
Isotopes of this element are commonly called protium, deuterium, and tritium
Exists in an unstable while allotrope and a more stable red allotrope; used to make matches and some fertilizers
Ozone is an allotrope of this element
This element mined by the Frasch process or extracted from power plant exhaust gases; used to make an important industrial acid.
Halogen used in dental hygiene and in the manufacture of refirgerants and Teflon
An element that is extracted from the air and used to make artificial fertilizers and explosives
The most abundant element in the universe
Noble gas used as a lifting gas in airships and weather balloons as an extremely low-temperature coolant, and as a laser medium
The science of extracting metals from their ores and preparing them for use is known as ___.
A mixture of two or more metals, usually melted together, is called an
A solution that contains as much dissolved solute as possible under equilibrium conditions is said to be ___.
Substances that dissolve in water to produce ions which can conduct an electrical current are called ___.
A mixture containing tiny clumps or particles that remain suspended within the mixture and will not settle out is called a ____.
The flow of a solvent through a more semipermeable membrane from a more dilute solution to a more concentrated solution is called ____.
The minimum kinetic energy that a molecule must possess to undergo a chemical reaction is called the _____.
A reaction that can be made to go either direction, from reactants to products or from products to reactants, is called a ___ reaction
A substance that alters the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the reaction is called a __
The most abundant metal in the earth's crust; a lightweight metal widely used to make aircraft, spacecraft, and beverage cans
Most common semimetal; found in computer chips, glass, and sand
the second most abundant metal in the earth's crust; the cheapest and most widely used metal.
alkali metal found in lye, washing soda, baking soda, and table salt
golden brown metal used in electrical wiring and as a component of brass and bronze
the most malleable and ductile metal known
precious metal used in automotive and industrial catalysts
alkaline earth metal that helps compose limestone, slaked lime, and cement
the metal most commonly refined by means of blast furnaces
Which of the following is not a type of mixture? suspension, colloid, phase, or solution
The rate of a chemical reaction is usually measured by means of ____.
the change in concentration of a given substance per unit of time
If the temperature of a chemical reaction is increased from 20-30 degrees Celsius, we would ordinarily expect the reaction rate to ___.
The theory that when two molecules collide and chemically react, they form a short-lived activated complex before breaking apart to form the products is known as the ___.
transitional state theory
T or F: A catalyst increases the reaction rate by lowering the reaction's activation energy.
In a solution of sodium chloride in water, the water would be classified as the __________________.
A ____________ substance will be more likely to dissolve in a polar solvent than in a non-polar solvent.
When a gas such as CO2 is dissolved in water, decreasing the temperature tends to decrease or increase the solubility of the gas?
The heat energy absorbed or released when one substance dissolves in another is called the ____ of ______.
heat of solution
The concentration of a solution in terms of moles solute per liter of solution is known as the ________.
molarity (note that this word has an "r" in it NOT molality)
If as nonvolatile solute such as gluclose is added to water, the boiling point will increase or decrease?
The study of reaction rates and pathways is known as chemical ____________________.
Protein catalysts found in living things are called ____.
A chemical system in which the rates of reaction in opposite directions have equalized so that the concentration of reactants and products is said to be in a state of chemical ___________________.
A equilibrium, the rate at which reactants are combining to form products is ____ to the rate at which products are combining to form reactants.
When a substance is removed from a system at equilibrium, the equilibrium shifts in the direction that _____________ that substance.
List three ways to increase the rate at which a substance dissolves in a solution:
Stirring, crushing or grinding, increasing the temperature (heating)
List 3 ways to increase the rate of a chemical reaction
Increase the concentration, Increase the temperature, Use a catalyst
State Le Chatelier's principle in your own words:
If a tree is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system will react in such a way that the stress is at least partially offset