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Terms in this set (96)
Bonus Bill (1817)
John C. Calhoun's bill to provide a federal highway using $ from the Second Bank of the U.S.
Erie Canal (1825)
Canal in NY which linked western farms to eastern cities. Result: improved transportation --> better economy
National/Cumberland Road (1811)
MD --> IL using federal and state $
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Missouri (part of Louisiana Purchase) wanted to join the Union as a slave state, but if it did it would cause an imbalance in slave/free states. Clay proposed:
1. Missouri admitted as slave state
2. Maine admitted as free state
3. In Louisiana Territory, slavery prohibited north of 36°30′
Tallmadge Amendment (1820)
Concerning Missouri, James Tallmadge of NY proposed:
1. Prohibit further introduction of slaves into Missouri
2. Children of Missouri slaves be emancipated at age 25
Defeated in Senate b/c of angry Southerners
Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817)
Limited British and American naval weapons on the Great Lakes
Adams-Onís (Transcontinental) Treaty (1819)
Spain gave up claim to Oregon
war-hawk (1812) Congressman who:
1. Created the American System (for economic growth).
2. Created the Missouri Compromise.
John C. Calhoun
war-hawk (1812) Congressman who argued for states rights and internal improvement.
est. first U.S. factory in 1791
introduced factory system to U.S. after visiting Britain
developed the Clermont, a steamboat which voyaged the Hudson River in 1807
Invented cotton gin in 1793. Made rifles out of interchangeable parts during War of 1812.
invented mechanical reaper
Appointed Chief Justice in 1801 who settled case of Marbury v. Madison
John Q. Adams
6th President in 1825. Helped create the Monroe Doctrine in 1823 (isolationism).
Commander in War of 1812 who won Battle of Horseshoe Bend and Battle of New Orleans. Destroyed Spanish Florida.
Black slave who led rebellion in Richmond, VA. Caught and executed.
1831 led bloody rebellion through VA. Result: prohibited education of slaves and increased slave codes.
1822 planned a rebellion in Charleston, SC. Caught and executed.
Revolution of 1800
In the United States Presidential election of 1800, sometimes referred to as the "Revolution of 1800," Vice President Thomas Jefferson defeated incumbent president John Adams. The election was a realigning election that ushered in a generation of Democratic-Republican Party rule and the eventual demise of the Federalist Party
Aaron Burr's conspiracy
Jefferson's ex-VP joined a group of Federalist extremists to plot the secession of New England and New York. He killed Alex Hamilton in a duel. He struck up an alliance with General James Wilkinson to probably separate the western part of the US from the East. He was arrested and tried for treason
Lewis and Clark expedition
Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase
1807 - The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology
These were Muslim pirates operating from the coast of North Africa that hampered merchant shipping in the area by breaking treaties, attacking ships, and taking hostages/prisoners. The attacks prompted the build up of the U.S. Navy to stop the attack
The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration
- gave the Supreme Court the power to decide if a law is or is not constitutional.
- accepted as a result of the famous case of Marbury vs. Madison
- Western settlers who advocated war with Britain because they hoped to acquire Britain's northwest posts and Florida
-Henry Clay & John Calhoun
War of 1812
A war that resulted from British interference with American trade, impressment of American seamen, and "War Hawks" drive for western expansion lead to war.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Americans v. Shawnee Indians. led by governor William Henry Harrison, the Americans defeated the Shawnee's and Tecumseh in the Indiana Territory.
Significance: The Battle of Tippecanoe destroyed the hopes of a large Indian Confederacy.
New England Federalist Party met to discuss their grievances concerning the ongoing War of 1812 and the political problems arising from the federal government's increasing power
Battle of New Orleans
American victory against British troop & was the final major battle
was an unnecessary battle as the war had already been ended, though the troops didn't know this
It prohibited American ships from trading in all foreign ports.
lifted all embargoes on American shipping except for those bound for British or French ports.
French statesmen and military leader from 1799 to 1815; wanted to dominate Europe; Led France into Napoleonic Wars.
William Henry Harrison
was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis & left questions about presidential succession
- Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
former slave & leader of the Haitian independence movement during the French Revolution
Tecumseh and the Prophet
- a Shawnee Native American chief
- During the early 1800s, he attempted to organize a confederation of tribes to resist white settlement.
-Jackson v. Biddle
-Destruction of 2nd BUS by Andrew Jackson
-Did this by putting funds in "pet banks" + vetoing charter of bank
-Eventually led to Panic of 1819
Maysville Road veto
-1830 - Jackson vetoed proposal to building a road in KY using federal money
-Jackson wanted states to pay for their own internal improvements (strict interpretation)
-V.P. Calhoun and other SCs opposed "Tariff of Abominations" that Jackson put in place
-Believed in authority of states over federal gov't, could ignore any federal law they opposed
-Authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832.
-SC nullified + ignored
-Became unnecessary anyway because Congress passed the Compromise Tariff of 1833 on the same day (resolved issue)
-Daniel Webster v. Robert Hayne,
-States' rights versus national power
-Webster- if states can nullify whatever they want it will lead to Civil war, no unity, strong supporter of Constitution
-Hayne- defended rights of nullification
-The president appoints civil servants to government jobs specifically because they are loyal to him and to his political party
-Jackson and the Dems
2nd Great Awakening
-Religious revivalment partly a reaction against rationalism of Enlightenment
-Began among young, educated men
-Sermons were audience- centered, understood by the uneducated, and spoke about salvation for all
-Believed that political action = a more practical route to reform than William Lloyd Garrison's "moral crusade"
-Formed by a group of northerners
-Goal= end slavery by political + legal means
Trail of Tears
Jackson + U.S. Army forced 15,000 Cherokees to leave GA, 4,000 died
-Required that all future purchases of federal land had to be paid in specie (gold and silver)
-Attempted to lower inflation but failed badly (led to Panic of 1837)
Various state banks that Jackson put federal bank funding into
-A small group of Jackson's friends and advisors who were especially influential in the first years of his presidency
-Jackson conferred with them instead of his regular cabinet -- met w/ opposition from public
Panic of 1837
-Right when Van Buren took office, large financial panic
-Some blamed Jackson for opp. to banks (hundreds of banks closing)
-Whigs blamed Dems for having such little federal intervention in economy
Seneca Falls Convention
-1848- first women's rights convention in U.S. history
-Issued "Declaration of Sentiments", which was similar to Dec. of Indep.
-"All men and women are created equal"
-Elizabeth Cady Stanton + Susan B. Anthony
-Got overshadowed by slavery issue in 1850s
Auburn vs. Philadelphia systems
-PA built penitentiaries to replace prisons, encouraged solitary confinement to reflect on sins + repent --- stopped after high suicide rates
-Auburn- enforced rigid rules of discipline + moral instruction/ work programs
-Reflected doctrine of asylum movement: structure discipline = moral reform
-Alcohol targeted as a disease + root of social problems
-Twelve states banned alcohol before Civil War
-Slavery overshadowed issue until 1870s (18th amendment)
-One of the earliest religious communal movements
-Held property together, kept men and women strictly separate to prevent marriage/ sex)
-Died out by the mid- 1900s (no new recruits)
-The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- Day Saints
-Founded by Joseph Smith in 1830
-Brigham Young led them to far western frontier (Salt Lake City, UT)
-Practiced polygamy (not supported by gov't)
Brook Farm, Oneida, & New Harmony
-A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston
-Noyes founded the group and founded the beliefs of the society. A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.
-a utopian settlement in Indiana lasting from 1825 to 1827.
-intellectual movement rooted in the religious soil of New England. Transcendentalists turned to the romantics in Europe for inspiration. Many Transcendentalists believed in the importance of nature and degraded materialism. Transcendentalism greatly influenced modern American Literature. CULTURAL.
American Colonization Society
-reflecting the focus of early abolitionists on transporting freed blacks back to Africa, the organization established Liberia, a West-African settlement inteded as a haven for emancipated slaves
-the region of western New York along the Erie Canal, and refers to the religious fervor of its inhabitants. In the 1800's, farmers there were susceptible to revivalist and tent rallies by the Pentecostals (religious groups).
Tariff of Abominations, 1828
- protective tariff passed by the U.S. Congress that came to be known as the "Tariff of Abominations" to its Southern detractors because of the effects it had on the Antebellum Southern economy; it was the highest tariff in U.S. peacetime and its goal was to protect industry in the northern United States from competing European goods by increasing the prices of European products.
South Carolina Exposition & Protest
- written in 1828 by John C. Calhoun
-document was a protest against the Tariff of 1828, also known as the Tariff of Abominations. The document stated that if the tariff was not repealed, South Carolina would secede. It stated also Calhoun's Doctrine of nullification, i.e., the idea that a state has the right to reject federal law, first introduced by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in their Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.
Compromise Tariff, 1833
-A result of Henry Clay's efforts to soothe South Carolina's qualms about the Tariff of Abominations. -caused South Carolina to withdraw the ordinance nullifying the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832.
Susan B. Anthony
-a lecturer for women's rights. She was a Quaker. Many conventions were held for the rights of women in the 1840s.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
-a member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
-A New England teacher and author who spoke against the inhumane treatment of insane prisoners, ca. 1830's. People who suffered from insanity were treated worse than normal criminals. -traveled over 60,000 miles in 8 years gathering information for her reports, reports that brought about changes in treatment, and also the concept that insanity was a disease of the mind, not a willfully perverse act by an individual.
-A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
-US abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North
-Influential writer. one of the most prominent african american figures in the abolitionist movement. escaped from slavery in MD. he was a great thinker and speaker. published his own antislavery newspaper called the north star
-american abolitionist and feminist. born into slavery, she escaped in 1827 and became a leading preacher against slavery and for the rights of women.
-Angelina and Sarah Grimke, sisters from South Carolina, began their public careers in the abolitionist movement. Male abolitionists objected to their prominence in the movement, and the sisters turned to advocacy of women's rights.
William Lloyd Garrison
-most conspicious and most vilified of the abolitionists, published "The Liberator" in Boston, helped found the American Anti-Slavery Society; favored Northern secession and renounced politics
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation
Charles G. Finney
An evangelist who was one of the greatest preachers of all time (spoke in New York City). He also made the "anxious bench" for sinners to pray and was was against slavery and alcohol
Theodore Dwight Weld
• American abolitionist whose pamphlet Slavery As It Is (1839) inspired we's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, a prominent abolitionist in the 1830's
• Put together a group called the "Land Rebels
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War
founder of mormanism. Smith wrote the Book of Mormon in 1830. Smith claimed that the Book of Mormon was a translation from a gold plate that an angel named Moroni showed him. Smith established the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
- Joseph Smith's successor. became governor of the new Utah Territory, but was removed from the position by President Buchanan after pressure from the Protestants
James G. Birney
abolitionist, and candidate for presidential elections of 1840 and 1844, for the Liberty Party, he started his abolitionist weekly publication in Cincinnati, Ohio titled The Philanthropist
A senator from Massachusetts, who attacked Hayne, and through him Calhoun, for what he considered their challenge to the integrity of the Union. He challenged Hayne to a debate, not on public lands and the tariff, but on the issue of states' rights versus national power
-Enforced a protective tariff to get funding for transportation improvements
-Allowed industrialization to prosper
-Invented by Eli Whitney
-Identical parts that could be used in place of one another in manufacturing
-Introduced by Josiah Wedgwood
-The manufacture of identical products by the division of labor into small repetitive tasks
-A popular sentiment that places the existence and well being of the nation higher than political loyalties
-Citizens began calling themselves Americans over citizens of their states
-Nationalism helped further stabilize the new nation in every way, including financially
-A narrow-minded concern for a devotion to the interests of one section of the country
-Caused the development of two political parties
-The country split politically
-Invented by Eli Whitney
-It increased the development of the south and expanded slavery
-Dormitories for young women where they were cared for, fed, and sheltered in exchange for cheap labor
-The change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production
Tariff of 1816
-First protective tariff in US history, created to shield NE manufacturers from the influx of British goods after the War of 1812
-Raised the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality
-Closely modeled after the first BUS
-Regulated the amount of money circulating in the economy
-The Bank proved to be very unpopular among western farmers
Panic of 1819
-First major financial crisis since the ratification of the Constitution
-Caused by the Second BUS (tightened credit)
-State banks closed and debt increased
-BUS foreclosed on western farmland
-Nationalist beliefs were shaken, called for reform
Era of Good Feelings
-Described Monroe's presidency
-Dem Reps dominant
-Internal struggles prevalent
-Foreign policy proclamation
-Europe should not interfere in US/Western Hemisphere affairs, lest it be seen as a threat
Convention of 1818
-Britain and the US agreed to the 49th parallel as the northern boundary of the Louisiana Territory
-The two nations also agreed to joint occupation of the Oregon country for ten years
-Using federal money for internal improvements
-Enacting a protective tariff to foster the growth of American industries
-Strengthening the national bank
-A political scandal that arose when Henry Clay, allegedly met with John Quincy Adams before the House election to break the deadlock
-Adams was elected president against the popular vote and Clay was named Secretary of State
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