IST Ch 7

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Structured processes
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Terms in this set (42)
Inter-enterprise processesspan two or more independent organizations.Inter-enterprise information systemssupport one or more inter-enterprise processes. Such systems typically involve thousand of users, and solutions to problems require cooperation among different, usually independently owned, organizations.Process effectivenessa measure of how well a process achieves organizational strategy.How can Processes be improved?(process quality)change the process structure, change the process resources, and change the both process structure and resources.How can information systems improve process quality?performing an activity, augmenting a human who is performing an activity, and controlling data quality and process flow.Information silothe condition that exists when data are isolated in separated information systems.Data Integritywhen an organization does NOT have inconsistent duplicated data.Business process reengineeringthe activity of altering and designing new business processes to take advantage of new information systems. (unfortunately, this process is difficult, slow and exceedingly expensive.) (create stronger, faster and more effective linkages in value chains>)Inherent processesare predesigned procedures for using the software products, saved organizations from the expense, delays, and risks of business process reengineering.Customer relationship management (CRM) systema suite of applications, a database and a set of inherent processes for managing all the interactions with the customer, from lead generation to customer service.Customer life cycle (phases)1. marketing 2. customer acquisition 3. relationship management 4. loss/churn. Marketing sends messages to the target market to attract customer prospects.Enterprise resource planning (ERP)a suite of applications called modules, a database and a set of inherent processes for consolidating business operations into a single, consistent, computing platform.ERP systeman information system based on ERP technology.Enterprise Application Integration (EAI)a suite of software applications that integrates existing systems by providing layers of software applications that integrates existing systems by providing layers of software that connect applications together.EAI does the following:connects systems "islands" via a new layer of software/system, it enables existing applications to communicate and share data, it provides integrated information, it leverages existing systems, it enables a gradual move to ERP.For a product to be considered a true ERP product, it must include applications that integrate:supply chain, manufacturing, CRM, Human resources, and accounting.Triggera computer program stored within the database that runs to keep the database consistent when certain conditions arise.Stored procedurea computer program stored in the database that is used to enforce business rules.Process blueprintsthe inherent processes that are defined in the ERP solution.Train the trainervendors sometimes train the organization's employees, called Super Users, to become in-house trainers in training sessionsIndustry-specific solutionsto reduce that work, ERP vendors provide starter kits for specific industries.What are the challenges of implementing and upgrading enterprise information systems?1. collaborative management 2. requirement gaps 3. transition problems 4. employee resistance 5. new technology (slides just share 4 factors and excludes the fifth one.)self-efficacya person's belief that he or she can be successful at his or her job.Hybrid modelERP customers will store most of their data on cloud servers managed by cloud vendors and store sensitive data on servers that they manage themselves.Distributed systemssystems where applications processing is distributed across multiple computing devices.Process efficiencyratio of process outputs to inputsProcess effectivenessHow well a process achieves organizational strategyHow can information systems improve process quality? (performing an activity)partially automated, completely automated.How can information systems improve process quality? (augmenting human performing activity)common reservation systemHow can information systems improve process quality? (controlling process flow)order approval processHow do Information system silos arise?Data isolated in islands of automation, different department goals, different personal and workgroup needs, and duplicate data as organization grows.What companies are the major ERP vendors?SAP, Oracle, Infor ERP, Microsoft Dynamics, and Sage.