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Terms in this set (13)
The combination of the theory of language, your theory of teaching and your assumptions about teaching.
Examples: The lexical approach, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), audiolingualism.
The knowledge of grammar rules and the ability to apply them effectively in social context. This was proposed by Dell Hymes as a response to Noam Chomsky's linguistic competence notion.
Linguistic (grammatical) competence
Term coined by Noam Chomsky. It refers to the speaker's underlying knowledge of grammar rules. Having linguistic/grammatical competence does not mean that the speaker is able to communicate effectively in any given social context.
Krashen's Monitor Model
It deals with language acquisition in CLT. There are 5 main hypothesis in this model.
Acquisition Learning Hypothesis
From Krashen's Monitor Model. It refers to the difference between language that is acquired subconsciously through natural input (children playing with each other) that can easily be used in spontaneous conversation and language that is learned (taught and studied in a classroom) can't be used spontaneously.
From Krashen's Monitor Model. Learnt language works as a monitor to make sure that the acquired language is being used correctly (fluency vs accuracy). It only takes place when you have time, know the rules and strive for accuracy.
Natural Order Hypothesis
From Krashen's Monitor Model. It refers to the the assumption that we learn language features in a predetermined, natural order (similarly to the way we acquire our L1)
Comprehensible Input Hypothesis
From Krashen's Monitor Model. Also known as I + 1, where I is the level of knowledge of learners and 1 is the input.
Affective Filter Hypothesis
From Krashen's Monitor Model. A positive environment enhances learning, whilst a negative environment filters out input (boredom, anxiety, nervousness).
Grammar Translation Method
Derived from the 16th century based on the teaching methods used to translate Greek and Latin. It was used from 1840s to the 1940s. Speaking was not the goal. It relied heavily on memorisation of rules, it was teacher-centred.
End of the 19th century. Proposed by Gouin and Berlitz, based on natural language learning. No translation was used. It focuses on form, and the teaching of grammar is done in a inductive way (learners discover rules).
Audiolingualism Method (USA)/ Oral situation approach
Proposed by Fries (USA), Palmer & Hornby (UK). It was implemented in the 20s, 30s, 40s and 50s. Grammar and vocabulary are taught through dialogues. Language items were introduced in situations and dialogues. First the learners listen, then they repeat and then they read and write.
Community Language Learning (CLL)
Proposed by Curran. It views the learner as a whole person, and redefines the teacher-student relationship to something more akin to a counsellor-client relationship.