135 terms

Art 1 - 2 Vocabulary

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Line
A point moving in space. Line can vary in width, length, curvature, color or direction.
Elements of Art
Line, Shape, Form,Space, Value, Color, Texture
Shape
A two dimensional area or plane that may be open or closed, free-form or geometric. It can be found in nature or is made by humans.
Form
A three-dimensional volume or the illusion of three dimensions (related to shape, which is two-dimensional); the particular characteristics of the visual elements of a work of art (as distinguished from its subject matter or content).
Color
the visual sensation dependent on the reflection or absorption of light from a given surface. The three characteristics of color are hue, value and intensity.
Balance,
The way in which the elements in visual arts are arranged to create a feeling of equilibrium in a work of art. The three types of balance are symmetry, asymmetry and radial.
Contrast
Difference between two or more elements (e.g., value, color, texture) in a composition; juxtaposition of dissimilar elements in a work of art; also, the degree of difference between the lightest and darkest parts of a picture.
Dominance
The importance of the emphasis of one aspect in relation to all other aspects of a design.
Emphasis
Special stress given to an element to make it stand out.
Harmony
The principle of design that combines elements in a work of art to emphasize the similarities of separate but related parts.
Movement
The principle of design dealing with the creation of action.
Repetition
Repeated use of an object or element of design in a work of art.
Rhythm
Intentional, regular repetition of lines or shapes to achieve a specific repetitious effect or pattern.
Subordination
Making an element of design hold a secondary or lesser importance within a work of art.
Unity
Total visual effect in a composition achieved by the careful blending of the elements of art and the other principles of design.
Variation
A principle of art concerned with combining one or more elements of art in different ways to create interest.
Abstract
Artwork in which the subject matter is stated in a brief, simplified manner. Little or no attempt is made to represent images realistically, and objects are often simplified or distorted.
Actual Texture
The real, tactile surface quality of materials.
Aerial Perspective:
Also known as atmospheric perspective achieved by using bluer, lighter and duller hues for distant objects in a two-dimensional work of art.
Analogous Colors
Refers to closely related colors; colors that sit side by side on the color wheel and have a common hue.
Analysis
In art criticism, the step (#2) in which you discover how principles of art are used to organize the art elements of line, color, shape, forms, space, and texture. In art history, the step in which you determine the style of the work.
Arch
Curved stone structure supporting weight of material over an open space. Doorways and bridges use arches.
Architect
A person who designs buildings that are well constructed, aesthetically pleasing and functional.
Architecture
An art form of designing and planning construction of buildings, cities and bridges.
Art Criticism
An organized approach for studying a work of art. It has four stages: description, analysis, interpretation and judgment.
Asymmetry
A balance of parts on opposite sides of a perceived midline, giving the appearance of equal visual weight.
Atmospheric Perspective
Also known as aerial perspective achieved by using bluer, lighter and duller hues for distant objects in a two-dimensional work of art.
Background
Part of the picture plane that appears farthest from the viewer.
Bas-relief
Low relief sculpture in which figures protrude slightly from the background.
Blending
Technique of shading through smooth, gradual application of ark value.
Cast Shadows
Refers to a dark area or shape produced by an object coming between rays of light and a surface.
Cityscape
The visual appearance of a city in a work of art, a city landscape.
Color Scheme
Plan for organizing colors. Types of color schemes include monochromatic, analogous, complementary, triad, split complementary, warm, and cool.
Color Spectrum
The effect that occurs when light passes through a prism; the beam of white light is bent and separated into bands of color. Colors always appear in the same order, by wavelengths, from longest to shortest, red, orange, yellow, green, blue violet. A rainbow displays the spectrum.
Color Triad
Three colors spaced an equal distance apart on the color wheel. The primary color triad is red, yellow and blue; the secondary triad is orange, green and violet. A color triad is a type of color scheme.
Color Wheel
The color spectrum bent into a circle.
Complimentary Colors
Colors opposite each other on the color wheel. A complement of a color absorbs all the light waves the color reflects and is the strongest contrast to that color. Red and green are examples of complementary colors.
Composition
The way the principles of art are used to organize the elements of art.
Content
The message, idea or feelings expressed or communicated in a work of art.
Contour Line
A line that defines the edges and surface of an object.
Convergence
The use of the elements of art to make the viewer's eye come to a particular object or focal point from different directions within the work.
Cool Colors
Blue, green and violet. Cool colors suggest coolness and seem to recede from a viewer. Cool colors can be used as a color scheme. Opposite of warm colors.
Credit Line
A list of important facts about a work of art. A credit line usually includes the artist's name, the title of the work, year completed, medium used, size (height, width, and depth), location (gallery, museum or collection and city), donors and the date donated.
Cross-hatching
The technique of using crossed lines for shading.
Description
A list of all things seen in a work of art. The initial process (Step #1) in art criticism.
Design
Plan, organization or arrangement of elements in a work of art.
Diagonal
In a slanted direction.
Dimension
The amount of space an object takes up in one direction. The three dimensions are height, width and depth.
Figure
Human form in a work of art.
Focal Point
The part of a work of art that attracts attention the attention of the viewer first. Focal points are created by using contrast, location, isolation, convergence and the unusual or unexpected.
Foreground
Part of the picture plane that appears closest to the viewer. The foreground is usually at the bottom of the picture.
Formal Balance
Way of organizing parts of a design so that equal, or very similar, elements are placed on opposite sides of a central axis. Formal balance suggests stability. Symmetry is a type of formal balance. Opposite of informal balance.
Free Form Shapes
Irregular or uneven shapes. Free-form shapes are often referred to as organic shapes. Opposite of geometric shapes.
Functional Art
Works of art made to be used instead of only viewed. Objects must be judged by how well they function when used.
Genre Painting
Paintings that depict scenes from everyday life as their subject matter.
Geometric Shape
Precise shapes that can be described using mathematical formulas. Basic geometric shapes are the circle, square, triangle, and rectangle. Basic geometric forms are the cylinder, cube, and pyramid. Opposite of free-form shapes.
Gesture Drawing
Quickly and loosely drawing lines to show movement in a subject.
Gradation
A scale or series of successive changes, stages or degrees.
Grattage
Wet paint is scratched with a variety of tools to create implied texture.
Grid
A pattern of intersecting horizontal and vertical lines.
Hatching
Technique of shading with a series of the fine parallel lines.
Highlight
Small areas of white used to show the very brightest spots. Highlights show the surfaces of the subject that reflect the most light. They are used to create the illusion of form. Opposite of shadows.
Horizon
A point at which earth and sky meet visually.
Horizontal
A line that moves parallel to the horizon, across or from left to right.
Hue
The name of a color in the color spectrum. Hue is related to the wavelength of reflected light. Hue is one of the three properties of color.
Implied Lines
A series of points that the viewer's eyes automatically connect. Implied lines are suggested, not real.
Implied Texture
A series of lines, shapes, color and/or color patterns that suggested texture when actual texture is not present.
Informal Balance
A way of organizing parts of a design involving a balance of unlike objects. Asymmetry is another term for informal balance. Opposite of formal balance.
Intensity
The brightness or dullness of a hue. A pure hue is called a high intensity color. A dulled hue (a color mixed with its complement) is called a low-intensity color. Intensity is one of three properties of color.
Intermediate Color
A color made by mixing a primary color and a secondary color. Intermediate colors is another name for tertiary colors.
Interpretation
In art criticism, the step (#3) that explains or tells something about the meaning or mood of the work of art. In art history, the step in which one does the research about the artist.
Judgment
In art criticism, the step (#4) in which artistic merit is determined. In art history, the step in which it is determined whether the work made an important contribution to the history of art.
Landscape
Painting or drawing in which natural land, scenery, (e.g., mountains, trees, rivers) is the main feature.
Linear Perspective
The graphic system that creates the illusion of depth and volume on a flat surface. In one point linear perspective, all receding lines meet at a single point. In two-point linear perspective, different sets of lines meet at two different points.
Literal Qualities
Real or absolute qualities that appear in a work of art.
Logo
Symbol, design or trademark adopted by an organization to identify its products or service.
Mat
To frame a picture or drawing with a cardboard border.
Media
Plural form of medium.
Medium
Material used to make art.
Middle Ground
Area of a picture plane between the foreground and the background.
Monochromatic
A color scheme that uses only one hue and the tints and shades of the hue.
Mosaic
A picture or pattern produced by arranging small colored pieces of hard material like, ceramic, glass, stone, or marble set into cement.
Motif
A unit repeated in a visual pattern that often creates a sense of rhythm.
Negative Space
Empty spaces surrounding shapes or forms. An area unoccupied with objects.
Neutral Colors
Black, white, gray and variations of brown. Often these colors are called earth colors.
Non-Objective
Having no recognizable object or subject matter.
Opaque
Quality of material that does not let any light pass through. Opposite of transparent.
Organic Shapes/Forms
Shapes or forms having irregular edges or made by the forces of nature. Opposite of manufactured shapes/forms.
Orthogonal Lines
Systematic diagonal lines used in a linear perspective drawing.
Outline
A line that shows or creates the outer edge of a shape.
Overlap
To extend over, to partly cover.
Palette
Tray for mixing colors of paint or the range of colors used by a particular artist or in a particular picture.
Parallel Lines
Lines that move in the same direction and always stay the same distance apart.
Pattern
An arrangement or sequence repeated in a predictable combination.
Perspective
A graphic system that creates the illusion of depth and volume on a two-dimensional surface.
Photography
The technique of capturing optical images on light-sensitive surfaces.
Point of View
Angle from which the viewer sees an object or scene.
Portrait
Image of a person, especially the face and upper body.
Positive Space
Shapes or spaces that represent solid objects.
Primary Colors
Refers to the colors red, yellow and blue. From these three colors all other colors can be created.
Proportion
principle of art concerned with the size relationships of one part to another.
Radial
Arrangement of elements that appear to come from a central point, circular.
Representational
Relating to art that aims to depict the physical appearance of objects or scenes.
Rule of thirds
Divide two-dimensional work of art in thirds both vertically and horizontally, place the focus of the work in an area either one-third across or one- third up or down, not dead center. When used, this theory allows the eye to find the focal point, then move across the surface of the work.
Sculpture
Three-dimensional work of art to be viewed from all sides or in bas-relief.
Seascape
Painting or drawing in which the sea is the main subject.
Secondary Colors
Colors that are mixtures of two primaries; orange, green and violet.
Self-Portrait
An image of a person created by the artist him or herself.
Sgraffito
A form of decoration made by scratching through a surface to reveal a lower layer of a contrasting color, typically done in plaster or stucco on walls, or in slip on ceramics before firing.
Shade
A dark value of a hue made by mixing the hue with black. Opposite of tint.
Shading
The use of light and dark to give a feeling of depth and texture.
Shadows
Shaded areas in a drawing or painting. Shadows show the surfaces of the objects that reflect the least amount of light to create the illusion of form. Opposite of highlights.
Single Point Perspective
The graphic system that creates the illusion of depth and volume on a flat surface using one vanishing point.
Sketch
Quick rough drawing without much detail that can be used as a plan or reference when creating later works of art.
Split Complimentary
One hue and the hues on each side of its compliment on the color wheel. Red-orange and blue and green are split complementary colors.
Still Life
Painting, drawing or arrangement of inanimate or unmoving objects.
Stippling
Technique of shading using numerous dots or specs.
Structural lines
Lines that hold a design together.
Symbol
Something that stands for or represents something else.
Symmetry
A type of formal balance in which two halves of an object or composition are identical, mirror images.
Tertiary Colors
A color made by mixing a primary color and a secondary color. Also known as intermediate colors.
Texture
The surface quality of materials. The element of art that refers to how something feels (actual texture) or looks like it feels (implied texture) to the touch.
Three-Dimensional
Having height, width and depth.
Tint
A light value of a hue made by mixing the hue with white. Opposite of shade.
Tone
Color or hue shaded or darkened with gray (both black and white).
Transparent
Quality of material that allows light to pass through. Opposite of opaque.
Two-Dimensional
Having height and width but not depth, flat.
Two Point Perspective
The graphic system that creates the illusion of depth and volume on a flat surface using two vanishing points.
Unity
The quality wholeness or oneness achieved through the effective use of the elements and principles of art. Unity is created by simplicity, repetition and proximity.
Value
The element of art that describes the darkness or lightness of a color or object.
Value Scale
A scale showing the range of values from black to white and light to dark.
Vanishing Point
A point on the horizon where receding parallel lines seem to meet or converge and disappear visually.
Vertical
At right angles to the horizon, referring to straight up and down.
Warm Colors
Red, orange and yellow. Warm colors suggest warmth and seem to move toward the viewer. Warm colors can be used as a color scheme. Opposite of cool colors
Principles of Design
Balance,Contrast, Contrast, Emphasis, Harmony, Movement, Repetition, Rhythm, Subordination, Unity, Variation