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Romantic and Victorian Poetry
Terms in this set (86)
An artistic and intellectual movement in Europe in the late 18th Century, characterized by a heightened interest in nature, emphasis on the individual's expression of emotion and imagination, departure from the attitudes and forms of classicism, and rebellion from social rules and conventions. Some of the Victorian literature influenced by Romantic movement. Themes of love with nature revived. Nature is a part of God. Imaginations in fiction gained power again instead of Realism but for a short time.
Seen as a bridge between the earlier "Romantics" and the modernist poets of the 20th Century. Several important poets include Elizabeth Barrett Browning and her husband, Robert Browning, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Matthew Arnold and Gerard Manley Hopkins. Features a resurgence of Medieval interests blended with contemporary concerns (Idylls of the King). Important time for the development of science, tried to describe and classify the natural world. Charles Darwin On the Origin of the Species about the theory of evolution. Although it took a long time to be accepted, it dramatically affected society and thought.
Themes of Victorian Poetry
Realism, Humanism, Idealism, Socialism, Criticism, Naturalism, Glory of Past, Modernism, Philosophical ideas feminism, Romanticism, Intellectualism, and Pre-Raphaelitism.
The attempt to produce art and literature an accurate portrayal of reality. Realistic detailed descriptions of everyday life, and of its darker aspects. Themes in realistic writing included: Families, Religion, and Social reforms.
Deals with: Ordinary concerns of human life, Tenderness of English life, Emotions of everyday life, and Glory of soul through senses individually.
Is about: Social aspects of contemporary life, Social disintegration, Life affected by industrialism, Conflicts between upper and lower class, and Homeliness of middle and lower class.
Talks about: On social life of that time, On contemporary industrialism, On political situation, On the ways of English thoughts, On mid-century skeptical unrest, and Indirect criticism on slavery.
Events and actions are not resulted from human
intentions but from the uncontrolled external forces. Description of green pastures and still waters. Man is corrupted by social institutions.
Glory of the Past
Shows: Culture and anarchy of the past, Positive effects of Puritanism, Propinquity with the Romantic Movement, and Religious and social ideas of past.
Is about: Certain aspects of existence, Life in industrial North, and Individuality and seniority of modern era.
Institutionism and utilitarianism were the two basic philosophies used in Victorian literature. To deals with the serious moral issues of that time. For example : religion , thoughts and above all social life.
Wrote about their own emotions and inmost thoughts and feelings. Love of a wife and mother. Spiritual geography of hopes, fears and loves from a woman's point of view.
About: Geological discoveries, Philosophical generalization, and Biological investigation.
School against the intellectualism of Victorian age "Science has nothing to do with art" Followed the Aesthetic movement "Art for art sake" Tractarian Movement "Science has nothing to do with religion"
DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI
Rossetti was an artist and poet very influential in the pre-Raphaelite movement. He would often write a poem specifically for a piece of his artwork, or the other way around.
Most famous for her poem Goblin Market, Rossetti asserted herself as a great female poet of the era. She was published widely until her death, especially in the pre-Raphaelite magazine "The Germ"
(1822-88) Matthew Arnold was considered one of the first modern poets of the Victorian Era. He was the superintendent of England's schools for many years and was highly revered. Arnold was famous for his imagery involving the ocean and also themes involving women. Poet, prose writer,critic and educationalist. Wrote a series of essays on literary and social topics. Constantly looked to the classics for symbols of permanence and stability. Arnold's use of nature is in "A Wish," in which the speaker's dying wish is to be placed by a window as he dies, so that he may look out at the beautiful landscape that will be there long after he is gone. In Dover Beach he remarks on the disparity between what faith used to be and what faith is now. Arnold's turning to the past and his praise of classical writers reflect his dissatisfaction with the present. In "Bacchanalia," themes on the impact of the revolutions in industry and science was not comforting, and Arnold, like other Victorians sought refuge in faith. Other themes used by him were time , criticism on labor and classical mythology.
ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON
(1809 - 1892) Tennyson was the Poet Laureate of the era, and one of the most revered poets of all time. His lengthy poem In Memoriam is his most famous. He is the 2nd most quoted writer after Shakespeare. Early poems in the style of those of Keats, which delighted in the senses. In The Princess, A Medley (1847) theme of equality of the sexes.. The first three books of poetry (1833, 1832, 1842) include Tennyson´s best work e.g. Mariana, "The Lady of Shalott", "Ulysses"," Morte d´Arthur", "The Lotos-Eaters". Later, new developments in scientific progress led him to contemplate on the changing world. For Tennyson, doubt was the basis of his inspiration. In, "In Memoriam" A.H.H. - a series of elegies (1833- 1850), - comments on change and evolution and contemplates the question of man's destiny and immortality in the age of new discoveries. Queen Victoria declared that she valued it next to the Bible. Despite Tennyson's Romantic spirit, he was a Victorian who shared the fundamental ethos of the Victorian age. "Ulysses"(1833), illustrates the Victorian morality of self-control and self discipline as a means to continue and succeed is about the great hero searching for life in spite of old age and coming death. "Tithonus" concerns the weariness of life on earth when all one wants to do is fade into the earth and no longer linger on. "The Two Voices" is a debate about whether or not to commit suicide. "The Idylls of the King" (1859-72) his popular series of poems on episodes from the legends of King Arthur. Tennyson - in constant protest against the individualism, which the Victorian era inherited from the Romantic period.
(1812 - 1889) Browning was famous for his dramatic monologues and commentary on social institutions. He was married to Victorian poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Aware that he was writing poetry in an age of science, of technology and prose. Interested in the study of human soul. From the very start he discussed in monologue, problems of life and conscience. His poem, "Pauline" was a fragment of personal confession. In "Paracelsus" (1835) he described the strange career of the Renaissance physician, in whom true science and charlatanism were combined. B's main literary inspiration - P.B.Shelley. His early long poem" Sordello "(1840) poem - the relationship between life and art - recognized as one of his most extraordinary and important works. Browning's admiration for the' subjective poet´ soon gave way to a desire for greater objectivity which led him to his 'dramatic monologues ' MY LAST DUCHESS The dramatic monologue - Browning's main achievement. B's mature poetry, portrays exciting controversial characters, some based on historical figures, some products of his imagination: Dramatic Romances and Lyrics ( 1845 ) , Men and Women (1855 ), Dramatis Personae ( 1864). Many poems consider the impending nature of death as a melancholy context to balance the joy of life. Examples are "Love Among the Ruins" and "A Toccata of Galuppi's." Other poems find strength in the acceptance of death, like "Prospice," "Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came," and "Rabbi Ben Ezra." Some poems - like "My Last Duchess," "Porphyria's Lover," "Caliban upon Setebos," or "The Laboratory" - simply consider death as an everpresent punishment. Browning's most ambitious work, the long narrative of a 17th-century murder story is" The Ring and the Book" (1868 -69). The poem consists of 10 verse narratives, all dealing with the same crime, each from a different viewpoint. Based on an actual trial, the record of which Browning discovered in Florence. Browning´s fame rests on the volumes, published between 1842 and 1864, which contain his love poems and dramatic monologues.
(1806 - 1861) Browning, married to poet Robert Browning was also one of the most famous Victorian poets - famous both in England and the US. She had a great influence on Edgar Allen Poe and Emily Dickinson. 33 Began writing in old-fashioned form. Influences: the Bible, the Greeks, Byron and Shelley. An imitation of Coleridge in her impressions of the Middle Ages Wrote many of her short poems for magazines, the most important contribution" The Cry of the Children" (1844), a protest against the employment of children in factories. In 1845, Robert Browning met her, fell in love with her, and persuaded her to elope with him to Italy. She wrote 44 sonnets as the sonnets were deeply personal,wrote for her love R. Browning she decided to present them as translations, calling them "Sonnets from the Portuguese". They were published in 1850 in the volume Poems. B. - a passionate supporter of Italian independence - in
her work by "Casa Guidi Windows" (1851) "Aurora Leigh"(1857) deals with the themes of social responsibility and the position of women. Mrs. Browning's distrust of the theories of contemporary French socialists. She believed that in the kind of state envisioned by the radical socialists there would be no place for artists and poet ,this was the important theme used by her in her work.
What are the approximate years of the Romantic period in literature?
What are some 3-4 things that Romanticism emphasizes?
Reason vs feelings as the guide to certainty. Which one should be the guide, according to the Romantics? Why?
The idea of a Revolution as a Romantic idea. In what ways can the American and French Revolution be considered as outcomes of Romantic ideals?
What was the Romantic view of nature and the primitive?
What is the view and role of Imagination for the Romantics?
What did "Nature" mean to the Romantics?
What are some characteristics of the "Romantic Hero"?
Describe the main characteristics of Lyric poetry.
What would most of us expect to see in a lyric poem?
Frequent themes in Romanticism: imagination, sensitivity, feelings, spontaneity, freedom, introspection, intuition, individualism, nature, solitude, emotion. Give an example for each of the themes from the poems in this unit.
How do the Victorians perpetuate and develop ideas or literary practices inherited from the past (for example, from the Romantics)?
How do the Victorians react against literary practices of the past?
What Victorian ideas and practices seem to point toward the future (for example, the ideas and practices of modern - i.e., 20th-century - literature?
How was Victorian literature influenced by social, political, and economic changes taking place during the period?
How do different Victorian writers deal with the increasing influence of materialism in the life and thought of their time?
How do different Victorian writers explore the relationship between bodily and nonbodily experience ("spirit" or "consciousness")?
In general, what was the impact of 19th-century scientific developments on Victorian literature?
How is the specific idea of evolution an important influence on Victorian literature?
How did Darwin's contributions to evolutionary thought influence Victorian literature?
Explain permanence verses mutability in the poem "Ode to a Nightingale."
Describe the background of the poem "Ode to the Nightingale."
What is the impact of the bird's song on the poet in "Ode to a Nightingale?"
In "Ode to a Nightingale" by Keats, what is the speaker in love with?
What is the theme of the poem "Ode to a Nightingale"?
What is the element of sensuousness in "Ode to a Nightingale"?
How does Keats' "Ode to a Nightingale" follow the pastoral tradition?
In "Ode to the West Wind" what are the specific elements of nature effected by the wind? How are these effects transformed from physical phenomena to symbolic action?
In "Ode to the West Wind" why does the speaker ask the wind to "lift" him? Is there a sense in which this poem is
In "Ode to the West Wind" Consider the tone of the speaker's address to the wind. Give Two examples from the
poem that show the tone of the piece.
In "Ode to the West Wind" The poem leads to a statement of personal, even spiritual, crisis; yet it concludes with great optimism. How is this achieved? Can we now interpret the poem's famous ending beyond its general popular meaning?
What is unusual about the way the narrator tells his story? How does he represent Porphyria's actions and emotions in the poem "Porphyria's Lover"?
What is the narrative structure of "Porphyria's Lover"?
In addition to being Porphyria's former lover, how would you characterize the speaker of this poem?
How do we discover that the speaker is insane in Robert Browning's poem "Porphyria's Lover"?
What is the theme of "Porphyria's Lover"?
In "Porphyria's Lover," why does the narrator kill the woman he loves?
Describe the characters of Porphyria and her lover in the poem "Porphyria's Lover" by Robert Browning
Explain the idea behind the following lines from the poem, "Porphyria's Lover"
i. She / for all her heart's endeavor
ii. to set its struggling passion free
iii. From pride, and vainer ties dissever
iv. And give herself to me forever. (21-25)
In the poem "Tears, Idle Tears" why does the poet Lord Alfred Tennyson describe tears as "idle"?
"What is the Epiphany that the speaker in Tennyson's poem discovers?
Tennyson said that as a child he was haunted by "the passion of the past." In what ways can Tennyson's poem be seen as an example of his preoccupation with the past?
In "Charge of the Light Brigade" About which war was the poem written?
In "Charge of the Light Brigade"According to the first stanza, how many British forces rode into the battle?
In "Charge of the Light Brigade"Why do you think Tennyson refers to the valley in the poem as the "Valley of death?"
In "Charge of the Light Brigade" Why did the soldier ride into the valley?
In "Charge of the Light Brigade" What kind of weapons did the British have?
In "Charge of the Light Brigade" What kind of weapons did their opponents have?
In "Charge of the Light Brigade" What does the line, "Someone blundered" in stanza 2 mean?
In "Charge of the Light Brigade" What do the following lines mean?
A. theirs not to reason why
B. theirs but to do or die
In "Charge of the Light Brigade" What does this poem say about War?
In "Charge of the Light Brigade" Give several adjectives from the poem that describe the British soldiers.
In "Dover Beach" Can the world really be all good or all bad? Is that what this poem is saying at the end, or are things more mixed than that?
In "Dover Beach" Some critics have called this poem's outlook "modern." Does that sound right to you? Does it seem like this poem is clicked into the way the modern world works, or does its perspective seem outdated to you? Are these critics referring to Modernism?
In "Dover Beach" When do you think your best thoughts? Is it when you're out in nature? In the shower?
In "Dover Beach" Waking up from a nap? Are your thoughts inspired by particular things you see and hear?
In "Dover Beach" Does the love of two people really matter in the grand scheme of things? How does our speaker seem to feel about that?
In "Dover Beach" When you look at the world around you, do you tend to see chaos, or order? What about the speaker of "Dover Beach?"
In "Dover Beach" Do you agree with the speaker that there is less faith, less belief in the world than their
used to be? If so, does that seem like a bad thing to you?
In "Dover Beach" Does human life get better or worse as time goes by? Is that even the right way to think about it? How might this poem help us to think about the arc of the past, present, and future?
Born April 7th, 1770 in Cockermouth, England to John Wordsworth and Ann Cookson. Grew up in the Lake District, which was a science region in Northern England. Sister is Dorothy Wordsworth, a poet and diarist who he was baptized with and remained close to all his life. They had three other siblings: Richard the lawyer, John, who was also a poet until his 1809 death by shipwreck, and Christopher, who became an academian. Grew up reading great poets such as Milton and Spencer, given full access to his father's library. Spent time with mother's relatives in Cumberland, where he experienced the moors and natural landscapes. Suffered from mistreatment from relatives. Did not get along with his uncle or his grandfather and contemplated suicide. Father was a lawyer in a mansion far away, and the whole family was distant from him. In 1778, his mother died and his father sent him to Hawkshead Grammar school, and his
sister Dorothy to Yorkshire, with relatives. They would not see each other again for nine years. In 1787, published his first sonnet in The Europeans Magazine and began attending St. John's college. Started travelling and took part in walking tour of Europe for the beauty of natural landscapes. In November of 1791, travelled to France where he met and fell in love with a French woman named Annette Vallon. She conceived a daughter, Caroline. For financial reasons, Worsworth returned alone to England, and the French tensions and Reign of Terror prevented him returning to his family. He continued to support them financially and became depressed, as he loved both mother and child dearly. Wrote one of his most famous poems, "It is a beauteous evening, calm and free" about talking a walk with his daughter. In 1802, was finally able to return to France, where a mutual agreement about his obligations was reached. In 1795, he met fellow poet Samuel Coleridge, and the the two quickly became friends. Inspired by the world around him and the beauty of physical landscapes, he began to compose "Lyrical Ballads", the volume of poetry that set the Romantic movement in poetic literature into swing. The book opened with Coleridge's "The Ancient Mariner". Inheriting a legacy, his finances improved and he moved in with Dorothy, who he cared for over the last twenty years of her life. In 1798, he began to write a long, philosophical autobiographical poem that would not be published until after his death in 1850. Wrote the enigmatic "Lucy" poems in Germany, over the winter of 1798-99. In 1802, he married Mary Hutchinson, an old childhood friend. Mary and Dorothy (ever present) became very close. Mary bore William's children five times, and three of those children died before Mary and William. "Willy" Wordsworth and John Wordsworth were the only two to outlive their parents. Dora Wordsworth would livelong enough to marry and grow up, while Thomas and Catherine died in 1812. Thomas was six, Catherine was three. In 1805, his brother John died and this affected him greatly. After the death of Robert Southey in 1843, Wordsworth became Poet Laureate of England. When Dora died in 1847, his poetry came to a standstill. On April 23'rd, 1950, Wordsworth met his fateful end by re-aggravating a case of pleurisy. Was buried in St. Oswald's cemetary in Grasmere. His widow, Mary, published his autobiographical poem to Coleridge as "The Prelude". Did not garner much attention in 1850, but is now regarded as his masterpiece. Spent most of his life living in the Lake District in a place called Dove Cottage.
Was born on October 21st 1772 in Ottery, St. Mary to John and Ann Coleridge. Bullied by his brother Frank and ran away at age 7. His father died in 1781, just before his 9th birthday. Sent to the boarding school, Christ school. He was a brilliant student. In 1791, his brother George sent him to Jesus College on a small allowence. Won a college medal in the first year for a beautiful poem written in Greek, and was one of the four competitors for a scholarship in the second year. At the same time, was going through an adolescent crisis and experimenting with opium, sex, alcohol and falling in love. Coleridge in December of 1793, he left school and joined the Dragoons, but kept falling off of his horse. In April, his brothers found him, bailed him out and convinced him to return to Cambridge. That summer (1794) he quit school and met the poet Robert Southey, and the two planned to build a utopia. The plan required both of them to marry, so Southey married Edith Fricker and Coleridge married her younger sister Sara. The utopia failed miserably, and he was trapped in a loveless marriage. Was earning his money at this time as a Unitarian preacher, and began to seriously write poetry. Befriended William and Dorothy Wordsworth. The poets planned "Lyrical Ballads" in 1797. (p. 1798) That Semptember, they visited Germany where Coleridge was heavily influenced by Kant, Schiller and Schelling. Came back full of Romantic German thought. In 1799, moved in with the Wordsworths and fell in love with Mary Hutchinson's younger sister, Sara. She appears in his poems as "Asra". Earned an annuity of 150.00 a year, that kept him from having to be a minister. Was using opium, though it is unclear whether or not his increasing use was a cause or a symptom of his worsening depression. His 1802 poem, "Dejection: An Ode", emphasized his despair at his loss of creative powers. Travelled to Sicily and Malta in 1804, working as Public Secretary under the commissioner, Alexander Ball. Gave this up and returned to England in 1806. People were shocked to see how bad his addiction had become. used as much as two quarts a week. Seperated from his wife in 1808. Quarelled with Wordsworth in 1810. Lost his annuity in 1811. Put himself under care of Dr. Daniel in 1814. in 1817, finally moved to Highgate to be cared for by Dr. Gilman. Established himself as the most intellectual of all the poets. Delivered an influential series of lectures on Shakespeare. Was better known as a speaker than anything else. Became famous for his "Highgate Thursdays". Managed to keep his demons under control for the next eighteen years. Eventually mended his friendship with Wordsworth. The Gilman family built an addition on their home to support the poet. Died on July 25th, 1834 due to heart failure caused by an unknown lung disorder, linked to his use of opium.
Born October 31st, 1795 to Thomas and Frances Keats. Oldest of the four surviving children. In 1803, he went away to Endfield to John Clarke's school. In 1804, his father was killed after falling off a horse and fracturing his skull. Two months later, his mother remarried but was unhappy and left her new husband. She regretted this action because by law, now everything belonged to her new husband including the kids. Frances' mother took custody of the children but could not get any property back. Hubby #2 quickly sold everything and disappeared. Tip of the ice berg of his tragic life. Even though he was small, got into a lot of fist fights. Never grew much more than five feet and was very annoyed when people mistook his younger brother George as being older than he was. In 1809, finally saw his mother again. She had become a prostitute to support herself after leaving her husband. Keats nursed her devotedly, but she died a year later from tuberculosis. Her brother had died of the same disease. He was devastated by her death and his agressive behaviour became one of study. A year later he was asked what he would like to do, and he wanted to become a surgeon. Sent to study as an apprentice under Thomas Hammond. Began to read lyrical poetry for the first time. He was fourteen. In 1814, his grandmother died and the family was split up. The only girl, Frances, was sent to live with other gaurdians, as it was imporper for a young girl to live with her older brothers. George and Tom were sent away to work, and John isolated himself and began to write very sorrowful poetry. When he became a published poet, Keats gathered every scrap of paper he'd written on and burned it because he thought it was awful. Even with his gorwing interest in poetry, he worked very hard in his studies and jumped ahead of the curriculum. Earned a promotion at the Guy Hospital in London, moved around from room to room near the London Bridge. Met publisher Leigh Hunt, who believed Keats had promise and potential. "A Poet to watch". First book of poetry appeared on March 3rd 1817. The book did not sell well, and did not please critics. His friend and fellow poet Shelley challenged him to a competition. Keats won the poem and became the sought after poet in London, caught in a whirlwind of parties. In June of 1818, he became paranoid that he only had three years to live. He knew he would die from tuberculosis. left london and started touring Scotland and its Lakes, as well as England's Lake District. Had already written most of his most famous poetry but felt he hadn't touched the literary world enough. Moved to Hampstead to take care of Thomas who was sick with consumption. At this time, fell in love with a young woman named Fanny. Believed that he was too poor to marry her, and that it would stunt his creativity. He did not marry her. Tom died in December of 1818. John should have inherited some money, but Abbey, another legal gaurdian claimed he could not inherit the money until his younger sister turned 21. Later revealed that Abbey had taken 1000.00 from the grandma's death. Brother George had moved to America and squandered money away, so was now relying on John to help pay off his debts. Published more poetry for money, and gave it all to his brother, even though he was penniless. Critics hated it. In early 1820, he began to cough up blood. He had developed consumption. A close friend, Charles Brown, wanted to send him to italy, as it was a warmer climate and there was no cure for consumption. in September, departed with another ill friend, Joseph Severn. Became sicker during the journey, due to the close quarters and quarantine. Kept in touch with Fanny, though he asked for the letters to be destroyed after his death. 31 survived and made it into the Oxford University Press. Once in Rome, he roomed with Severn and was not allowed to write anymore poetry, as doctors thought it was too strenuous. He kept writing to Fanny and missed her deeply. Wanted to attempt suicide by taking poison, but Severn stopped him. Later became so delirious that he would rant a Severn for stopping him, and believed his friends in London had tried to poison him. On February 23rd, 1821, Keats died. An autopsy showed his lungs were totally destroyed, and they were amazed he had lasted so long. Buried on February 26th in a Protestant cemetary.
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Born in 1792 to Timothy and Elizabeth Shelley. His father was an M.P. and his family was aristocratic. He was educated at Eton school and Oxford University. Expelled on March 25th, 1810 for writing a pamphlet called "The Necessity of Atheism". Eloped with 16 year old Harriet Westbrook and moved to Scotland. His father never forgave him. Harriet had two children: Ianthe and Charles. In 1814, he started having an affair with Mary Wollstonecraft's daughter. Harriet committed suicide by drowning in 1816. The children were left to her parents custody. Harriet had just borne Charles, while Shelley had already been with Mary. Shelley was now free to marry his new love, Mary Godwin. His poetry became well known for its deep, mythological vision. Friends with John Keats and financially supported Leigh Hunt when he was imprisoned. Hunt published the long poem, "Queen Mab" where Shelley explored his values including republicanism and atheism. Mary's half sister, from the second Mrs. Godwin, also committed suicide. Mary and Percy took to travelling Europe. February 15th, 1815, Mary delivered a daughter who only lived for a few days. Jaunary, 1816, their son was born. Named William. Mary's stepsister Jane Clairmont reinvented herself as Clair Clairmont and became Lord Byron's mistress. Percy Shelley, being an amazing peacemaker and friend to Byron, fell in love with Claire while he was trying to solve tensions between her and Byron. And everyone still loved him. In 1818, he and Mary moved to Italy, and their son Percy Florence was born. Byron, Shelley and Leigh Hunt published The Liberal, attacking British Government. They were safe from prosecution because it was published in italy. Returning from a peace making mission, he was lost at sea during a fierce storm. His body washed up on shore 11 days later, and he was cremated. His heart was buried in Bornesmouthe.
Lord George Byron
Considered the perfect image of a poet-hero. George Gorden Noel Byron was born the sixth baron Byron on January 22nd, 1788. Born into aristocracy and fast-decaying nobility. His father married his mother, Catherine for her financial income, and died in 1791. Was born with a birth defect that caused him to walk only on the balls of his feet. This, combined with his family's contempt for widow and child, caused wounded pride. He had a need for self-assertion, which came in three ways: poetry, love and action. Had an active childhood, full of play and mischeif. Willingly played cricket, and appointed someone else to run for him. When he was eight, he fell madly in love with his cousin. Upon hearing of her engagement at sixteen, he became physically ill. His teachers believed he was a genius, but he was more concerned with his friends and starting school revolts than actually doing his schoolwork. He read constantly and was known to have an amazing memory. Called his friends "passions". In 1798, his granduncle died, leaving George to inherit the estate and the title of "Lord". Spent four years at Harrow, then went to Trinity college. Had a mad love for women and numerous love affairs, which he wrote journals and catlogues about. They are, make no mistake, packed. Love. Action. Poetry. He became more concious of idealism (romanticism), and less concerned with the realistic importance of experience. He wanted genuine passion. He wanted women. In 1807, published his first book of poetry called "Hours Of Idleness". In the preface, he apoligizes for pushing himself on the world when at his age, he should be employed some other way. Critics harshly attacked his work. Despair? No. Byron then harshly attacked the critics, showing for the first time his sarcastic wit and satirical abilities. Caused by his aristocratic life and classical education. This singled him out amongst the other romantic poets. In 1809, travelled into the Mediteranian, where he toured for two years. Wrote his two cantos (long poetry), called "Childe Harold's Pilgrimmage". It was released in 1812 and recieved instant glory. Combined the descriptive scnes of nature, the meditations of visions on earth, the vanity of material objects, the exaltation of freedom, and above all, a new hero was impassioned in spite of his weariness of life. He shocked all of London by his affairs with Lady Caroline Lamb, Lady Oxford, and his half sister Augusta. love. Action. Poetry. Proved he had no morals, and it only made him more popular. From then on, his guilt and feelings of incest were strongly present in his writing. He published many books between 1812 and 1816. Believed incest was a good metaphor for man: criminal, but genuine and irresistable. In his total alienation, he started to focus on the tragic condition of mankind and made himself an outcast. Guess what? More popularity. Hoping to appease his guilty mind, married Anna Milbank in 1815. It was a total failure. She left him after a year. While his private life had often been ignored by critics, the Tories attacked the failure of marriage due to Byron's attack of Prince Regent. On April 25th, 1816, had to leave his native country and never return. In Switzerland, he spent months reading Wordsowrth under the convincing of his friend, Percy Shelley. Influenced his work in new ways. His first drama, "Manfred", revealed a new inwardness. in October of 1816, moved to venice, Italy where he settled at last. his new work showed maturity and he fell in love one last time, with Theresa Giuciolli. He was at last coming to terms with his desperate idea of life. He ran real risks to help the Italian Carbonari in 1820-1821. The group was a secret organization that believed in change in society and ran on a constitution. His early poetry had brought awareness to the struggle of Greece under the rule of the Turks. Joined the freedom fighters, where he died of fever on April 9th in Greece. He was a hero.
Was born on November 28th, 1757 in London. From a poor family, he was only able to recieve the most basic of education, reading and writing. Worked in his father's shop until he was fourteen, when his gift of art became so apparent he was sent to study under James Basire. Completed his apprenticeship at 21, and became an engraver. At 25, married Catherine Bouchard, who helped him to publish his first book, "Songs of Innocence". He engraved the pictures on copper plates, Catherine coloured them. His work never made him much money. Blake No head for business, he continued working based on his Christian views of the world. He published "Songs of Experience" in 1794, followed by "Milton" and "Jerusalem". After his death, parts of Milton where set to music and became a Christian anthem. Was comissioned to design art for The Book Of Job. In 1800, gained a fan in William Hayley, who asked him to create busts of artists for his home in Surrey. While there, a drunken soldier accused him of cursing the King. He was charged with treason, but the case was flimsy and he was cleared. Poured his entire soul into his work. Became depressed between 1810-1817 due to obscurity. Even his friends thought he had gone insane. Died on August 12th, 1827. Buried in an unmarked grave in Bunhill Fields, London. Became extremely famous after his death.
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