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APUSH Exam Term 1 Vocab

SUA Mrs. Gray's SUA APUSH Term 1 Exam Vocab
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Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address
"With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations." March 4, 1865.
Southern destruction (describe)
Handsome cities of yesteryear, such as Charleston and Richmond, were rubble-strewn and weed-choked. Banks and businesses had locked their doors, ruined by runaway inflation. Factories were smokeless, silent, dismantled. The transportation had broken down completely. Agriculture - the economic lifeblood of the South - was almost hopelessly crippled. Once-white cotton fields now yielded a lush harvest of nothing but green weeds. The slave-labor system had collapsed, seed was scarce, and livestock had been driven off by plundering Yankees.
former slaves react to freedom
Though some blacks initially responded to news of their emancipation with suspicion and uncertainty, they soon celebrated their newfound freedom. Many took new names in place of the ones given by their masters and demanded that whites formally address them as "Mr." or "Mrs." Others abandoned the coarse cottons that had been their only clothing as slaves and sought silks, satins, and other finery. Tens of thousands of free blacks took to the roads, some to test their freedom, others to search for long-lost spouses, parents, and children. Other blacks left their former masters to work in towns and cities, where existing black communities provided protection and mutual assistance.
Exodusters
Whole communities sometimes moved together in search of opportunity. From 1878 to 1880, some twenty-five thousand blacks from Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi surged in a mass exodus to Kansas. The westward flood of the "____" was stemmed only when steamboat captains refused to transport more black migrants across the Mississippi River.
Baptist Church, African Methodist Episcopal Church
The church became the focus of black community life in the years following emancipation. As slaves, blacks had worshipped alongside whites, but now they formed their own churches pastored by their own ministers. Black churches grew robustly. The 150,000-member black ____ Church of 1850 reached 500,000 by 1870, while the ______ Church quadrupled in size from 100,000 to 400,000 in the first decade after emancipation. These churches formed the bedrock of black community life, and they soon gave rise to other benevolent, fraternal, and mutual aid societies. All these organizations helped blacks protect their newly won freedom.
education
Emancipation also meant ___ for many blacks. Learning to read and write had been a privilege generally denied to them under slavery. Freedmen wasted no time establishing societies for self-improvement, which undertook to raise funds to purchase land, build schoolhouses, and hire teachers. Southern blacks soon found, however, that the demand outstripped the supply of qualified black teachers. They accepted the aid of Northern white women sent by the American Missionary Association, who volunteered their services as teachers. They also turned to the federal government for help. The freed blacks were going to need all the friends - and power - they could muster in Washington.
Freedmen's Bureau
The emancipators were faced with the brutal reality that the freedmen were overwhelmingly unskilled, unlettered, without property or money, and with scant knowledge of how to survive as free people. To cope with this problem throughout the conquered South, Congress created the ____ on March 3, 1865. On paper at least, the bureau was intended to be a kind of primitive welfare agency. It was to provide food, clothing, medical care, and education both to freedmen and to white refugees. Heading the bureau was a warmly sympathetic friend of blacks, Union general Oliver O. Howard, who later founded and served as president of Howard University in DC. The bureau achieved its greatest success in education, teaching an estimated 200,000 blacks how to read. Although the bureau was authorized to settle former slaves on forty-acre tracts confiscated from the Confederate, little land actually made it into blacks' hands. Instead local administrators often collaborated with planters in expelling blacks from towns and cajoling them into signing labor contracts to work for their former masters,
Andrew Johnson
Born to impoverished parents in North Carolina and orphaned early, he never attended school but was apprenticed to a tailor at age ten. Ambitious to get ahead, he taught himself to read, and later his wife taught him to write and do simple arithmetic. He early became active in politics in Tennessee, where he had moved when seventeen years old. He shone as an impassioned champion of poor whites against the planter aristocrats, although he himself ultimately owned a few slaves. He excelled as a two-fisted stump speaker before angry and heckling crowds, who on occasion greeted his political oratory with cocked pistols, not just cocked ears. Elected to Congress, he attracted much favorable attention in the North (but not the South) when he refused to secede with his own state. After Tennessee was partially "redeemed" by Union armies, he was appointed was governor and served courageously in an atmosphere of danger. He became Lincoln's VP, and later became President after Lincoln's assassination.
Union Party of 1864 and Andrew Johnson
Political exigency next thrust ___ into the vice presidency. Lincoln's Union party in 1864 needed to attract support from the War Democrats and other pro-Southern elements, and ____, a Democrat, seemed to be the ideal man. Steadfastly devoted to duty and to the people, he was a dogmatic champion of states' rights and the Constitution. He would often present a copy of the document to visitors, and he was buried with one as a pillow. Yet the man who raised himself from the tailor's bench to the president's chair was a misfit. A Southerner who did not trust the North, a Tennessean who had earned the distrust of the South, a Democrat who had never been accepted by Republicans, a president who had never been elected into office, he was not at home in a Republican White House.
Lincoln's "Ten Percent" Plan for Reconstruction
Even before the shooting war had ended, the political war over Reconstruction had begun. Abraham Lincoln had believed that the Southern states had never legally withdrawn from the Union. Their formal restoration to the Union would therefore be relatively simple. Accordingly, Lincoln in 1863 proclaimed his "___" Reconstruction plan. It decreed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when __ percent of its voters in the presidential election of 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance to the US and pledged to abide by emancipation. The next step would be formal erection of a state government. Lincoln would then recognize the purified regime.
Congress' Wade-Davis bill; "state suicide"
Lincoln's 10 percent plan provoked a sharp reaction in Congress, where Republicans feared the restoration of the planter aristocracy to power and the possible re-enslavement of blacks. Republicans therefore rammed through Congress in 1864 the ____. The bill required that 50 percent of a states' voters take the oath of allegiance and demanded stronger safeguards of emancipation than Lincoln's as the price of readmission to the Union. Lincoln "pocket-vetoed" this bill by refusing to sign it after Congress had adjourned. The controversy surrounding the bill had revealed deep differences between the president and Congress. Unlike Lincoln, many in Congress insisted that the seceders had indeed left the Union - had "committed suicide" as republican states - and had therefore fortified all their rights. The could be readmitted only as "conquered provinces" on such conditions as Congress should decree.
pocket veto
Lincoln "____" the Wades-Davis Bill by refusing to sign it after Congress had adjourned. Republicans were outraged. They refused to seat delegates from Louisiana after that state had reorganized its government in accordance with Lincoln's 10 percent plan of 1854.
moderate vs. radical Republicans
The Wades-Davis Bill and Lincoln's pocket veto further revealed differences among Republicans. Two factions were emerging. The majority moderate group tended to agree with Lincoln that the seceded states should be restored to the Union as simply and swiftly as reasonable - though on Congress's terms, not the president's. The minority radical group believed that the South should atone more painfully for its sins. Before the South should be restored, the radicals wanted its social structure uprooted, the haughty planters punished, and he newly emancipated blacks protected by federal power.
Johnson's plan for reconstruction
Johnson agreed with Lincoln that the seceded states had never legally been outside the Union. Thus he quickly recognized several of Lincoln's 10 percent governments, and on May 29, 1865, he issued his own Reconstruction proclamation. It disfranchised certain leading Confederates, including those with taxable property worth more than $20,000, though they might petition him for personal pardons. It called for special state conventions, which were required to repeal ordinances of secession, repudiate all Confederate debts, and ratify the slave-freeing Thirteenth Amendment. States that complied to these conditions, Johnson declared, would be swiftly readmitted to the Union.
Black Codes
Among the first acts of the new South regimes sanctioned by Johnson was the passage of the iron-toothed _____. These laws were designed to regulate the affairs of the emancipated blacks, much as the slave statutes had done in pre-Civil War days. The ____ varied in severity from state to state (Mississippi's was the harshest and Georgia's the most lenient), but they had much in common. They aimed, first of all, to ensure a stable and subservient labor force. Dire penalties were imposed by the codes on blacks who "jumped" their labor contracts, which usually committed them to work for the same employer for one year, and generally at pittance wages. Violators could be made to forfeit back wages or could be forcibly dragged back to work by a paid "Negro-catcher." They also sought to restore as nearby as possible the pre-emancipation system of race relations. Freedom was legally recognized, as were some other privileges, such as the right to marry. But all the codes forbade a black to serve on a jury; some even barred blacks from renting or leasing land. A black could be punished for "idleness" by being sentenced to work on a chain gang. Nowhere were blacks allowed to vote.
sharecropping
Lacking capital, and with little to offer but their labor, thousands of impoverished former slaves slipped into the status of ____ farmers, as did many landless whites. Luckless ____ gradually sank into a morass of virtual peonage and remained there for generations. Formerly slaves to masters, countless blacks as well as poor whites in effect became slaves to the soil and their creditors. Yet the dethroned planter aristocracy resented even this pitiful concession to freedom. _____ was the "wrong policy," said one planter. "It makes the laborer too independent; he becomes a partner, and has the right to be consulted."
"whitewashed rebels"
To the shock and disgust of the Republicans, many former Confederate leaders were on hand to claim their seats (in Congress). Voters of the South, seeking able representatives, had turned instinctively to their experienced statesmen. But most of the Southern leaders were tainted by active association with the "lost cause." The presence of these "_____" infuriated the Republicans in Congress. The war had been fought to restore the Union, but not on these kinds of terms. The Republicans were in no hurry to embrace their former enemies - virtually all of them Democrats - in the chambers of the Capitol.
end of the "three-fifth's compromise"
Looking to the future, the Republicans were alarmed to realize that a restored South would be stronger than ever in national politics. Before the war a black slave counted as three-fifths of a person in apportioning congressional representation. Now the slave was five-fifths of a person. Now, owing to full counting of free blacks, the rebel states were entitled to twelve more votes in Congress, and twelve more presidential electoral votes, than they previously enjoyed. Republicans feared that Southerners might join hands with Democrats in the North and win control of Congress or maybe even the White House. If this happened, they could perpetuate the Black Codes, virtually re-enslaving the blacks. They could dismantle the economic program of the Republican party by lowering tariffs, rerouting the transcontinental railroad, repealing the free-farm Homestead Act, possibly even repudiating the national debt.
Johnson's vetoes
A clash between the president and Congress exploded into the open in February 1866, when the president vetoed a bill (later repassed) extending the life of the controversial Freedmen's Bureau. In March 1866 the Republicans passed the Civil Rights Bill, which conferred on blacks the privilege of American citizenship and struck at the Black Codes. President Johnson resolutely vetoed this forward-looking measure on constitutional grounds, but in April congressmen steamrolled it over his veto - something they repeatedly did henceforth. The hapless president, dubbed "Sir Veto" and "Andy Veto," had his presidential wings clipped, as Congress increasingly assumed the dominant role in running the government. One critic called Johnson "the dead dog of the White House."
civil rights and the 14th amendment
The Republicans undertook to rivet the principle of the _____ Bill into the Constitution as the Fourteenth Amendment. They feared that the Southerners might one day win control of Congress and repeal the hated law. The proposed amendment, as approved by Congress and sent to the states in June 1866, was sweeping. It (1) conferred civil rights, including citizen-ship but excluding the franchise, on the freedmen; (2) reduced proportionality the representation of a state in Congress and in the Electoral College if it denied blacks the ballot; (3) disqualified from federal and state office former Confederates who as federal officeholders had once sworn "to support the Constitution of the United States"; and (4) guaranteed the federal debt, while repudiating all Confederate debts.
Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens
The radicals in the Senate were led by the courtly and principled idealist ____, long since recovered from his prewar caning on the Senate floor, who tirelessly labored not only for black freedom but for racial equality. In the House the most powerful radical was ____, crusty and vindictive congressmen from Pennsylvania. An unswerving friend of blacks, he had defended runaway slaves in court without fee and, before dying, insisted on burial in a black cemetery. His affectionate devotion to blacks was matched by his vitriolic hatred of rebellious white Southerners. A masterly parliamentarian with a razor-sharp mind and withering wit, __ was a leading figure on the Joint (House-Senate) Committee on Reconstruction.
Reconstruction Act of 1867 (Congressional Military Reconstruction)
Against a backdrop of vicious and bloody race riots that had erupted in several Southern cities, Congress passed the _____ on March 2, 1867. Supplemented by later measures, this drastic legislation divided the South into five military districts, each commanded by a Union general and policed by blue-clad soldiers, about twenty thousand all told. The act also temporarily disfranchised tens of thousands of former Confederates. Congress additionally laid down stringent conditions for the readmission of the seceded states. They wayward states were required to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment, giving the former slaves their rights as citizens. The bitterest pill of all to white Southerners was the stipulation that they guarantee in their state constitutions full suffrage for their former adult male slaves. Yet the act, reflecting moderate sentiment, stopped short of giving freedmen land or education at federal expense.
Fifteenth Amendment
Radical Republicans were still worried that once the unrepentant states were readmitted, they would amend their constitutions so as to withdraw the ballots from the blacks. The only ironclad safeguard was to incorporate black suffrage in the federal Constitution. This goal was finally achieved by the Fifteenth Amendment, passed by Congress in 1869 and ratified by the required number of states in 1870.
Ex parte Milligan
Military Reconstruction of the South not only usurped certain functions of the president as commander in chief but set up a martial regime of dubious legality. The Supreme Court had already ruled, in the case ____ (1866), that military tribunals could not try civilians, even during wartime, in areas where the civil courts were open. Peacetime military rule seemed starkly contrary to the spirit of the Constitution. But the circumstances were extraordinary in the Republic's history, and for the time being the Supreme Court avoided offending the Republican Congress.
redeemer (home rule) Democrats; "Solid South"
The hated "bluebellies" (federal troops) remained in the Southern states until the new Republican regimes - usually called "radical" regimes - appeared to be firmly entrenched. Yet when the federal troops finally left a state, its government swiftly passed back into the hands of white "____" or "Home Rule" regimes, which were inevitably Democratic. Finally 1877, the last federal muskets were removed from state politics, and the "__" ___ South congealed.
African American men in Congress
Black men even showed up at constitutional conventions held throughout the South in 1867, monitoring the proceedings and participating in informal votes outside the convention halls. But black men as delegates to the state constitutions held the greater political authority. They formed the backbone of the black political community. At the conventions, they sat down with whites to hammer out new state constitutions, which most importantly provided for universal male suffrage. Though the subsequent elections produced no black governors or majorities in state senates, black political participation expanded exponentially during Reconstruction. Between 1868 and 1876, fourteen black congressmen and two black senators served in Washington, DC.
scalawag and carpetbagger whites
The sight of former slaves holding office deeply offended their onetime masters, who lashed out with particular fury at the freedmen's white allies, labeling the "____" and "____." The so-called __ were Southerners, often former Unionists and Whigs. The former Confederates accused them, often with wild exaggeration, of plundering the treasuries of the Southern states through their political influence in the radical governments. The ___, on the other hand, were supposedly sleazy Northerners who had packed all their worldly goods into a ___ suitcase at war's end and had come South to seek personal power and profit. In fact, most were former Union soldiers and Northern businessmen and professionals who wanted to play a role in modernizing the "New South."
Ku Klux Klan
Deeply embittered, some Southern whites resorted to savage measures against "radical" rule. Many whites resented the success and ability of black legislators as much as they resented alleged "corruption." A number of secret organizations mushroomed forth, the most notorious of which was the "Invisible Empire of the South," or the ____, founded in Tennessee in 1866. They would approach the cabin of an "upstart" black and hammer on the door. In ghoulish tones one thirsty horseman would demand a bucket of water. Then, under pretense of drinking, he would pour it into a rubber attachment concealed beneath his mask and gown, smack his lips, and declare that this was the first water he had tasted since he was killed at the Battle of Shiloh. If fright did not produce the desired effect, force was employed.
Force Acts
Congress, outraged by this night-riding lawlessness, passed the harsh ___ of 1870 and 1871. Federal troops were able to stamp out much of the "lash law," but by this time the Invisible Empire (KKK) had already done its work of intimidation. Many of the outlawed groups continued their tactics in the guise of "dancing clubs," "missionary societies," and "rifle clubs."
Tenure of Office Act
Congress in 1867 passed the _____ - as usual, over Johnson's veto. Contrary to precedent, the new law required the president to secure the consent of the Senate before he could remove his appointees once they had been approved by the body. One purpose was the freeze into the cabinet the secretary of war, Edwin M. Stanton, a holdover from the Lincoln admin. Although outwardly loyal to Johnson, he was secretly serving as a spy and informer for the radicals.
impeachment in the House; trial in the Senate; vote
Johnson provided the radicals with a pretext to begin _____ proceeding when he abruptly dismissed Stanton early in 1868. The House immediately voted 126 to 47 to __ Johnson for "high crimes and misdemeanors," as required by the Constitution, charging him with various violations of the Tenure of Office Act. With evident zeal the radical-led Senate now sat as a court to try Johnson on the dubious ___ charges. The House conducted the prosecution. The trial aroused intense public interest and, with one thousand tickets printed, proved to be the biggest show of 1868. Johnson kept his dignity and sobriety and maintained a discreet silence. His battery of attorneys argued that the president, convinced that the Tenure of Office Act was unconstitutional, had fired Stanton merely to put a test case before the Supreme Court. House prosecutors (Benjamin F. Butler and Thaddeus Stevens) had a harder time building a compelling case for ___. On May 16, 1868, the day for the first voting in the Senate, the tension was electric, and heavy breathing could be heard in the galleries. By a margin of only one vote, the radicals failed to muster the two-thirds majority for Johnson's removal. ADD
Russia, Alaska, "Seward's Folly"
The Russians by 1867 were in a mood to sell the vast and chilly expanse of land now known as ___. They had already overextended themselves in North America, and they saw that in the likely event of another war with Britain, they probably would lose their defenseless northern province to the sea-dominant Britain. They preferred the US to any other purchaser, primarily because they wanted to strengthen further the Republic as a barrier against their ancient enemy, Britain. In 1867 Secretary of State William ____, an ardent expansionist, signed a treaty with Russia that transferred ___ to the US for the bargain price of $7.2 million. But his enthusiasm for these frigid wastes was not shared by his ignorant or uniformed countrymen, who jeered at "______,"
___'s Icebox," "Frigidia," and "Walrussia." The American people, still preoccupied with Reconstruction and other internal vexations, were economy-minded and anti-expansionist.
Compromise of 1877; the end of Reconstruction
CHANGE/ADD Renewed deadlock was avoided by the complex ____, already partially concluded behind closed doors. The Democrats reluctantly agreed that Hayes might take office in return for his withdrawing intimidating federal troops from the two states in which they remained, Louisiana and South Carolina. Among various concessions, the Republicans assured the Democrats a place at the presidential patronage trough and support for a bill subsidizing the Texas and Pacific Railroad's construction of a southern transcontinental line. Not all of these promises were kept in later years, including the Texas and Pacific subsidy. But the deal held together long enough to break the dangerous electoral standoff. The Democrats permitted Hayes to receive the remainder of the disputed terms - all by the partisan vote of 8 to 7. ADD
First Battle of Bull Run, Stonewall Jackson
A Union army of some 30,000 men drilled near Washington in the summer of 1861. It was ill-prepared for battle, but the press and the public clamored for action. Lincoln eventually concluded that an attack on a smaller Confederate force at ___ (Manassas Junction), some 30 miles southwest of Washington, might be worth a try. If successful, it might demonstrate the superiority of Union arms. It might even lead to the capture of the Confederate capital at Richmond, 100 miles to the south. If Richmond fell, secession would be thoroughly discredited, and the Union could be restored without damage to the economic and social system of the South. Raw Yankee recruits swaggered out of Washington toward __ on July 21, 1861, as if they were headed for a sporting event. Congressmen and spectators trailed along with their lunch baskets to witness the fun. At first the battle went well for the Yankees, but "Stonewall" Jackson's warriors stood like a stone wall. Then Confederate reinforcements arrived unexpectedly. Union troops fled in shameful confusion, and Confederate troops, too exhausted or disorganized to pursue, feasted on captured lunches.
General George McClellan (hesitant, cautious)
Northern hopes brightened in 1861, when General ____ was given command of the Army of Potomac, as the major Union force near Washington was now called. As a serious student of warfare who was dubbed "Young Napoleon," he had seen plenty of fighting, first in the Mexican War and then as an observer of the Crimean War in Russia. He was a perfectionist who seems no to have realized that an army is never ready to the last button and that wars cannot be won without running a little risk. He consistently but erroneously believed that the enemy outnumber him, partly because his intelligence reports from the head of Pinkerton's Detective Agency were unreliable. He was over cautious - Lincoln once accused him of having "the slows" - and he addressed the president in an arrogant tone that a less forgiving person would never have tolerated.
Peninsula Campaign (Seven Days' Battles) 1862
A reluctant McClellan at last decided upon a waterborne approach to Richmond, which lies at the western base of a narrow peninsula formed by the James and New York Rivers - hence the name given to this historic encounter: ____. McClellan warily inched toward the Confederate capital in the Spring of 1862 with about 100,000 men. After taking a month to capture historic Yorktown, which bristled with imitation wooden cannon, he finally came within sight of the spires of Richmond. At this crucial juncture, Lincoln diverted McClellan's anticipated reinforcements to chase "Stonewall" Jackson, whose lightning feints in the Shenandoah Valley seemed to put DC in jeopardy. Stalled in front of Richmond, McClellan was further frustrated when "Jeb" Stuart's Confederate cavalry rode completely around his army on reconnaissance. Then General Robert E. Lee launched a devastating counterattack - the Seven Days' Battles - June 26-July 2, 1862. The Confederates slowly drove McClellan back to the sea. The Union forces abandoned the Campaign as a costly failure, and Lincoln temporarily abandoned McClellan as commander of the Army of the Potomac - though Lee's army had suffered some 20,000 causalities to McClellan's 10,000.
Robert E. Lee, Jeb Stuart
Stalled in front of Richmond, McClellan was further frustrated when ____'s Confederate cavalry rode completely around his army on reconnaissance. Then General ____ launched a devastating counterattack - the Seven Days' Battles - June 26-July 2, 1862. The Confederates slowly drove McClellan back to the sea. __ had achieved a brilliant, if bloody, triumph. ADD?
Northern military plan (list all 6 parts)
Union strategy now turned toward total war (after Seven Days' Battles). As finally developed, the Northern military plan had six parts: 1. slowly suffocate the South by blockading its coasts 2. liberate the slaves and hence undermine the very economic foundations of the Old South 3. cut the Confederacy in half by seizing control of the Mississippi River backbone 4. chop the Confederacy to pieces by sending troops through Georgia and the Carolinas 5. decapitate it by capturing its capital at Richmond and 6. (this was Ulysses Grant's idea esp.) try everywhere to engage the enemy's main strength and to grind it into submission.
CSS Merrimack vs. USS Monitor, ironclads, steam power
The most alarming Confederate threat to the blockade came in 1862. Resourceful Southerners raised and reconditioned a former wooden US warship, the ___, and plated its sides with old iron railroad rails. Renamed the "Virginia," this clumsy but powerful monster easily destroyed two wooden ships of the Union navy in the Virginia waters of Chesapeake Bay; it also threatened catastrophe to the entire Yankee blockading fleet. A tiny Union ironclad, the ____, built in about 100 days, arrived on the scene in the nick of time. For 4 hrs., on March 9, 1862, the little "Yankee cheesebox on a a raft" fought the wheezy ____ to a standstill. A few months into the historic battle, the Confederates destroyed the ___ to keep it from the grasp of advancing Union troops. ADD
Second Battle of Bull Run, 1862
Robert E. Lee, having broken the back of McClellan's assault on Richmond, next moved northward. At the ___ (August 29-30, 1862), he encountered a Federal force under General John Pope. Lee furiously attacked Pope's troops, inflicting a crushing defeat. ADD
Battle of Antietam, MD ,1862 (bloodiest single day)
Emboldened by his victory in the 2nd Battle of Bull Run, Lee daringly thrust into Maryland. He hoped to strike a blow that would not only encourage foreign intervention but also seduce the still-wavering Border State and its sisters from the Union. But the Marylanders did not respond to the siren song. Events finally converged toward a critical battle at ___ Creek, Maryland. Lincoln, yielding to popular pressure, hastily restored "Little Mac" to active command of the main Northern army. Fortune shone upon McClellan when two Union soldiers found a copy of Lee's battle plans wrapped around a packet of three cigars dropped by a careless Confederate officer. With this crucial piece of intelligence in hand, McClellan succeeded in halting Lee at __ on Sept. 17, 1862, in one of the bitterest and bloodiest days of the war. __ was more or less a draw militarily. But Lee, finding his thrust parried, retired across the Potomac. McClellan, from whom much more had been hoped, was removed from his field command for the second and final time. His numerous critics, condemning him for not having boldly pursued the ever-dangerous Lee, finally got his scalp. ADD?
timing of Emancipation Proclamation; limited effect
Bloody Antietam was the long-awaited "victory" that Lincoln needed for launching his Emancipation Proclamation. The abolitionists had long been clamoring foe action. By midsummer of 1862, with the Border States safely in fold, Lincoln was ready to move. But he believed that to issue such an edict on the heels of a series of military disaster would be folly. It would seem like a confession that the North, unable to conquer the South, was forced to call upon the slaves to murder their masters. Lincoln therefore decided to wait for the outcome of Lee's invasion. Antietam served as the needed emancipation springboard. He issued the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on Sept. 23, 1862, and on January 1, 1863 he issued the final proclamation. ADD?
Thirteenth Amendment
Lincoln's proclamation clearly foreshadowed the ultimate doom of slavery. This was legally achieved by action of the individual states and by their ratification of the ____ in 1865, eight months after the Civil War had ended. "Neither slavery nor involuntarily servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation."
the role of African-Americans in the North and South
As Lincoln moved to emancipate the slaves, he also took steps to enlist blacks in armed forces. Although some African Americans had served in the Revolution and War of 1812, the regular army contained no blacks at the war's outset, and the War Department refused to accept those free Northern blacks who tried to volunteer. (The Union navy enrolled many blacks, mainly as cooks, stewards, and firemen.) But as manpower ran low and emancipation was proclaimed, black enlistees were accepted. Service in the war gave the blacks a chance to prove their manhood and to strengthen their claim to full citizenship at war's end. Many, when captured, were put to death as slaves in revolt, for not until 1864 did the South recognize them as prisoners of war. For reasons of pride, prejudice, and principle, the Confederacy could not bring itself to enlist slaves until a month before the war ended, and then it was too late. Meanwhile, tens of thousands were forced into labor battalions, the building of fortifications, the supplying of armies, and other war-connected activities. Involuntarily labor did not imply slave support in the Confederacy. In many ways the actions of Southern slaves crippled the Confederate war effort and subverted the institution of slavery. ADD
the failure of Burnside and Hooker
After Antietam, Lincoln replaced McClellan as commander of the Army of the Potomac with General A. E. ___, whose ornate side-whiskers came to be known as "burnsides" or "sideburns." Protesting his unfitness for the responsibility, he proved it when he launched a rash frontal attack on Lee's strong position at Fredericksburg, Virginia, on December 13, 1862. More than 10,000 Northern soldiers were killed or wounded in "___'s Slaughter Pen." A new slaughter pen was prepared when General B yielded his command to "Fighting Joe" ___, an aggressive officer but a headstrong subordinate. At Chancellorsville, Virginia, on May 2-4, 1863, Lee daringly divided his numerically inferior force and sent "Stonewall" Jackson to attack the Union flank. The strategy worked. __, temporarily dazed by a near hit from a cannonball, was badly beaten but not crushed. This victory was probably Lee's most brilliant, but it was dearly bought.
Meade and Lee at Gettysburg (1863 turning point)
Lee now prepared (after fighting Burnside and Hooker) to follow up his stunning victory by invading the North again, this time through Pennsylvania. A decisive blow would add strength to the noisy peace prodders in the North and would also encourage foreign intervention - still a Southern hope. Three days before battle was joined, Union general George G. ____ was aroused from his sleep at 2AM with the unwelcome new that he would replace Hooker. Quite by accident, he took his stand atop a low ridge flanking a shallow valley near quiet little ___, Pennsylvania. There his 92,000 men locked in furious combat Lee's 76,000. The battle seesawed across the rolling green slopes for three agonizing days, July 1-3, 1863, and the outcome was in doubt until the very end. The failure of General George Pickett's magnificent but futile charge finally broke the back of the Confederates attack - and broke the heart of the Confederate cause.
Pickett's Charge
The battle of Gettysburg seesawed across the rolling green slopes for three agonizing days, July 1-3, 1863, and the outcome was in doubt until the very end. The failure of General George ___'s magnificent but futile charge finally broke the back of the Confederates attack - and broke the heart of the Confederate cause. _____ has been called the "high tide of the Confederacy." It defined both the northernmost point reached by any significant Southern force and the last real chance for the Confederates to win the war. ADD?
Gettysburg Address
Later in the dreary autumn of 1863 (after Battle of Gettysburg), Lincoln journeyed to Gettysburg to dedicate the cemetery. He read a two-minute address, following a two-hour speech by the orator of the day, a former president of Harvard. Lincoln's noble remarks were branded by the London 'Times' as "ludicrous" and by Democratic editors as "dishwatery" and "silly." The address attracted relatively little attention at the time, but the president was speaking for the ages.
war in the West
ADD pg 466
Ulysses S. Grant
Events in the western theater of war at last provided Lincoln with an able general who did not have to be shelved after every reverse. ____ had been a mediocre student at West Point, distinguished himself only in horsemanship, although he did fairly well at mathematics. After fighting creditably in the Mexican War, he was stationed at isolated frontier posts, where boredom and loneliness drove him to drink. Resigning from the army to avoid a court-martial for drunkenness, he failed at various business ventures, and when war came, he was working in his father's leather store in Illinois for $50 a month. He managed with some difficulty to secure a colonelcy in the volunteer. From then on, his military experience - combined with his boldness, resourcefulness, and tenacity - catapulted him on a meteoric rise. ADD?
Forts Henry, Donelson; Shiloh; 1862
Grant's first signal success came in the northern Tennessee theater. After heavy fighting, he captured Fort __ and Fort ___ on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers in Feb. 1862. When the Confederate commander at Fort D asked for terms, Grant bluntly demanded "an unconditional and immediate surrender." His triumph in Tennessee was crucial: it riveted Kentucky more securely to the Union and opened the gateway to the strategically important region of Tennessee, as well as to Georgia and the heart of Dixie. He next tried to exploit his victory by capturing the junction of the main Confederate north-south and east-west railroads in the Mississippi Valley at Corinth, Mississippi. But a Confederate force foiled his plans in a glory battle at ___, just over the Tennessee border from Corinth, on April 6-7, 1862. Though Grant successfully counterattacked, the impressive Confederate showing at Shiloh confirmed that there would be no quick end to the war in the West.
Farragut's navy takes New Orleans 1862
In the spring of 1862, a flotilla commanded by David G. ___ joined with a Northern army to strike the South a blow by seizing New Orleans. With Union gunboats both ascending and descending the Mississippi, the eastern part of the Confederacy was left with a jeopardized back door.
Grant's siege Vicksburg 1863 (turning point in the West)
General Grant was now given command of the Union forces attacking Vicksburg and in the teeth of grave difficulties displayed rare skill and daring. The siege of ___ was his best-fought campaign of the war. The beleaguered city at length surrendered, on July 4, 1863, with the garrison reduced to eating mules and rats. This Union victory came a day after the Confederate defeat at Gettysburg. ADD?
Chattanooga
General Grant, the victor of Vicksburg, was now transferred to the east Tennessee theater, where Confederates had driven Union forces from the battlefield at Chickamauga into the city of ___, to which they then laid siege. Grant won a series of desperate engagements in Nov. 1863 in the vicinity of besieged ____, including Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain. ___ was liberated, the state was cleared of Confederates, and they way was thus opened for an invasion of Georgia. Grant was rewarded by being made general in chief.
Sherman's "March to the Sea" (describe)
Georgia's conquest was entrusted to General William Tecumseh ___. He captured Atlanta in Sept. 1864 and burned the city in Nov. He then daringly left his supply base, lived off the country for some 250 miles, and weeks later emerged at Savannah on the sea. But Sherman's hated "Blue Bellies" cut a sixty-mile swath of destruction through Georgia. They burned buildings, tore up railroads (heated them red-hot and twisted them into "iron donuts"), bayoneted family portraits, and ran off with valuable "souvenirs." One of his major purposes was to destroy supplies destined for the Confederate army and to weaken the morale of the men at the front by waging war on their homes. ADD
Radical Republicans and Salmon Chase
The election of 1864 fell most inopportunely in the midst of war. Factions within the Republican party created, distrusting Lincoln's ability or doubting his commitment to abolition. The factions sought to tie his hands or even remove him from office. Conspicuous among his critics was a group led by the overambitious secretary of Treasury, ____. Esp. burdensome to Lincoln was the creation of the Congressional Committee on the Conduct of War, formed late in 1861. It was dominated by "radical" Republicans who resented the expansion of presidential power in wartime and who pressed Lincoln zealously for emancipation.
Copperhead Democrats
Most dangerous of the Union cause were the Northern Democrats. Lacking a lead (Douglas had died), the Democrats divided. A large group of "War Democrats" patriotically supported the Lincoln admin., but tens of thousands of "Peace Democrats" did not. At the extreme were so-called ____, named for the poisonous snake, which strikes without a warning rattle. They openly obstructed the war through attacks against the draft, against Lincoln, and esp., after 1863, against emancipation.
Clement L. Vallandigham
Notorious among the Copperheads was a sometime congressman from Ohio, ____. This tempestuous character possessed brilliant oratorical gifts and unusual talents for stirring up trouble. He publicly demanded an end to the "wicked and cruel" war. The civil courts in Ohio were open, and he should have been tried in them for sedition. But he was convicted by a military tribunal in 1863 for treasonable utterances and was then sentenced to prison. Working his way to Canada, he ran for the governorship of Ohio on foreign soil and polled a substantial but insufficient vote. He returned to his own state before the war ended, and although he defied "King Lincoln" and spat upon a military decree, he was not further prosecuted.
election 1864, Lincoln vs. McClellan
As the election of 1864 approached, Lincoln's precarious authority depended on his retaining Republican support while spiking the threat from the Peace Democrats and Copperheads. The Republican party joined the War Democrats, and proclaimed itself the Union party. Lincoln's renomination was at first met with surprisingly strong opposition. Hostile factions whipped up considerable agitation to shelve homely "Old Abe" in favor of his handsome nemesis, Secretary of the Treasury Chase. But the "ditch Lincoln" move collapsed, and he was nominated by the Union Party without serious dissent. His running mate was a loyal War Democrat from Tennessee, Andrew Johnson, who had been a small slaveowner when the conflict began. Embattled Democrats - regular and Copperhead - nominated the deposed and overcautious war hero General McClellan. Lincoln won. ADD pg 472-73
Grant and the Wilderness campaign 1864
After Gettysburg, Grant was brought from West over Meade, who was blamed for failing to pursue the defeated but always dangerous Lee. Lincoln needed a general who, employing the superior resources of the North, would have the stamina to drive ever forward, regardless of casualties. His overall basic strategy was to assail the enemy's armies simultaneously, so that they could not assist one another and hence could be destroyed piece by piece. He engaged Lee in a serious of furious battles in the Wilderness of Virginia, during May and June of 1864. In this _______, Grant suffered about 50,000 casualties, or nearly as many men as Lee commanded at the start. But Lee lost about as heavily in proportion. ADD?
capture of Richmond
The end (of the war) came with dramatic suddenness. Rapidly advancing Northern troops captured Richmond and cornered Lee at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia, in April 1865. ADD
surrender at Appomattox 1865
As the war came to an end, Northern troops captured Richmond and cornered Lee at ___ Courthouse in Virginia, in April 1865. Grant met with Lee on the ninth, Palm Sunday, and granted generous terms of surrender. Among other concessions, the hungry Confederates were allowed to keep their horses for spring plowing. ADD
assassination of Lincoln (John Wilkes Booth)
On the night of April 14, 1865 (Good Friday), only 5 days after Lee's surrender, Ford's Theater in Washington witnesses its most sensational drama. A half-crazed, fanatically pro-Southern actor, John Wilkes Booth, slipped behind Lincoln as he sat in his box and shot him in the head. After lying unconscious all night, Lincoln died the following morning. ADD?
Andrew Johnson
As Lincoln's VP, he became president after the assassination. A few historians argue that he was crucified in Lincoln's stead. The implication is that if the "rail-splitter" had lived, he would have suffered Johnson's fate of being impeached by the embittered members of his own party, who demanded harshness, not forbearance, toward the South. ADD?
"Lost Cause" of the South
The ___________ was lost, but few Americans today would argue that the result was not for the best. The shameful cancer of slavery was sliced away by the sword, and African Americans were at least in a position to claim their rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The nation was again united politically, though for many generations still divided spiritually by the passions of the war. ADD
Lincoln's goal (to preserve the Union)
Lincoln's inaugural address was firm yet appeasing: there would be no conflict unless the South provoked it. Secession was wholly impractical, because "physically we can not separate." ADD
attack of Fort Sumter (Civil War)
The issue of the divided Union came to a head over the matter of federal forts in the South. When Lincoln took office, only two significant forts in the South were still part of the Union (the rest had been seized by the seceding states). One of these was ___, in Charleston harbor, with fewer than a hundred men. The fort only had enough provisions to last a few weeks, and if no supplies were sent then the fort would have to surrender without firing a shot. But if Lincoln sent reinforcements, the South Carolinians would undoubtedly fight back; they could not tolerate a federal fort blocking the mouth of their most important Atlantic seaport. Lincoln notified SC that an expedition would be sent to provision the garrison, though not to reinforce it. He promised "no effort to throw in men, arms, and ammunition." But to Southern eyes "provision" still spelled "reinforcement." On April 12, 1861, the cannon of the Carolinians opened fire on the fort. After a thirty-four-hour bombardment, which took no lives, the garrison surrendered. The shelling of the fort electrified the North, which at once responded with cries of "Remember Fort ___." The assault on the fort provoked the North to a fighting pitch: the fort was lost, but the Union was saved. B/c the South fired upon the Union, Lincoln issued a call to the states for 75 thousand militiamen (some were turned away however). On April 19 and 27, the president proclaimed a leaky blockade of Southern seaports. The South saw this move as Lincoln waging war against the Confederacy. Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee, who had all previously voted down secession, reluctantly joined the seceded states.
Richmond, Virginia
When Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee joined the seceded states after Lincoln called upon militiamen (bc of Fort Sumter attack), the eleven states became the "submissionists" and "Union shriekers" were overcome. ___, Virginia, replaced Montgomery, Alabama, as the Confederate capital - too near Washington for strategic comfort on either side.
Border States (define and list)
The only slave states left (after Va, NC, Ar, Tn seceded) were the crucial ____. This group consisted of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and later West Virginia. If the North had fired the first shot, some or all of these states probably would have seceded, and the South might well have succeeded. The group actually contained a white population more than half that of the entire Confederacy.
martial law
In dealing with the Border States, President Lincoln did not rely solely on moral suasion but successfully used methods of dubious legality. In Maryland he declared ____ where needed and sent in troops, because this state threatened to cut off Washington from the North. Lincoln also deployed Union soldiers in western Virginia and notably in Missouri, where they fought beside Unionists in a local civil war within the large Civil War. (n. military government involving the suspension of ordinary law).
Southern strengths
The South could fight defensively behind interior lines. The North had to invade the vast territory of the Confederacy, conquer it, and drag it bodily back into the Union. The South did not have to win the war for its independence. If it merely fought the invaders to a draw and stood firm, Confederate independence would be won. Fighting on their own soil for self-determination and preservation of their way of life, Southerners at first enjoyed an advantage in morale as well. Militarily, the South from the opening volleys of the war had the most talented officers. Besides their brilliant leaders, ordinary Southerners were also bred to fight. Accustomed to managing horses and bearing arms from boyhood, they made excellent cavalrymen and foot soldiers. The South, as one immense farm, seemed to be handicapped by the scarcity of factories. Yet by seizing federal weapons, running Union blockades, and developing their own ironworks, Southerners managed to obtain sufficient weaponry.
Southern weaknesses
As the war dragged on, grave shortages of shoes, uniforms, and blankets disabled the South. Even the immense stores of food on Southern farms, civilians and soldiers often went hungry because of supply problems. Much of the hunger was caused by a breakdown of the South's rickety transportation system, esp. where the railroad tracks were cut or destroyed by the Yankee invaders. The economy was the greatest Southern weakness; it was the North's greatest strength. The North controlled the sea, and with its vast superior navy, it established a blockade that soon choked off Southern supplies and eventually shattered Southern morale.
Northern strengths
The economy, which was the South's greatest weakness, was the North's greatest strength. The North was not only a huge farm but a sprawling factory as well. Yankees boasted about 3/4 of the nation's wealth, including 3/4 of the thirty thousand miles of railroads. The North also controlled the sea. With its vastly superior navy, it established a blockade that, though a sieve at first, soon choked off Southern supplies and eventually shattered Southern morale. Its sea power also enabled the North to exchange huge quantities of grain for munitions and supplies from Europe, thus adding the output from the factories of Europe to its own. The Union also enjoyed a much larger reserve of manpower (bigger pop. and more immigrants).
North's weaknesses
Whether immigrant or native, ordinary Northern boys were much less prepared than their Southern counterparts for military life (yet the Northern "clodhoppers" and "shopkeepers" eventually adjusted themselves to soldiering and became known for their discipline and determination). The North was much less fortunate in its higher commanders. ADD?
problems with Britain; Trent affair, Alabama issue
ADD British. America's diplomatic front has seldom been so critical as during the Civil War. The South never wholly abandoned its dream of foreign intervention, and Europe's rulers schemed to take advantage of America's distress. The first major crisis with Britain came over the ___, late in 1861. A Union warship cruising on the high seas north of Cuba stopped a British mail steamer, the __, and forcibly removed two Confederate diplomats bound for Europe. Britons were outraged: upstart Yankees could not so boldly offend the Mistress of the Seas. War preparations buzzed, and red-coated troops embarked for Canada. The London Foreign Office prepared an ultimatum demanding surrender of the prisoners and an apology. But luckily, slow communications gave passions on both sides a chance to cool. Lincoln came to see the __ prisoners as "white elephants" and reluctantly released them. Another major crisis in Anglo-American relations arose over unneutral building in Britain of Confederate commerce-raiders, notably the ______. These vessels were not warships within the meaning of loopholed British law because they left their shipyards unarmed and picked up their guns elsewhere. The ___ escaped in 1862 to the Portuguese Azores, and there took on weapons and a crew from two British ships that followed it. Although flying Confederate flags, it was manned by Britons and never entered a Confederate port. Britain was thus the chief naval base of the Confederacy. ADD
Irish-Americans invade Canada
Hatred of England burned esp. fiercely among Irish Americans, and they unleashed their fury on Canada. They raised several tiny "armies" of a few hundred green-shirted men and launched invasions of Canada, notably in 1866 and 1870. The Canadians condemned the Washington government for permitting such violations of neutrality, but the administration was hampered by the presence of so many Irish American voters.
French invasion of Mexico and Seward's reaction
Emperor Napoleon III of France, taking advantage of America's preoccupation with its own internal problems, dispatched a French army to occupy Mexico City in 1863. The following year he installed on the ruins of a crushed republic his puppet, Austrian archduke Maximilian, as emperor of Mexico. Both sending an army and enthroning Maximilian were flagrant violations of the Monroe Doctrine. Napoleon was gambling that the Union would collapse and thus America would be to weak to enforce its "hands-off" policy in the Western Hemisphere. The North, as long as it was convulsed by war, pursued a walk-on-eggs policy toward France. But when the shooting stopped in 1865, Secretary of State Seward, speaking with the authority of nearly a million war-tempered bayonets, prepared to march South. Napoleon realized that his costly gamble was doomed. He reluctantly took "French leave" of his ill-starred puppet in 1867, and Maximilian soon crumpled ingloriously before a Mexican firing squad.
"states rights" in the Confederacy
The Confederate government harbored fatal weaknesses. Its constitution, borrowed liberally from the Union, contained one deadly defect. Created by secession, it could not logically deny future secession to its constituent states. Jefferson Davis, while making his bow to states' rights, had in view a well-knit central government. But determined states' rights supporters fought him bitterly to the end. The Richmond regime encountered difficulty even in persuading certain state troops to serve outside their own borders. States' rights were no less damaging to the Confederacy than Yankee firepower.
blockade, military spending, limited habeus corpus rights
Congress was not in session when war erupted, so Lincoln gathered the reins into his own hands. Brushing aside legal objections, he boldly proclaimed a blockade (his actions were later upheld by the Supreme Court). He arbitrarily increased the size of the Federal army - something only Congress can do under the Constitution (which they later approved/did). He directed the secretary of the Treasury to advance $2 million without appropriation or security to three private citizens for military purposes - a grave irregularity contrary to the Constitution. He suspended the precious privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, so that anti-Unionists might be summarily arrested. In taking this step, he defied a dubious ruling by the chief justice that the safeguards of habeas corpus could be set aside only by the authorization of Congress.
Federal conscription, "$300 men", draft riots
In 1863, after volunteering had slackened in the North (for the army), Congress passed a federal conscription law for the first time on a nationwide scale in the US. The provisions were grossly unfair to the poor. Rich boys, including young John D. Rockefeller, could hire substitutes to go in their places or purchase exemption outright by paying $300. "Three-hundred-dollar men" was the scornful epithet applied to these slackers. The draft was esp. damned in the Democratic strongholds of the North, notably NYC. A frightful riot broke out in 1863, touched off largely by underprivileged and antiblack Irish Americans. For several days the city was at the mercy of a rampaging, pillaging mob. Elsewhere in the North, conscription met with resentment and an occasional minor riot.
Confederate conscription (ages 17-50)
Like the North, the South at first relied mainly on volunteers. But since the Confederacy was much less populous, it scraped the bottom of its manpower barrel much more quickly. The Richmond regime, robbing both "cradle and grave" (ages 17-50), was forced to resort to conscription as early as April 1862, nearly a year earlier than the Union.
Morrill Tariff Act (protective tariff)
Customs receipts likewise proved to be important revenue-raisers (along with excise taxes and income taxes). Early in 1861, after enough antiprotection Southern members had seceded, Congress passed the ___, replacing the low Tariff of 1857. It increased the existing duties some 5 to 10 percent, boosting them to about the moderate level of the Walker Tariff of 1846. But these modest rates were soon pushed sharply upward by the necessities of war. The increases were designed partly to raise additional revenue and partly to provide more protection for the prosperous manufacturers who were being plucked by the new internal taxes. A protective tariff thus became identified with the Republican party, as American industrialists, mostly Republicans, waxed fat on these welcome benefits.
greenbacks, bonds, National Banking system
The Washington Treasury also issued greenbacked paper money, totaling nearly $450 million, at face value. This printing-press currency was inadequately supported by gold, and hence its value was determined by the nation's credit. ___ thus fluctuated with the fortunes of the Union arms and at one low point they were worth only 39 cents on the gold dollar (ADD). A financial landmark of the war was the _____, authorized by Congress in 1863. Launched partly as a stimulant to the sale of the government bonds, it was also designed to establish a standard bank-note currency (the country was then flooded with depreciated "rag money" issued by unreliable bankers). Banks that joined the ___ could buy government bonds and issue sound paper money backed by them. The war-born ___ thus turned out to be the first significant step taken toward a unified banking network since 1863, when the "monster" BUS was killed by Jackson.
Confederate bonds, currency, runaway inflation
An impoverished South was beset by different financial woes. Large issues of Confederate ___ were sold at home and abroad, amounting to nearly $400 million. As revenue began to shrivel up, the Confederate government was forced to print blue-backed paper money with complete abandon. "___" occurred as Southern presses continued to grind out the poorly backed treasury notes, totaling in all more than $1 billion. The Confederate paper dollar finally sank to the point where it was worth only 1.6 cents when Lee surrendered. Overall, the war inflicted a 9,000 percent inflation rate on the Confederacy, contrasted with 80 percent for the Union.
Northern industrialization
New factories, sheltered by the friendly umbrella of the new protective tariffs, mushroomed forth (in the North). (ADD millionaire stuff?) Newly invented laborsaving machinery enabled the North to expand economically, even though the cream of the manpower was being drained off to the fighting front. The sewing machine wrought wonders in fabricating uniforms and military footwear. The marriage of military need and innovative machinery largely ended the production of custom-tailored clothing. Graduated standard measurements were introduce, creating "sizes" that were widely used in the civilian garment industry forever after. Clattering mechanical reapers, which numbered about 250,000 by 1865, proved hardly less potent than thundering guns. They not only released tens of thousands of farm boys for the army but fed them their field rations too. They produced vast surpluses of grain that, when sent abroad, helped dethrone King Cotton. They provided profits with which the North was able to buy munitions and supplies from abroad. ADD?
petroleum
The discovery of ___ gushers in 1859 had led to a rush of "Fifty-Niners" to Pennsylvania. The result was the birth of a new industry, with its "___ plutocracy" and "coal oil Johnnies." ADD?
women workers
The Civil War was a women's war, too. The protracted conflict opened new opportunities for women. When men departed in uniform, women often took their jobs. In Washington, DC, five hundred women clerks became government workers, with over one hundred in the Treasury Department alone. The booming military demand for shoes and clothing, combined with technological marvels like the sewing machine, likewise drew countless women into industrial employment. Before the war one industrial worker in four had been female; during the war the ration rose to one in three. Other women, on both sides, stepped up to the fighting front - or close behind it. Some posed as male soldiers, some took on dangerous spy missions, and some worked as nurses.
Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell; Clara Barton
_____, America's first female physician, helped organize the US Sanitary Commission to assist the Union armies in the field. The commission trained nurses, collected medical supplies, and equipped hospitals. Commission work helped many women to acquire the organizational skills and the self-confidence that would propel the women's movement forward after the war. Heroically energetic ___ and dedicated Dorothea Dix, superintendent nurses for the Union Army, helped transform nursing from a lowly service into a respected profession - and in the process open another major sphere of employment for women in the postwar era.
economic problems in the South
The South fought to the point of exhaustion. The suffocation caused by the blockade, together with the destruction wrought by invaders, took a terrible toll. Possessing 30% of the national wealth in 1860, the South claimed only 12% in 1870. The Civil War squeezed the average southern income to two-fifths of the Northern average income (as opposed to the two-thirds it had been). Transportation collapsed. The South was even driven to the economic cannibalism of pulling up rails of the less-used lines to repair the main ones. Window weights were melted down into bullets; gourds replaced dishes; pins became so scarce that they were loaned with reluctance. ADD?
the effect of Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin
Sectional tensions were further strained in 1852, and later, by an inky phenomenon. Harriet Beecher Stowe, a wisp of a woman and the mother of six children, published her heart-rendering novel ______. Dismayed by the passage of the Fugitive Slave Law, she was determined to awaken the North to the wickedness of slavery by laying bare its terrible inhumanity, esp. the cruel splitting of families. Several hundred thousand copies were published in the first year, and the totals soon ran into the millions as the tale was translated into more than a score of languages. To millions of people, it made slavery appear almost as evil as it really was. The novel did help the Civil War - and win it. The South condemned that "vile wretch in petticoats" when it learned that hundreds of thousands of fellow Americans were reading and believing her "unfair" indictment. It also left a profound impression on the North. Readers swore henceforth they would have nothing to do with the Fugitive Slave Law. The tale was devoured by millions of impressionable youths in the 1850s - some of whom later became the Boys in Blue who volunteered to fight the Civil War through to its grim finale. The memory of a beaten and dying Uncle Tom helped sustain them in their determination to wipe out the plague of slavery.
Hinton Helper's The Impending Crisis of the South
Another trouble-brewing book appeared in 1857. Titled ____, it was written by ____, a non-aristocratic white from North Carolina. Hating both slavery and blacks, he attempted to prove by an array of statistics that indirectly the nonslaveholding whites were the ones who suffered most from the millstone of slavery. Unable to secure a publisher in the South, he finally managed to find one in the North. His influence was unimportant among the poorer whites whom he addressed in his message. Yet the South's planter elite certainly took note of his audacity, which fueled their fears that the nonslaveholding majority might abandon them. The book was banned from the South and fed to the flames at book-burning parties. In the North untold thousands of copies, many in condensed form, were distributed as campaign literature by the Republicans. The South became distrusting of the Yankees because they believed the "lies" of "___" and "Uncle Tom's Cabin."
Bleeding Kansas (also map p 412)
Newcomers who ventured into Kansas were a motley lot. Most northerners were just ordinary westward-moving pioneers in search of richer lands beyond the sunset. But a small portion was financed by groups of northern abolitionists or free-soilers. The most famous of these antislavery organizations was the New England Emigrant Aid Company, which sent thousands of people to the troubled area to forestall the South - and also to make a profit (paid them to move their to win pop. sov. for free-soilers). Southern spokesmen raised furious cries of betrayal. They had supported the Kansas-Nebraska scheme of Douglass with the unspoken understanding that Kansas would become slave and Nebraska free. Southern hotheads came to assist small groups of well-armed slaveowners to Kansas (but wouldn't bring their slaves bc it was dangerous - bullets flying).
John Brown and the Pottawatomie Creek Massacre
____ led a band of followers to ___ Creek in May 1856. They literally hacked to pieces five surprised men, presumed to be antislaveryites. This fiendish butchery besmirched the free-soil cause and brought vicious retaliation from the proslavery forces. Civil War in Kansas thus erupted in 1856 and continued intermittently until it merged with the large-scale Civil War of 1861-1865. The Kansas conflict destroyed millions of dollars' worth of property, paralyzed agriculture in certain areas, and cost scores of lives.
Kansas statehood and the Lecompton Constitution
By 1857 Kansas had enough people, chiefly free-soilers, to apply for statehood on a popular-sovereignty basis. The proslavery forces, then in the saddle, devised a tricky document known as the _____. The people were not allowed to vote for or against the constitution as a whole, but for the constitution either "with slavery" or "without slavery." If they voted against slavery, one of the remaining provisions of the constitution would protect the owners of slaves already in Kansas. So whatever the outcome, there would still be slavery in Kansas. Many free-soilers, infuriated by this ploy, boycotted the polls. Left to themselves, the proslaveryites approved the constitution with slavery late in 1857.
Democrat party split
President Buchanan, by antagonizing the numerous Douglas Democrats in the North (he had threw his weight behind the Lecompton Constitution, while Douglass had been all about popular sovereignty), hopelessly divided the once-powerful Democratic party. Until then, it had been the only remaining national party, for the Whigs were dead and the Republicans were sectional. With the disruption of the Democrats came the snapping of one of the last important strands in the rope that was barely binding the Union together.
Charles Sumner's speech "The Crime Against Kansas"
"Bleeding Kansas" also splattered blood on the floor of the Senate in 1856. Senator ____ of Massachusetts, a tall and imposing figure, was a leading abolitionist - one of the few prominent in political life. He had made himself one of the most disliked men in the Senate. Brooding over the turbulent miscarriage of popular sovereignty, he delivered a blistering speech titled "_____." He condemned the proslavery men as "hirelings picked from the drunken spew and vomit of an uneasy civilization." He also referred insultingly to South Carolina and to its white-haired senator Andrew Butler; one of the best-liked members of the Senate.
Preston Brooks and "Bleeding Sumner"
Hot-tempered Congressmen ___ of South Carolina took vengeance (after Sumner's speech) into his own hands. On May 22, 1856, he approached Sumner, then sitting at his Senate desk, and pounded the orator with an eleven-ounce cane until it broke. The victim fell bleeding and unconscious to the floor, while several nearby senators refrained from interfering. Sumner's injuries to his head and nervous system were serious, and he was forced to leave his seat for three and a half years to receive a painful and costly treatment in Europe. Meanwhile, Massachusetts defiantly reelected him, leaving his seat eloquently empty. Bleeding Sumner was thus joined with bleeding Kansas as a political issue.
election 1856, James Buchanan
With bullets whining in Kansas, the Democrats met in Cincinnati to nominate their presidential standard-bearer of 1856. The delegates finally chose ___, shying away from both President Pierce and Douglas (they were both indelibly tainted by the Kansas-Nebraska Act). The Republicans nominated Fremont, and the Know-Nothings nominated Fillmore. A well-to-do Pennsylvania lawyer, he had been serving as minister to London during the recent Kansas-Nebraska uproar. He won the election, polling less than a majority of the popular vote. His tally in the Electoral College was 174 to 114 for Fremont, with Fillmore gathering 8.
American Party, Know-Nothings, nativists
An ugly dose of antiforeignism was injected into the campaign, even though slavery extension loomed largest. The recent influx of immigrants from Ireland and Germany had alarmed "nativists," as many old-stock Protestants were called. They organized the American party, also known as the ___ part because of its secretiveness, and in 1856 nominated the lackluster ex-president Millard Fillmore. Antiforeign and anti-Catholic, the superpatriots adopted the slogan "Americans Must Rule America." Remnants of the dying Whig party likewise endorsed Fillmore, and they and the ___ threatened to cut into Republican strength.
Republican John C. Fremont
The Republicans met in Philadelphia with bubbling enthusiasm and nominated Captain John C. Fremont. The Republican platform came out vigorously against the extension of slavery into the territories, while the Democrats declared no less forcefully for popular sovereignty. They fell in behind Fremont with the zeal of crusaders. Shouting "We Follow the Pathfinder" and "We Are Buck Hunting," they organized glee clubs.
Dred Scott v. Sanford court decision
The ___ decision handed down by the Supreme Court on May 6, 1857, abruptly ended the two-day presidential honeymoon of the unlucky bachelor, James Buchanan. Scott, a black slave, had lived with his master for five years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. Backed by interested abolitionists, he sued for freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil. The Court proceeded to twist a simple legal case into a complex political issue. It ruled that Scott was a black slave and not a citizen, and hence could not sue in federal courts. The tribunal could then have thrown out the case on these technical grounds alone. But a majority decided to go further, under the leadership of Chief Justice Taney from the slave state Maryland. A majority of the Court decreed that because a slave was private property, he or she could be taken into any territory and legally held there in slavery. The reasoning was that the Fifth Amendment clearly forbade Congress to deprive people of their property without due process of the law. They also stated that the Missouri Compromise (which had been repealed 3 years earlier but still was alive in spirit in the North) had been unconstitutional all along: Congress had no power to ban slavery from the territories, regardless even of what the territorial legislatures themselves might want.
Dred Scott v. Sanford effects
Southerners were delighted with this unexpected victory from the Supreme Court. Champions of pop. sov. were aghast, including Senator Douglas and a host of northerner Democrats. Another lethal wedge was thus driven between the northern and southern wings of the Democratic party. Foes of slavery extension, esp. the Republicans, were infuriated by the ___ set back. Their chief rallying cry had been the banishing of bondage from the territories. They now insisted that the ruling of the Court was merely an opinion, not a decision, and no more binding than the views of a "southern debating society." Republican defiance of the exalted tribunal was intensified by an awareness that a majority of its members were southerners and by the conviction that it had debased itself - "sullied by ermine" - by wallowing in the gutter of politics. Southerners were inflamed by all this defiance. They begun to wonder anew how much longer they could remained joined to a section that refused to honor the Supreme Court, to say nothing of the constitutional compact it established.
Panic of 1857
Late in 1857 a panic burst about Buchanan's harassed head. The storm was not so bad economically as the panic of 1837, but psychologically it was probably the worst of the nineteenth century. Inpouring California gold played its part in starting the crash by helping to inflate the currency. The pains of the Crimean War had overstimulated the growing of grain, while frenzied speculation in land and railroads had further ripped the economic fabric. When the collapse came, over five thousand businesses failed within a year. Unemployment, accompanied by hunger meetings in urban areas, was widespread. The North, including its grain growers, was hardest hit. The South, enjoying favorable cotton prices abroad, rode out the storm with flying colors. ADD? TARIFFS! PAGE 419
Abraham Lincoln
The Illinois senatorial election of 1858 now claimed the national spotlight. Senator Douglas's term was about to end, and the Republicans decided to run against him a rustic Springfield lawyer, one ____. The Republican candidate presented an awkward but arresting figure. He was no silver-spoon child of the elite. Born in 1809 in a Kentucky log cabin to impoverished parents, he attended a frontier school for not more than a year; being an avid reader, he was mainly self taught. His private and professional lives were not esp. noteworthy. He married "above himself" socially, into the influential Todd family of Kentucky, and the temperamental outbursts of his high-strung wife helped to school him in patience and forbearance. After reading a little law, he gradually emerged as one of the dozen or so better-known trial lawyers in Illinois, although still accustomed to carrying important papers in his stovepipe hat. After making his mark in Illinois legislature as a Whig politician of the logrolling variety, he served one undistinguished term in Congress. Until 1854 he had done nothing to establish a claim to statesmanship. But the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in that year lighted within him unexpected fires. After mounting the Republican bandwagon, he emerged as one of the foremost politicians and orators of the Northwest. At the Philadelphia convention of 1856, where Fremont was nominated, he actually received 110 votes for the vice-presidential nomination.
Lincoln-Douglas debates for the Senate seat from Illinois
Lincoln, as Republican nominee for the Senate seat, boldly challenged Douglas to a series of joint debates. This was a rash act, because the senator was probably the nation's most devastating debater. Douglas promptly accepted Lincoln's challenge, and seven meetings were arranged from August to October 1858. The most famous debate came at Freeport, Illinois, where Lincoln nearly impaled his opponent on the horns of a dilemma. ADD?
Freeport Doctrine
During the Lincoln-Douglas debate in Freeport, Illinois: Suppose, Lincoln queried, the people of a territory should vote slavery down? The Supreme Court in the Dred Scott decision had decreed that they could not. Who would prevail, the Court or the people? Douglas's response became known as the "____." No matter how the Court ruled, Douglas argued, slavery would stay down if the people voted it down. Laws to protect slavery would have to be passed by territorial legislatures. These would not be forthcoming in the absence of popular approval, and black bondage would soon disappear.
John Brown's raid at Harpers Ferry (Robert E. Lee)
___ of bleeding Kansas infamy now appeared again in an even more terrible way. His scheme was to invade the South secretly with a handful of followers, call upon the slaves to rise, furnish them with arms, and establish a kind of black free state as a sanctuary. He secured several thousand dollars for firearms from northern abolitionists and finally arrived in hilly western Virginia with some twenty men, including several blacks. At scenic ___, he seized the federal arsenal in October 1859, incidentally killing seven innocent people and injuring ten or so more. But the slaves, largely ignorant of his strike, failed to rise, and the wounded Brown and remnants of his tiny band were quickly captured by US Marines under the command of Lt. Col. ______. Ironically, within two years ___ became the preeminent general in the Confederate army. "Old Brown" was was convicted of murder and treason after a hasty but legal trial. He presumed insanity was supported by affidavits from 17 friends and relatives. But Brown was given every opportunity to pose and enjoy martyrdom. He was clever enough to see that he was worth much more to the abolitionist movement dangling from a rope than in any other way. The effects of ___ were calamitous. In the eyes of the South, Brown was a wholesale murderer and an apostle of treason. Abolitionists and free-soilers were infuriated by Brown's execution. They were outraged because the Virginians had hanged so earnest a reformer who was working for a righteous cause.
Northern Democrats, Douglas
Deeply divided, the Democrats met in Charleston, South Carolina, with ___ the leading the northern wing of the party. But the "fire-eaters" regarded him as a traitor, as a result of his unpopular stand on the Lecompton Constitution and the Freeport Doctrine. The delegates failed to wrangle the necessary 2/3 vote for __. They tried again in Baltimore. This time the __ Democrats, chiefly in the North, were firmly in saddle. They nominated their hero, and the platform came out squarely for pop. sov. and, as a stop to the South, against obtrusion of the Fugitive Slave Law by the states.
Southern Democrats, Breckinridge
Southern Democrats, angered by the Douglas Democrat's platform, promptly organized a rival convention in Baltimore, in which many of the northern states were unrepresented. They selected as their leader the stern-jawed VP John C. ____. The platform favored the extension of slavery into the territories and the annexation of the slave-populated Cuba.
Constitutional Union party, Bell
A middle-of-the-road group (between North and South Democrats), fearing the Union, hastily organized the ____, sneered at as the "Do Nothing" or "Old Gentleman's" party. It consisted mainly of former Whigs and Know-Nothings, a veritable "gathering of graybeards." Desperately anxious to elect a compromise candidate, they met in Baltimore and nominated for the presidency John ___ of Tennessee. "The Union, the Constitution, and the Enforcement of the Laws."
Republicans, Lincoln
Elated Republicans, scenting victory in the breeze as their opponents split hopelessly, gathered in Chicago. William H. Seward was by far the best known of the contenders. But his radical utterances, including his "irresponsible conflict" speech at Rochester in 1858, had ruined his prospects. ___, the favorite son of Illinois, was definitely a "Mr. Second Best," but he was a stronger candidate because he had made fewer enemies. Overtaking Seward on the third ballot, he was nominated amid scenes of the wildest excitement. The Republican platform had appeal for just about every nonsouthern group: for the free-soilers, nonextension of slavery; for the northern manufacturers, a protective tariff; for the immigrants, no abridgment of rights; for the Northwest, a Pacific railroad; for the West, internal improvements at federal expense; and for the farmers, free homesteads from the public domain.
1860 --summarize election (maps p 426)
Four Candidates/Parties: Lincoln Republicans, Douglass Democrats (North), Breckinridge Democrats (South), and Bell from the Constitutional Union party. Southern secessionists promptly served notice that the election of the "baboon" Lincoln would split the Union. Lincoln won as a minority president with 180 electoral votes (every vote of the free states except for 3 of New Jersey's 7 votes). Douglas receive 12 electoral votes (only Missouri and 3 of New Jersey's 7 votes), Breckinridge received 72 (all the cotton states), and Bell received 39 (Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee). The territories of Washington, Utah, New Mexico, Nebraska, Kansas, and the unorganized territories (between Nebraska and Minnesota, and below Kansas) did not cast any votes. MAPS PAGE 426-27. ADD FROM PAGE 427
secession
The action of withdrawing formally from membership of a federation or body, esp. a political state. When Lincoln became president, South Carolina had reason to rejoice: they had an excuse to secede. In winning the North, the "rail-splitter" had split off the South. A tragic chain reaction of secession now begun to erupt. Four days after the election of Lincoln, South Carolina's legislature voted unanimously to call a special convention. Meeting in Charleston in December 1860, the convention unanimously voted to secede. During the next six weeks, six other states of the lower South, though somewhat less united, followed the leader over the precipice: Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. Four more were to join them later, bringing the total to eleven.
Confederate States of America, Jefferson Davis
The seceders created a government known as the ____. As their president they chose ____, a dignified and austere recent member of the US Senate from Mississippi. He was a West Pointer and a former cabinet member with wide military and administrative experience; but he suffered from chronic ill health, as well as from a frustrated ambition to be a Napoleonic strategist.
Crittenden compromise and Lincoln's opposition
Impending bloodshed spurred final and frantic attempts at compromise - in the American tradition. The most promising of these efforts was sponsored by Senator James Henry ___ of Kentucky, on whose shoulders had fallen the mantle of a fellow Kentuckian, Henry Clay. The proposed ___ amendments to the Constitution were designed to appease the South. Slavery in the territories was to be prohibited north of 36° 30' line, but south of that line it was to be given federal protection in all the territories existing or "hereafter to be acquired" (such as Cuba). Future states, north or south of the 36° 30', could come into the Union with or without slavery, as they should choose. In short, slavery supporters were to be guaranteed full rights in the southern territories, as long as they were territories, regardless of the wishes of the majority under pop. sov. Federal protection of in a territory south of the line might conceivably, though improbably, turn the entire area permanently to slavery. Lincoln flatly rejected the scheme, which offered some slight prospect of success, and all hope of compromise evaporated. He had been elected on a platform against the extension of slavery, and he felt that as matter of principle, he could not afford to yield, even though gains for slavery in territories might only be temporary.
Southern reasons for secession
Secessionists who parted company with their sister states left for a number of avowed reasons, mostly relating in some way to slavery. They were alarmed by the inexorable tipping of the political balance against them. The southerners were also dismayed by the triumph of the new sectional Republican party, which seemed to threaten their rights as a slaveholding minority. They were weary of free-soil criticism, abolitionist nagging, and northern interference, ranging from the Underground Railroad to John Brown's raid. Many southerners supported secession because they felt sure the departure would be unopposed, despite "Yankee yawp" to the contrary. They were confident the Yankees would not or could not fight. They believed that northern manufacturers and bankers, who relied heavily on southern cotton and markets, would not dare to cut their own economic throats with their own unionist swords. ADD
Wilmot Proviso
The acquisition of the lands from the Mexican Cession raised anew the burning issue of extending slavery into the territories. Northern antislaveryites had rallied behind the ____, which flatly prohibited slavery in any territory acquired in the Mexican War. Southern senators had blocked the passage of the proviso, but the issue would not die. Ominously, the debate over slavery in the area of the Mexican Cession threatened to disrupt the ranks of both Whigs and Democrats and split the national politics along North-South sectional lines.
Lewis Cass and popular sovereignty
Democrats were forced to seek a new standard-bearer in 1848. President Polk, broken in health, had pledged himself to a single term. The Democratic National Convention at Baltimore turned to an aging leader, General _____, a veteran of the War of 1812. The Democratic platform, in line with the lid-sitting strategy, was silent on the burning issue of slavery in the territories from the Mexican Cession. He was the reputed father of "_____." This was the doctrine that stated that the sovereign people of a territory, under the general principles of the Constitution, should themselves determine status of slavery. Popular sovereignty had a popular appeal. The public liked it because it accorded with the democratic tradition of self-determination. Politicians liked it because it seemed a comfortable compromise between the free-soilers' bid for a ban on slavery and the southern demands that Congress protect slavery in the territories. ____ tossed the slavery problem into the laps of the people in various territories.
Zachary Taylor (Whig) election 1848
The Whigs nominated frank and honest ____, the "Hero of Buena Vista," who had never held civil office or even voted for president. Eager to win at any cost, the Whigs dodged all troublesome issues and merely extolled the homespun virtues of their candidate. The self-reliant old frontier fighter had not committed himself on the issue of slavery extension. But as a wealthy resident of Louisiana, living on a sugar plantation, he owned scores of slaves. His wartime popularity pulled him through. He won with 163 electoral votes to Cass' 127.
Free Soil party and Martin Van Buren
Ardent antislavery men in the North, distrusting both Cass and Taylor, organized the _____ party. Aroused by the conspiracy of silence in the Democratic and Whig platforms, the ____ made no bones about their own stand. They came out foursquare for the Wilmot Proviso and against slavery in the territories. Going beyond other antislavery groups, they broadened their appeal by advocating federal aid for internal improvements and by urging free government homesteads for settlers. The ___ trotted out wizened former president ___ and marched into the fray, shouting "Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men." These freedoms provided the bedrock on which they built their party. They condemned slavery not so much for enslaving blacks but for destroying the chances of free white workers to rise up from wage-earning dependence to the esteemed status of self-employment.
gold; Sutter's Mill; California Territory
Taylor would have been spared much turmoil if he could have continued to sit on the slavery lid. But the discovery of __ on the American River near ___, California, early in 1848, blew the cover off. A horde of adventurers poured into the valley of California. They began tearing frantically at the yellow-graveled streams and hills. The luckless many, who netted blisters instead of nuggets, probably would have been money well ahead if they had stayed home unaffected by "gold fever," which was often followed by more deadly fevers. A high portion of the newcomers were lawless men, accompanied by virtueless women. An outburst of crime inevitably resulted from the presence of so many miscreants and outcasts. A majority of Californians, as decent and law-abiding citizens needing protection, grappled earnestly with the problem erecting an adequate state government. Privately encouraged by President Taylor, they drafted a constitution in 1849 that excluded slavery and then boldly applied to Congress for admission.
balance between slave and free states
The South in 1850 had enjoyed more than its share of the nation's leadership. It had seated in the White House the war hero Taylor, a Virginia-born, slaveowning planter from Louisiana. It boasted a majority in the cabinet and on the Supreme Court. If outnumbered in the House, the South had equality in the Senate, where it could at least neutralize northern maneuvers. The fifteen slave states could easily veto any proposed constitutional amendment. Yet, the South was deeply worried by the ever-tipping political balance. There were then fifteen slave states and fifteen free states. The admission of California would destroy the delicate equilibrium in the Senate, perhaps forever.
Mexican Cession slavery debate
Potential slave territory under the American flag was running short, if it had not in fact disappeared. Agitation had already developed in the territories of New Mexico and Utah for admission as nonslave states. The fate of California might well establish a precedent for the rest of the Mexican Cession territory - an area purchased largely with Southern blood.
slavery in the District of Columbia
Many southerners were angered by the nagging agitation in the North for the abolition of slavery in DC. They looked with alarm on the prospect of a ten-mile square oasis of free soil thrust between slaveholding Maryland and slaveholding Virginia.
Underground Railroad; Harriet Tubman
Even more disagreeable to the South was the loss of runaway slaves, many of whom were assisted north by the _____. This virtual freedom train consisted of an informal train of "stations" (antislavery homes), through which scores of "passengers" (runaway slaves) were spirited by "conductors" (usually white and black abolitionists) from the slave states to the free-soil sanctuary of Canada. The most of amazing of these conductors was an illiterate runaway slave from Maryland, fearless ___. During nineteen forays into the South, she rescued more than 300 slaves, and deservedly earned the title "Moses."
fugitive slaves
By 1850 southerners were demanding a new and more stringent ____ law. The old one, passed by Congress in 1793, had proved inadequate to cope with runaways, esp. since unfriendly state authorities failed to provide needed cooperation. Estimates indicate that the South in 1850 was losing perhaps 1,000 runaways a year out of its total some 4 million slaves. ADD?
Great Senate Debate
Southern fears were such that Congress was confronted with catastrophe in 1850. Free-soil California was banging on the door for admission. "Fire-eaters" in the South were voicing ominous threats of secession. In October 1849 southerners had announced their intention to convene the following year in Nashville, Tennessee, to consider withdrawing from the Union. The failure of Congress to act could easily mean the failure of the US as a country. The crisis brought into the congressional forum the most distinguished assemblage of statesmen since the Constitutional Convention of 1787. THe "immoral trio" - Clay, Calhoun, and Webster - appeared together for the last time on the public stage. ADD?
Henry Clay and Stephen Douglas
He was 73 years old at the Great Senate Debate and played a crucial role. He proposed and skillfully defended a series of compromises. He was ably seconded by 37 year old Senator ____ of Illinois, whose role was less spectacular but even more important. Clay urged with all his persuasiveness that the North and South both make concessions and that the North partially yield by enacting a more feasible fugitive-slave law.
John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster (list each position)
Senator ____, the "Great Nullifier," then 68 and dying of tuberculosis, championed the South in his last formal speech. Although approving the purpose of Clay's proposed concessions, he rejected them as not providing adequate safeguards for southern rights. His impassioned plea was to leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, give the South its rights as a minority, and restore the political balance. He had in view an utterly unworkable scheme of electing two presidents, one from the North and one from the South, each wielding a veto. He died in 1850, before the debate was over. At 68 years old, ____ next took the Senate spotlight to uphold Clay's compromise measures in his last great speech. He urged all reasonable concessions to the South, including the fugitive-slave law with teeth. He concluded that compromise, concessions, and sweet reasonableness would provide the only solutions (to the slavery-Mexican Cession issue).
Compromise of 1850 (list all parts)
This compromise stated that California would enter the Union as a free state, the more stringent Fugitive-Slave Law of 1850 had guarantees that the law would be rigidly enforced, the slave trade (but not the ownership of slaves) was banned in Washington, DC, and the land taken from Mexico (the Mexican Cession) would be divided into two new territories, New Mexico and Utah. Both territories would determine status of slavery in their areas by popular sovereignty.
William Seward
He was a senator from New York and was the able spokesman for many of the younger northern radicals. A strong antislaveryite, he came out unequivocally against concession. He seemed not to realize that compromise had brought the Union together and that when the sections could no longer compromise, they would have to part company. He argued earnestly that Christian legislators must obey God's moral law as well as man's mundane law. He therefore appealed, with reference to excluding slavery in territories, to an even "higher law" than the Constitution.
Millard Fillmore
At the height of the controversy in 1850, President Taylor unknowingly helped the cause of concession by dying suddenly. Vice President ____, a colorless and conciliatory New York lawyer-politician, took over the reigns. As presiding officer of the Senate, he had been impressed with the arguments for conciliation, and he gladly signed the series of compromise measures that passed Congress after seven long months of stormy debate.
problems with the Fugitive Slave Law
The new Fugitive-Slave Law of 1850 - "the Bloodhound Bill" - stirred up a storm of opposition in the North. The fleeing slaves could not testify in their own behalf, and they were denied a jury trial. These harsh practices, some citizens feared, threatened to create dangerous precedents for white Americans. The federal commissioner who handled the case of a fugitive would receive five dollars in the runaway were freed and ten dollars if not - an arrangement that strongly resembled a bribe. Freedom-loving northerners who aided the slave to escape were liable to heavy fines and jail sentences. They might even be ordered to join the slave-catchers.
personal liberty laws
Some states passed "_____" in response to the new fugitive-slave laws. These denied local jails to federal officials and otherwise hampered enforcement. ADD?
Franklin Pierce; election 1852
Meeting in Baltimore, the Democratic nominating convention of 1852 startled the nation. Hopelessly deadlocked, it finally stampeded to the second "dark-horse" candidate in American history, and unrenowned lawyer-politician, ____, from the hills of New Hampshire. The Whigs tried to jeer him back into obscurity with the cry, "Who is ___?" Democrats replied, "The Young Hickory of the Granite Hills." He was enemy-less because he had been inconspicuous, and as a prosouthern northerner, he was acceptable to the slavery wing of the Democratic party. His platform revived the Democrat's commitment to territorial expansion as pursued by President Polk and emphatically endorsed the Compromise of 1850, Fugitive Slave Law and all.
Whig party split; sectionalism
Luckily for the Democrats, the Whig party was hopelessly split in 1852. Antislavery Whigs of the North swallowed Scott as their nominee but deplored his platform, which endorsed the hated Fugitive Slave Law. Southern Whigs, who doubted Scott's loyalty to the Compromise of 1850 and esp. the Fugitive Slave Law, accepted the platform but spat on the candidate. More than five thousand Georgia Whigs voted in vain for Webster, although he had died nearly two weeks before the election. The Whigs' demise augured the eclipse of national parties and the worrisome rise of purely sectional political alignments. The Whigs were governed at times by the crassest opportunism, and they won only two presidential elections in their colorful career, both with war heroes. CHANGE SECTIONALISM!
Southern expansionism in Nicaragua and Cuba
Southern "slavocrats" cast esp. covetous eyes southward in the 1850s. They lusted for new slave territory after the Compromise of 1850 seemingly closed most of the Mexican Cession to the "peculiar institution." ___ beckoned beguilingly. A brazen American adventurer, William Walker, tried repeatedly to grab control of this Central American country. Backed by an armed force recruited largely in the South, he installed himself as president in July 1856 and promptly legalized slavery. Sugar-rich ___, lying just off the nation's southern doorstep, was also an enticing prospect for annexation. Some southern adventurers undertook to shake the tree of Manifest Destiny. During 1850-1851 two "filibustering" expeditions, each numbering several hundred armed men, descended upon ___. Both feeble efforts were repelled, and the last one ended in tragedy when the leader and fifty followers - some of them from the "best families" of the South - were summarily shot or strangled. ADD?
Ostend Manifesto
The secretary of state instructed the American ministers in Spain, England, and France to prepare confidential recommendations for the acquisition of Cuba. Meeting initially at Ostend, Belgium, the three envoys drew up a top-secret dispatch, soon known as the _____. This startling document urged that the administration offer $120 million for Cuba. If Spain refused, and if its continued ownership endangered American interest, the United States would "be justified in wresting" the island from the Spanish.
China, 1844, U.S. "most favored nation" status
Britain had recently humbled China in the Opium War, fought to secure the right of British traders to peddle opium in the Celestial Kingdom. Prodded by Boston merchants fearful of seeing Britain horn in on their lucrative trade with China, President Tyler thereupon dispatched Caleb Crushing, a Mass. lawyer, to secure comparable concessions for the US. Impressed by Crushing's charm and largesse - and also eager for a counterweight to the meddlesome British - silk-grown Chinese diplomats signed the Treaty of Wanghia, the first formal diplomatic agreement between the US and China, on July 3, 1844. Cushing was interested in commerce, not colonies, and he secured some vital rights and privileges from the Chinese. "_____" status afforded the US any and all trading terms accorded to other powers. ADD
Commodore Matthew Perry and Japan
In 1852 President Millard Fillmore dispatched to Japan a fleet of warships commanded by Commodore ____. He had prepared diligently for his mission, voraciously reading about Japan, querying whalers about Pacific Ocean currents, and collecting specimens of American technology with which to impress the Japanese. His ships steamed into Edo Bay on July 8, 1853, inciting near-panic among the shocked Japanese. After tense negotiations, during which he threatened to blast his way ashore if he had to, he stepped onto the beach, preceded by two conspicuously tall African American flag bearers. ADD
Treaty of Kanagawa, 1854
Perry persuaded the Japanese to sign the ____ on March 31, 1854. It provided for proper treatment of shipwrecked sailors, American coaling rights in Japan, and the establishment of consular relations.
Gadsden Purchase (reasons and location)
A chunk of Mexico now seemed desirable, because the campaigns of the recent war had shown that the best railway route ran slightly south of the Mexican border. Secretary of War Jefferson Davis arranged to have James Gadsden, a prominent South Carolina railroad man, appointed minster to Mexico. Finding Santa Anna in power for the sixth and last time, and as usual in need of money, Gadsden made gratifying headway. He negotiated a treaty in 1853, which ceded to the US the _____ area for $10 million. The transaction aroused much criticism among northerners, who objected to paying a huge sum for a cactus-strewn desert nearly the size of Gadsden's South Carolina. Undeterred, the Senate approved the pact, in the process shortsightedly eliminating a window on the Sea of Cortez.
Stephen Douglas and Chicago
In 1854, Senator ____ of Illinois delivered a counterstroke to offset the Gadsden thrust for southern expansion westward. An ardent booster for the West, he longed to break the North-South deadlock over westward expansion and stretch a line of settlements across the continent. He had also invested heavily in ____ real estate and in railway stock and was eager to have the Windy City become the eastern terminus of the proposed Pacific railroad. He would thus endear himself to the voters of Illinois, benefit his section, and enrich his own purpose.
Kansas Nebraska Act and repeal of Missouri Compromise
Douglass threw himself behind a legislative scheme that would enlist the support of a reluctant South. The proposed Territory of Nebraska would be sliced into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska. Their status regarding slavery would be settled by popular sovereignty. Kansas, which lay due west of slaveholding Missouri, would presumably choose to become a slave state. But Nebraska, lying west of free-soil Iowa, would presumably become a free state. This scheme flatly contradicted the ___ of 1820, which had forbidden slavery in the proposed Nebraska Territory north of the sacred 36°30' line. The only way to open the region to popular sovereignty was to repeal the ancient compact outright. But the compromise could not be brushed aside lightly. Whatever Congress passes it can repeal, but by this time the North had come to regard the sectional pact as almost as sacred as the Constitution itself. ADD
new Republican Party (the people who joined)
Undoubtedly the most durable offspring of the Kansas-Nebraska blunder was the ____. Ir sprang up spontaneously in the Middle West as a mighty moral protest against the gains of slavery. Gathering together dissatisfied elements, it soon included disgruntled Whigs (among them Abraham Lincoln), Democrats, Free-Soilers, Know-Nothings, and other foes of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The hodgepodge party spread eastward with the swiftness of a prairie fire and with the zeal of a religious crusade.
Southern slavery and King Cotton
Eli Whitney's invention, the cotton gin, made possible the wide-scale cultivation of short-staple cotton. The explosion of cotton cultivation created an insatiable demand for labor, chaining the slave to the gin and the planter to the slave. As the 19th century opened, the re-invigoration of southern slavery carried fateful implications for blacks and whites alike - and threatened the survival of the nation itself. As time passed, the Cotton Kingdom developed into a huge agricultural factory, pouring out avalanches of the fluffy fiber. Quick profits drew planters to the loamy bottomlands of the Gulf states. Caught up in the economic spiral, planters bought more slaves and land to grow more cotton, so as to buy still more __ and land.
oligarchy (planter aristocracy)
Before the Civil War, the South was in some respects not so much a democracy as an _____ - or a government by the few, in this case heavily influenced by a planter aristocracy. In 1850 only 1,733 families owned more than 100 slaves each, and this select group provided the cream of the political and social leadership of the section and nation. Here was the mint-julep South of the tall-columned and white-painted plantation mansion - the "big house," where dwelt the "cottonocracy." The planter aristocrats enjoyed the lion's share of southern wealth. They could educate their children in the finest schools, often in the North or abroad. But the dominance of the favored aristocracy widened the gap between rich and poor. It hampered tax-supported public education, because the rich planters could and did send their children to private institutions.
women on the plantation
The plantation system also shaped the lives of southern women. The mistress of a great plantation commanded a sizable household staff of mostly female slaves. She gave daily orders to cooks, maids, seamstresses, laundresses, and body servants. Relationships between mistresses and slaves ranged from affectionate to atrocious. However, slavery strained the bonds of womanhood. Virtually no slaveholding women believed in abolition, and relatively few protested when their husbands and children of their slaves were sold.
economic problems of the slave system
The temptation to over-speculate in land and slaves caused many planters to plunge beyond their depth. Although the black slaves might in extreme cases be fed for as little as ten cents a day, there were other expenses. The slaves represented a heavy investment of capital, perhaps $1,200 each in the case of prime field hands, and they might deliberately injure themselves or run away. An entire slave quarter might be wiped out by disease or even by lightning, as happened in one instance to twenty ill-fated blacks. ADD
poor white non-slave owners, "hillbillies, rednecks"
Beneath the slaveowners on the population pyramid was the great body of whites who owned no slaves at all. By 1860 their numbers swelled to three-quarters of all southern whites. They scratched a simple living from the thinner souls of the backcountry and mountain valleys. To them the riches of the Cotton Kingdom were a distant dream, and they often sneered at the lordly pretensions of the cotton "snobocracy." These red-necked farmers participated in the market economy scarcely at all. As subsistence farmers, they raised corn and hogs, not cotton, and often lived isolated lives, punctuated periodically by extended socializing and sermonizing at religious camp meetings. The least prosperous nonslaveholding whites were scorned even by slaves as "poor white trash." They were also known as "___," and were often described as listless, shiftless, and misshapen. Later investigations have revealed that many of them were not simply lazy but sick, suffering from malnutrition and parasites, esp. hookworm. All these whites w/o slaves had no direct stake in the preservation of slavery, yet they were among the stoutest defenders of the slave system. They hoped to buy a slave or two of their own and parlay their paltry holdings into riches. They were fiercely proud of their "racial superiority," which would be watered down if the slaves were freed. ADD/Change?
free blacks "slaves without masters"
Precarious in the extreme was the standing of the South's free blacks, who numbered 250,000 by 1860. In the upper South, the free black population traced its origins to a wavelet of emancipation inspired by the idealism of Revolutionary days. In the deeper South, many free blacks came were mulattoes, usually the emancipated children of a white planter and his black mistress. There were also some blacks that purchased their freedom with earnings from labor after hours. Many free blacks owned property, and some even owned slaves. The free blacks were kind of a "third race." They were prohibited from working in occupations and forbidden from testifying against whites in court. They were vulnerable to being hijacked back into slavery by unscrupulous slave traders. They were also unpopular in the North. Several states forbade their entrance, most denied the right to vote, and some barred blacks from public schools.
plantation slavery (slave importation ended in 1808)
The booming cotton economy created a seemingly unquenchable demand for slave labor, and their numbers quadrupled. Legal importation of African slaves into America ended in 1808, when Congress outlawed slave imports. But the price of "black ivory" was so high in the years before the Civil War that uncounted blacks were smuggled into the South, despite the death penalty of slavers. The planters regarded the slaves as investments. Slaves were the primary form of wealth in the South, and as such they were cared for as any asset in cared for by a prudent capitalist. Slavery was profitable for the great planters, though it hobbled the economic development of the region as a whole. ADD
Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
The dividing of families (on the auction block) was perhaps slavery's greatest psychological horror Abolitionists decried this practice, and _____ seized on the emotional power of this theme by putting it at the heart of the plot of _____.
lifestyles of slaves (summarize)
Conditions varied from region to region, from large plantation to small farm, and from master to master. Everywhere, of course, slavery meant hard work, ignorance, and oppression. Slaves had no civil or political rights, other than minimal protection from arbitrary murder or unusually cruel punishment. Some states offered laws like the banishment of selling a child under the age of ten away from his or her mother, but they were hard to enforce since slaves couldn't testify in court. Floggings were common, for the whip was the substitute for the wage-incentive system and the most visible symbol of the planter's mastery. But savage beating made sullen laborers, and lash marks hurt resale values. Forced separations of spouses, parents, and children were evidently more common on smaller plantations and in the upper South. Slave marriage vows sometimes proclaimed, "Until death or distance do you part." With impressive resilience, blacks managed to sustain family life in slavery, and most slaves were raised in stable two-parent households. Continuity of family identity across generations was evidenced in the widespread practice of naming children for grandparents or adopting the surname not of the a current master, but of a forebear's master. African roots were also visible in the slaves' religious practices. Though heavily Christianized by the itinerant evangelists of the Second Great Awakening, blacks in slavery molded their own distinctive religious forms from a mixture of Christian and African elements.
Nat Turner rebellion
The slaves universally pined for freedom. In 1831 the semi-literate _____, a visionary black preacher, led an uprising that slaughtered about sixty Virginians, mostly women and children. Reprisals were swift and bloody.
abolition movement
The inhumanity of the "peculiar institution" gradually caused antislavery societies to sprout forth. ____ sentiment first stirred at the time of the Revolution, esp. among Quakers. Because of the widespread loathing of blacks, some of the earliest ___ efforts focused on transporting blacks bodily back to Africa. The American Colonization Society was founded for this purpose in 1817, and in 1822 the Republic of Liberia was established for former slaves. In the 1830s the movement took on a new energy and momentum, mounting to the proportions of crusade. American ___ took heart in 1833 when their British counterparts unchained the slaves in the West Indies. ADD
American Colonization Society; Liberia
In 1817 this was founded to transport blacks bodily back Africa. In 1822 the Republic of ____, on the fever-stricken West African coast, was established for former slaves. It's capital, Monrovia, was named after President Monroe. Some fifteen thousand freed blacks were transported there over the next four decades.
William Lloyd Garrison's newspaper "The Liberator"
On New Year's Day, 1831, a shattering abolitionist blast came from the bugle of ____, a mild-looking reformer of 26. The emotionally high-strung son of a drunken father and a spiritual child of the Second Great Awakening, he published in Boston the first issue of his militantly antislavery newspaper, _____. With this mighty paper broadside, he triggered a thirty year war of words and in a sense fired one of the opening barrages of the Civil War.
David Walker's "Appeal"
Black abolitionists distinguished themselves as living monuments to the cause of African American freedom. Their ranks included ____, whose incendiary "___ to the Colored Citizens of the World" (1829) advocated a bloody end to white supremacy.
Frederick Douglass' autobiography
He was the greatest of black abolitionists. He escaped bondage in 1838 at age 21 and was "discovered" by the abolitionists in 1841 when he gave a stunning impromptu speech at an antislavery meeting in Mass. Thereafter he lectured widely for the cause, despite frequent beatings and threats against his life. In 1845 he published his classic _____, "Narrative of the Life of ______." It depicted his remarkable origins as the son of a black slave woman and a white father, his struggle to learn to read and write, and his eventual escape to the North.
Mason-Dixon Line (Dixie)
Antislavery sentiment was not unknown in the South, and in the 1820s antislavery societies were more numerous south of the ______ line (originally the southern boundary of colonial Pennsylvania) than north of it. ADD
Southern arguments in defense of slavery
Proslavery whites launched a massive defense of slavery as a positive good. Slavery, they claimed, was supported by the authority of the Bible and the wisdom of Aristotle. It was good of the African, who were lifted from the barbarism of the jungle and clothed with the blessings of Christian civilization. They also pointed out that master-slave relationships really resembled those of a family.
Gag Resolution in the House (J.Q. Adams' objection)
Regrettably, the controversy over free people endangered free speech in the entire community. Piles of petitions poured in upon Congress from the antislavery reformers, and in 1836 sensitive southerners drove through the House the so-called ______. It required all such antislavery appeals to the tabled without debate. This attack on the right of petition aroused the sleeping lion in the aged ex-president, Representative _____, and he waged a successful eight-year fight for its repeal (he was antislavery).
John Tyler
He was a Virginia gentleman of the old school - gracious and kindly, yet stubbornly attached to principle. He had earlier resigned from the Senate, quite unnecessarily, rather than accept distasteful instructions from the Virginia legislature. He had forsaken the Jacksonian Democratic fold for that of the Whigs, largely because he could not stomach the dictatorial tactics of Jackson.
opposition to Whig ideas
Tyler was at odds with the majority of his adoptive Whig party, which was pro-bank, pro-protective tariff, and pro-internal improvements. When the Whigs tried to pass a bill for a "Fiscal Bank" (and later a "Fiscal Corporation") Tyler flatly vetoed it. The proposed Whig tariff also felt the prick of the president's pen. Tyler appreciated the necessity of bringing additional revenue to the Treasury. But he looked upon the tariff with a frosty eye because it provided for a distribution among the states of revenue from the sale of public lands in the West. Tyler could see no point in squandering federal money when the federal money when the federal Treasury was not overflowing, and he again vetoed the bill. Clayites redrafted the tariff bill, chopping out the offensive dollar-distribution scheme and pushing down the rates to about the moderately protective level of 1832. Tyler had no fondness for the bill, but realized the need for additional revenue, so he passed it. CHANGE?
Canada-Maine border battle (Aroostook War)
An explosive controversy of the early 1840s involved the Maine boundary dispute. Canada wanted to build a road westward from the seaport of Halifax to Quebec. But the proposed route ran through disputed territory - claimed also by Maine under the misleading peace treaty of 1783. Lumberjacks from both Maine and Canada entered the disputed no-man's-land of the tall-timbered Aroostook River valley. Ugly fighting broke out, and both sides summoned the local militia. The small-scale lumberjack clash, which was dubbed the "Aroostook War," threatened to widen into a full-dress shooting war.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty 1842
The London Foreign Office took an unusual step as the Aroostook War deepened in 1842. It sent to Washington a nonprofessional diplomat, the conciliatory financier Lord _____. He speedily established cordial relations with Secretary ____, who had recently been lionized during a visit to Britain. The two statesmen finally agreed to compromise on the Maine boundary. On the basis of a rough, split-the-difference arrangement, the Americans were to retain some 7,000 square miles of the 12,000 square miles of the wilderness in dispute. The British got less land but won the desired Halifaz-Quebec route. An overlooked bonus sneaked by in the small print of the same treaty: the British, in adjusting to the U.S.-Canadian boundary farther west, surrendered 6,500 square miles. The area was later found to contain the priceless Mesabi iron ore of Minnesota.
Texas annexation issue
Partly because of the fears aroused by British schemers, Texas became a leading issue in the presidential campaign of 1844. The foes of expansion attacked annexation, while southern hotheads cried, "Texas or Disunion." The proexpansion Democrats under James K. Polk finally triumphed over the Whigs under Henry Clay, the hardy perennial candidate. Lame duck president Tyler thereupon interpreted the narrow Democratic victory, with dubious accuracy, as a "mandate" to acquire Texas. Many "conscience Whigs"" feared that Texas in the Union would be red meat to nourish the lusty "slave power." Aware of their opposition, Tyler despaired of securing the needed two-thirds vote for a treaty in the Senate. He therefore arranged for annexation by a joint resolution. This solution required only a simple majority in both houses of Congress. After a spirited debate, the resolution passed early in 1845, and Texas was formally invited to become the twenty-eighth star on the American flag.
Oregon Territory (Treaty of 1818 share with British)
Scattered American and British pioneers in ____ continued to live peacefully side by side. At the time of negotiating the Treaty of 1818, the US had sought to divide the vast domain at the 49th parallel. But the British, who regarded the Columbia River as the St. Lawrence of the West, were unwilling to yield this vital artery. A scheme for peaceful "joint occupation" was thereupon adopted, pending future settlement.
Oregon Trail, missionaries
The handful of Americans in Willamette Valley was suddenly multiplied in the early 1840s, when "Oregon fever" seized hundreds of restless pioneers. In increasing numbers, their creaking covered wagons jolted over the two-thousand-mile ______ as the human rivulet widened into a stream. ADD missionaries?
Manifest Destiny
The campaign of 1844 was in part an expression of the mighty emotional upsurge known as Manifest Destiny. Countless citizens in the 1840s and 1850s, feeling a sense of mission, believed that Almighty God had "manifestly" destined the American people for a hemispheric careers. They would irresistibly spread their uplifting and ennobling democratic institutions over at least the entire continent, and possibly over South America as well. Land greed and ideals - "empire" and "liberty" - were thus conveniently joined.
election 1844 Democrat Polk (list campaign ideas)
Expansionist democrats were strongly swayed by the intoxicating spell of Manifest Destiny. They came out flat-footedly in their platform for the "Reannexation of Texas" and the "Reoccupation of Oregon." Polk won the election 170 votes to 105 votes (Clay) in the Electoral College. One of his goals (as president) was a lowered tariff. He also wanted the restoration of the independent treasury, the acquisition of California, and the settlement of the Oregon dispute.
Treaty of 1846; 49th Parallel through Oregon
Early in 1846 the British, hat in hand, came around and themselves proposed the line of 49°. President Polk, irked by the previous rebuff, threw the decision squarely into the lap of the Senate. The senators speedily accepted the offer and approved the subsequent treaty.
Texas boundary disputes with Mexico
During the long era of Spanish Mexican occupation, the southwestern boundary of Texas had been the Nueces River. But the expansive Texans, on rather far-fetched grounds, were claiming the more southerly Rio Grande instead. Polk, for his part, felt a strong moral obligation to defend Texas in its claim, once it was annexed. The Mexicans were far less concerned about this boundary quibble than was the US. In their eyes all of Texas was still theirs, although temporarily in revolt, and a dispute over the two rivers seemed pointless. Yet Polk was careful to keep American troops out of virtually all of the explosive no-man's-land between the Nueces and the Rio Grande, as long as there was any real prospect of peaceful adjustment.
John Slidell's failed mission to Mexico
Polk dispatched ____ to Mexico City as minister in late 1845. The new envoy, among other alternatives was instructed to offer a maximum of $25 million for California and territory to the east. But the proud Mexican people would not even permit ___ to present his "insulting" proposition.
General Zachary Taylor and the Rio Grande River
On January 13, 1846, Polk ordered four thousand men, under General ____, to march from the Nueces River to the Rio Grande, provocatively near Mexican forces. Polk told his cabinet that he was going to ask Congress to declare war on Mexico on the basis of unpaid claims and Slidell's rejection. Two cabinet members said they would feel better if Mexican troops fired first. That evening, news of bloodshed arrived. On April 25, 1846, Mexican troops had crossed the Rio Grande and attacked General __'s command, with a loss of 16 Americans killed or wounded. Polk told Congress that despite "all our efforts" to avoid a clash, hostilities had been forced upon the country by the shedding of "American blood on American soil." A patriotic Congress voted for war. (Polk had bended truth - American blood shed on soil that the Mexicans had good reason to regard as their own)
Abraham Lincoln's Spot Resolution
A Whig congressman from Illinois, Abraham Lincoln, introduced certain resolution that requested the precise "spot" on American soil where American blood had been shed. He pushed his "spot" resolutions with such persistence that he came to be known as the "spotty Lincoln," who could die of "spotted fever."
Santa Anna
Polk didn't want war (in California), but when war came, he hoped to fight it on a limited scale and then pull out when he had captured the prize (California). The dethroned Mexican dictator _____, then exiled with his teenage bride in Cuba, let it be known that if the American blockading squadron would permit him to slip into Mexico, he would sell out his country. Incredibly, Polk agreed to this discreditable intrigue. But the double-crossing ___, once he returned to Mexico, proceeded to rally his countrymen to a desperate defense of their soil.
John C. Fremont in California
In 1846 General Stephen W. Kearny led a detachment of 1700 troops over the famous Santa Fe Trail from Fort Leavenworth to Santa Fe, which was easily captured. But before his could reach California, the fertile province was won. Captain _____, the dashing explorer, just "happened" to be there with several dozen well-armed men. In helping overthrow Mexican rule in 1846, he collaborated with American naval officers and with the local Americans, who had hoisted the banner of the short-lived California Bear Flag Republic.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo 1848 (list parts)
Polk was anxious to end the shooting as soon as he could secure his territorial grounds. Accordingly, he sent along with Scott's invading army the chief clerk of the State Department, Nicholas P. Trist, who among other weaknesses was afflicted with an overfluid pen. Trist and Scott arranged for an armistice with Santa Anna, at the cost of $10,000. The wily dictator pocketed the bribe and then used the time to bolster his defenses. Polk, disgusted with his blundering envoy, abruptly recalled Trist. The wordy diplomat then dashed off a 65 page letter explaining why he was not coming home. The president was furious, but Trist, grasping a fleeting opportunity to negotiate, signed the _____ on February 2, 1848, and forwarded it to Washington. The terms of the treaty confirmed the American title to Texas and yielded he enormous area stretching westward to Oregon and the ocean and embracing coveted California. This total expanse was about one-half of Mexico. The US agreed to pay $15 million for the land and to assume the claims of its citizens against Mexico in the amount f $3,250,000.
Deism
Many Founding Fathers, including Jefferson and Franklin, embraced the liberal doctrines of ____ that Paine promoted in his book, "The Age of Reason." ___ relied of reason rather than revelation, on science rather than the Bible. They rejected the concept of original sin and denied Christ's divinity. Yet they believed in a Supreme Being who had created a knowable universe and endowed human beings with a capacity for moral behavior. ___ helped to inspire an important spinoff from the severe Puritanism of the past - the Unitarian faith.
Unitarians
Deism helped to inspire an important spinoff from the severe Puritanism of the past - the ____ faith, which began to gather momentum in New England at the end of the 18th century. They held that God existed in only one person, and not in the orthodox Trinity. Although denying the deity of Jesus, they stressed the essential goodness of human nature rather than its vileness; they proclaimed their belief in free will and the possibility of salvation through good works; they pictured God not as a stern Creator but as a loving Father. Embraced by many leading thinkers (like Ralph Waldo Emerson), the ____ movement appealed mostly to intellectuals whose rationalism and optimism contrasted sharply with the hellfire doctrines of Calvinism, esp. predestination and human depravity.
Second Great Awakening (Methodists and Baptists)
A boiling reaction against the growing liberalism in religion set in about 1800. A fresh wave of roaring revivals, beginning on the southern frontier but soon rolling even into the cities of the Northeast, sent the ______ surging across the land. It was one of the most momentous episodes in the history of American religion. It left in its wake countless converted souls, many shattered and reorganized churches, and numerous new sects. It also encouraged an effervescent evangelicalism that bubbled up into innumerable areas of American life - including prison reform, the temperance clause, the women's movement, and the crusade to abolish slavery. Methodists and Baptists reaped the most abundant harvest of souls from the fields of fertilized by revivalism. Both sects stressed personal conversion (contrary to predestination), a relatively democratic control of church affairs, and a rousing emotionalism. Peter Cartwright was the best known of the Methodist "circuit riders," or traveling frontier preachers.
revivals; Charles Grandison Finney
Bell voiced _____ was the greatest of the __ preachers. Trained as a lawyer, he abandoned the bar to become n evangelist after a deeply moving conversion experience as a young man. He held huge crowds spellbound with the power of his oratory and the pungency of his message. He led massive __ in Rochester and NYC in 1830 and 1831. He preached a version of the old-time religion, but he was also an innovator. He devised the "anxious bench," where repentant sinners could sit in full view of the congregation, and he encouraged women to pray out aloud in public. Holding out the promise of a perfect Christian kingdom on Earth, he denounced both alcohol and slavery. He eventually served as president of Oberlin College in Ohio, which he helped to make a hotbed of revivalist activity in abolitionism.
denominational diversity and slavery divisions
Revivals also furthered the fragmentation of religious faiths. Millerites, or Adventists, rose from the superheated soil of the Burned-Over District (NY) in the 1830s. Named after the eloquent and commanding William Miller, they interpreted the Bible to mean that Christ would return on October 22, 1844. The failure of Jesus to descend on schedule dampened but did not destroy the movement. The Second Great Awakening tended to widen the lines between classes and regions. The more prosperous and conservative denominations in the East were little touched by revivalism, and Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Unitarians continued to rise mostly from wealthier, better-educated levels of society. Methodists, Baptists, and the members of other emerging sects spawned by the swelling evangelistic fervor tended to come from less prosperous, less "learned" communities in the rural South and West. Religious diversity further reflected social cleavages when the churches faced up to the slavery issue. By 1844-1845 both the southern Baptists and the souther Methodists had split with their northern brethren over slavery. The secession of the southern churches foreshadowed the secession of the southern states. First the churches split, then the political parties split, and then the Union split.
Joseph Smith, Mormons, polygamy
In 1830, ____ - a rugged visionary, proud of his prowess at wrestling - reported that he had received some golden plates from an angel. When deciphered, they constituted the Book of ____, and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (____) was launched. It was a native American product, a new religion, destined to spread its influence worldwide. After establishing a religious oligarchy, he ran into serious opposition from his non-_____ neighbors. His cooperative sect antagonized rank-and-file Americans, who were individualistic and dedicated to free enterprise. The ___ aroused further anger by voting as a unit and by openly but understandably drilling their militia for defensive purposes. Accusations of ___ likewise arose and increased in intensity, for ____ was reputed to have several wives.
Brigham Young; Salt Lake City, Utah
Continuing hostility finally drove the Mormons to desperate measures. After Joseph Smith and his brother were murdered in 1844, the falling torch was seized by a remarkable Mormon Moses named ____. He had received only eleven days of formal schooling, but he quickly proved to be an aggressive leader, an eloquent preacher, and a gifted administrator. Determined to escape further persecution, he led his oppressed and despoiled Latter-Day Saints over vast rolling plains to Utah. Under the rigidly disciplined management of ___, the community became a prosperous frontier theocracy and a cooperative commonwealth. He married as many as 27 women - some of them wives in name only - and begot 56 children. The population was further swelled by thousands of immigrants from Europe, where the Mormons had established a flourishing missionary movement. A crisis developed when the Washington government was unable to control the hierarchy of _____, who had been made territorial governor in 1850. A federal army marched in on the Mormons in 1857. Fortunately the quarrel was finally adjusted without bloodshed. The Mormons later ran afoul of the antipolygamy laws passed by Congress in 1862 and 1882, and their unique martial customs delayed statehood for Utah until 1896.
public tax-supported schools
Tax-supported primary schools were scarce in the early years of the Republic. They had an odor of pauperism about them, since they existed chiefly to educate the children of the poor. Advocates for "free" education met stiff opposition. Well-to-do, conservative Americans gradually saw the light. If they did not pay to educate other peoples "brats," the "brats" might grow up into a dangerous, ignorant rabble - armed with the vote. Taxation for education was an insurance premium that the wealthy paid for stability and democracy. Tax-supported public education, though miserably lagging in the slavery-cursed South, triumphed between 1825 and 1850. Hard-toiling laborers wielded increased influence and demanded instruction for their children. Early free schools stayed open only a few months of the year. Schoolteachers, most of them men in this era, were too often ill-trained, ill-tempered, and ill-paid. They usually only taught the "three R's" - "readin', 'ritin', and 'rithmetic."
Horace Mann and education reforms
Schoolteachers in early free schools usually only taught reading, writing, and arithmetic. Reform was urgently needed. Into the breach stepped ____, a brilliant and idealistic graduate of Brown University. As secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he campaigned effectively for more and better schoolhouses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum. His influence radiated out to other states, and impressive movements were chalked up. Yet education remained an expensive luxury for many communities. As late as 1860, the nation counted only about 100 public secondary schools - and nearly a million white adult illiterates. Black slaves in the South were legally forbidden to receive instruction in reading or writing, and even free blacks, in the North as well as the South, were usually excluded from schools.
Noah Webster
Educational advances were aided by improved textbooks, notably those of _____, a Yale-educated Connecticut Yankee who was known as the "Schoolmaster of the Republic." His "reading lessons," used by millions of children in the 19th century, were partly designed to promote patriotism. He devoted twenty years to his famous dictionary, published in 1828, which helped to standardize the American language.
women's education (Ohio's Oberlin College)
Women's higher education was frowned upon in the early decades of the 19th century. A woman's place was believed to be at home, and training in needlecraft seemed more important than training in algebra. Prejudices also prevailed that too much learning injured the feminine brain, undermined health, and rendered a young lady unfit for marriage. Women's schools at the secondary level began to attain some respectability in the 1820s. Oberlin College, in Ohio, jolted traditionalists in 1837 when it opened its doors to women as well as men. (Oberlin had already created shock waves by admitting black students.)
Dorothea Dix and mental health reform
Sufferers from so-called insanity were still being treated with incredible cruelty. Many crazed persons were chained in jails or poor-houses with sane people. Into this picture stepped a formidable New England teacher-author, _____. She traveled some 60,000 miles in eight years and assembled her damning reports on insanity and asylums from firsthand observations. Her classic petition in 1843 to the Massachusetts legislature, describing cells so foul that visitors were driven back by the stench, turned legislative stomachs and hearts. Her persistent prodding resulted in improved conditions and in gain for the concept that the demented were not willfully perverse but mentally ill.
American Temperance Society
This was formed at Boston in 1826. Within a few years, about a thousand local groups sprang into existence. They implored drinkers to sign the temperance pledge and organized children's clubs, known as the "Cold Water Army." Temperance crusaders also made effective use of pictures, pamphlets, and lurid lecturers, some of whom were reformed drunkards.
describe limitations on women
A wife was supposed to immerse herself in her home and subordinate to her husband. Like black slaves, should could not vote, and she could be legally beaten by her overlord "with a reasonable instrusment." When she married, she could not retain title to her property; it passed to her husband. ADD?
Quaker women; Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony
The women's rights movement was mothered by some arresting figures. Prominent among them was ____, a sprightly Quaker whose ire had been aroused when she and her fellow female delegates to the London antislavery convention in 1840 were not recognized. Quaker-reared ____, a militant lecturer for women's rights, fearlessly exposed herself to rotten garbage and vulgar epithets. She became such a conspicuous advocate of female rights that progressive women everywhere were called "Suzy Bs."
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
She was a mother of seven who had insisted on leaving "obey" out of her marriage ceremony. She shocked fellow feminists by going so far as to advocate suffrage for women. At the memorable Women's Rights Convention (1848) in Seneca Falls, New York, she read a "Declaration of Sentiments," which in the spirit of the Declaration of Independence declared that "all men and women are created equal."
Sarah and Angelina Grimke
The were sisters who championed antislavery. Their crusade, which was not only to free the enslaved but to end racial discrimination throughout the United States, made them more radical than many of the reformers who advocated an end to slavery, but who could not envision true social and political equality for the freedmen and women. The sisters were also among the first abolitionists to recognize the importance of women's rights and to speak and write about the cause of female equality. ADD?
Amelia Bloomer
She revolted the current "street sweeping" female attire by donning a short skirt with Turkish trousers - "bloomers," they were called - amid much bawdy ridicule about "Bloomerism" and "loose habits."
Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention 1848
Unflinching feminists met at Seneca Falls, New York, in a memorable _____ in 1848. The defiant Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments," which in the spirit of the Declaration of Independence declared that "all men and women are created equal." One resolution formally demanded the ballot for females. Amid scorn and denunciation from press and pulpit, the Seneca Falls meeting launched the modern women's rights movement.
"Declaration of Sentiments"
A document that declared "all men and women are created equal." It was read by Stanton at the Women's Rights Convention in 1848. It also formally demanded the ballot for females.
utopian movement (Brook Farm, Oneida, Shakers)
Bolstered by the ____ spirit of the age (a state in which everything is perfect), various reformers, ranging from the high-minded to the "lunatic fringe," set up more than forty communities of cooperative, communistic, or "communitarian" nature. _____ in Massachusetts, comprising two hundred acres of grudging soil, was started in 1841 with the brotherly and sisterly cooperation of about twenty intellectuals committed to the philosophy of transcendentalism. They prospered reasonably well until 1846, when they lost by fire a large new communal building shortly before its completion. A more radical experiment was the ___ Community, founded in New York in 1848. It practiced free love ("complex marriage"), birth control (through "male continence"), and the eugenic selection of parents to produce superior offspring. This curious enterprise flourished for more than thirty years, largely because its artisans made superior steel traps and ___ Community (silver) Plate. Among the largest-lived sects were the _____. Led by Mother Ann Lee, they began in the 1770s to set up the first of a score or so of religious communities. They attained a membership of about six thousand in 1840, but since their monastic customs prohibited both marriage and sexual relations, they were virtually extinct by 1940.
Greek Revival architecture
Architecturally, America contributed little of note in the first half of the century. Public buildings and other important structures followed Greek and Roman lines, which seemed curiously out of place in a wilderness setting. A remarkable ____ came between 1820 and 1850, partly stimulated by the heroic efforts of the Greeks in the 1820s to wrest independence from the "terrible Turk." About mid-century strong interest developed in a revival of Gothic forms, with their emphasis on pointed arches and large windows.
Gilbert Stuart, Charles Willson Peale, John Trumbull
A spendthrift Rhode Islander and one of the most gifted of the early group of competent American painters, he wielded his brush in Britain in competition with the best artists. He produced several portraits of Washington, all of them somewhat idealized and dehumanized. ____, a Marylander, painted some 60 portraits of Washington, who patiently sat for about fourteen of them. ____, who had fought in the Revolutionary War, recaptured its scenes and spirit on scores of striking canvases.
Hudson River School of Art
During the nationalistic upsurge after the War of 1812, American painters of portraits turned increasingly from human landscapes to romantic mirrorings of local landscapes. The ____ school excelled in this type of art.
daguerreotype (photographs)
Portrait painters gradually encountered some unwelcome competition from the invention of a crude photograph known as the ______, perfected about 1839 by a Frenchman, Louis Daguerre.
Knickerbocker Group of writers
A genuinely American literature received a strong boost from the wave of nationalism that followed the War of Independence and especially the War of 1812. By 1820 the older seaboard areas were sufficiently removed from the survival mentality of tree-chopping and butter-churning so that literature could be supported as a profession. This group in New York blazed brilliantly across the literary heavens, thus enabling America for the first time to boast literature to match its magnificent landscapes.
Washington Irving "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow"
He was born in New York City, and was the first American to win international recognition as a literary figure. He published in 1809 his "Knickerbocker's History of New York," with its amusing caricatures of the Dutch. When the family business failed, he was forced to turn to the goose-feather pen. In 1819-1820 he published "The Sketch Book," which brought him immediate fame at home and abroad. Combining a pleasing style with delicate charm and quiet humor, he used English as well as American themes as included immortal Dutch American tales as "Rib Van Winkle" and "_______."
James Fenimore Cooper "Leatherstocking Tales"; "Last of the Mohicans"
He was the first American novelist, as Washington Irving was the first general writer, to gain world fame and to make New World themes respectable. Marrying into a wealthy family, he settled down on the frontier of New York. Reading one day to his wife from an insipid English novel, Cooper remarked in disgust that he could write a better book himself. His wife challenged him to do so - and he did. He launched out upon an illustrious career in 1821 with his second novel, "The Spy" - an absorbing tale of the American Revolution. His stories of the sea were meritorious and popular, but his fame rests most enduringly on the "Leatherstocking Tales." His novels had a wide sale among Europeans, some of whom came to think of all American people as born with tomahawk in hand. Actually Cooper was exploring the viability and destiny of America's republican experiment, by contrasting the undefiled values of "natural men," children of the wooded wilderness, with the artificiality of modern civilization.
transcendentalism
This movement of the 1830s resulted in part from a liberalizing of the straightjacket Puritan theology. It also owed much to foreign influences, including the German romantic philosophers and the religions of Asia. The ____ rejected the prevailing theory, derived from John Locke, that all knowledge comes to the mind through the senses. Truth, rather, "transcends" the senses: it cannot be found by observation alone. Every person possesses an inner light that can illuminate the highest truth and put him or her in the direct touch with God, or the "Oversoul." These mystical doctrines of ____ defied precise definition, but they underlay concrete beliefs. Foremost was a stiff-backed individualism in matters religious as well as social. Closely associated was a commitment to self-reliance, self-culture, and self-discipline. These traits naturally bend hostility to authority and to formal institutions of any kind, as well as to conventional wisdom. Finally came exaltation of the dignity of the individual, whether black or white - the mainspring of a whole array of humanitarian reforms.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Best known of the transcendentalists was Boston-born ____. Trained as a Unitarian minister, he early forsook his pulpit and ultimately reached a wider audience by pen and platform. He was a never-failing favorite as a lyceum lecturer and for twenty years took a western tour every winter. Perhaps his most thrilling public effort was a Phi Beta Kappa address, "The American Scholar," derived at Harvard College in 1837. This brilliant appeal was an intellectual declaration of independence, for it urged American writers to throw off European traditions and delve into the riches of their own backyards. Catching the individualistic mood of the Republic, he stressed self-reliance, self-improvement, self-confidence, optimism, and freedom. By the 1850s he was an outspoken critic of slavery, and he ardently supported the Union cause in the Civil War.
Henry David Thoreau: "Walden"; also "Civil Disobedience"
He was Emerson's close associate - a poet, a mystic, a transcendentalist, and a nonconformist. Condemning a government that supported slavery, he refused to pay his Massachusetts poll tax and was jailed for a night. He is also well known for "____: Or Life in the Woods." The book is a record of his two years of simple existence in a hut that he built on the edge of ___ Pond, near Concord, Mass. He believed that he should reduce his bodily wants so as to gain time for a pursuit of truth through study and meditation. His essay "On the Duty of ____" and "____" exercised a strong influence in furthering idealistic thought, both in America and abroad. His writing later encouraged Mahatma Gandhi to resist British rule in India, and, still later, inspired the development of American civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr.'s thinking about nonviolence.
Walt Whitman's "Leaves of Grass"
Bold, brassy, and swaggering was the open-collared figure of Brooklyn's _____. In his famous collection of poems, "_______," he gave free rein to his gushing genius with what he called "barbaric yawp." Highly romantic, emotional, and unconventional, he dispensed with titles, stanzas, rhymes, and at times even regular meter. He handled sex with shocking frankness, although he laundered his verses in later editions, and his book was banned in Boston." ____ "was at first a financial failure. But in time the once-withered "____," revived and honored, won for him an enormous following in both America and Europe. The book also gained him the informal title "Poet Laureate of Democracy."
Edgar Allan Poe
He spent much of his youth in Virginia and was an eccentric genius. Orphaned at an early age, cursed with ill health, and married to a child-wife of thirteen who fell fatally ill of tuberculosis, he suffered hunger, cold, poverty, and debt. Failing at suicide, he took refuge in the bottle and dissipated his talent early. He was gifted lyric poet, as "The Raven" attests. He also excelled in short story, esp. the horror type, in which he shared his alcoholic nightmares with fascinated readers. If he did not invent the modern detective novel, he at least set new high standards in tales like "The Gold Bug." He was fascinated with ghostly and ghastly, as in "The Fall of the House of Usher" and other stories. He reflected a morbid sensibility distinctly at odds with the usually optimistic tone of American culture. Partly for this reason, he has perhaps been even more prized by Europeans than by Americans. His brilliant career was cut short when he was found drunk in a Baltimore gutter and shortly thereafter died.
Nathanial Hawthorne "The Scarlett Letter"
In somber Salem, Mass., this writer grew up in an atmosphere heavy with the memories of his Puritan forebears and the tragedy of his father's premature death on an ocean voyage. His masterpiece was "______" (1850), which describes the Puritan practice of forcing an adulteress to wear the scarlet "A" on her clothing. The tragic tale chronicles the psychological effects of sin on the guilty heroine and her secret lover (the father of her baby), a minister of the gospel in Puritan Boston.
Herman Melville "Moby Dick"
He was an orphaned and ill-educated New Yorker. He went to sea as youth and served eighteen adventuresome months on a whaler. Jumping ship in the South Seas, he lived among cannibals, from whom he providently escaped uneaten. His fresh and charming tales of the South Seas were immediately popular, but his masterpiece, "_______," was not. This epic novel is a complex allegory of good and evil, told in terms of the conflict between a whaling captain, Ahab, and a giant white whale, ____. The captain, having lost a leg to the marine monster, lives only for revenge. His pursuit finally ends when ___ rams and sinks Ahab's ship, leaving only one survivor. The whale's exact identity and Ahab's motives remain obscure. In the end the sea, the terrifyingly impersonal and unknowable universe of ____'s imagination, simply rolls on. The book was widely ignored at the time of its publication; people were accustomed to more straightforward and upbeat prose. His brooding masterpiece about the mysterious white whale had to wait until the more jaded twentieth century for readers and for proper recognition.
Phillis Wheatley
Colonial literature was generally undistinguished. One note-worthy exception was the precocious poet _____, a slave girl brought to Boston at age eight and never formally educated. Taken to England when twenty years of age, she published a book of verse and subsequently wrote other polished poems that revealed the influence of Alexander Pope. Her verse compares favorably with the best of the poetry-poor colonial period, but the remarkable fact is that she could overcome her severely disadvantaged background and write any poetry at all.
westward movement
The rise of Andrew Jackson, the first president from beyond the Appalachian Mountains, exemplified the inexorable westward march of the American people. As Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote in 1844,"Europe stretches to the Alleghenies; America lies beyond." By 1840, the "demographic center" of the American population map had crossed the Alleghenies. By the eve of the Civil War, it had marched across the Ohio River. Life was grim for the pioneer families were poorly fed, ill-clad, and housed hastily erected shanties. They were prone to disease, depression, and premature death. Breakdowns and madness were all to frequently the "opportunities" for secluded pioneer women. Pioneering Americans were often ill-informed, superstitious, provincial, and fiercely individualistic. Pioneers in a hurry often exhausted the land in the tobacco regions and then pushed on, leaving behind barren and rain-gutted fields. They discovered that if they burned cane fields, European blue grass grew well. "Kentucky bluegrass," as it was inaccurately called, made ideal pasture for livestock - and lured thousands more American homesteaders to Kentucky.
beaver, buffalo, otters
By 1820s American fur-trappers were setting their traplines all over the vast Rocky Mountain Region. The fur-trapping empire was based on the "rendezvous" system in which traders ventured from St. Louis to a verdant Rocky Mountain valley, made camp, and waited for the trappers and Indians to arrive with _______ pelts to swap for manufactured goods from the East. By the time these hats went out of fashion, the ___ had almost disappeared from the region. Trade in ___ robes also flourished, leading eventually to the annihilation of the bison herds in the western prairies. In California coast, traders bought up prodigious quantities of ____ pelts, driving the once-bountiful ___ to the point of near extinction.
Georgia Catlin
He was a painter and student of Native American life. He was among the first Americans to advocate the preservation of nature as a deliberate national policy. In 1832 he observed Sioux Indians in South Dakota recklessly slaughtering buffalo in order to trade the animal's tongues for the white man's whiskey. Appalled at the spectacle and fearing the preservation of Indians and buffalo alike, he proposed the creation of a national park. His idea later bore fruit with the creation of a national park system, beginning with Yellowstone Park in 1872.
increased urbanization and problems
Urban continued explosively. By 1860 there were forty-three cities, and bout three hundred other place claimed over five thousand inhabitants apiece. Such overrapid urbanization unfortunately brought undesirable by-products. It intensified the problems of smelly slums, feeble street lighting, inadequate policing, impure water, foul sewage, ravenous rats, and improper garbage disposal.
Irish immigration (reasons, locations, treatment)
During the 1840s and 1850s over a million and a half ___ immigrants, and nearly as many Germans, swarmed to America. They came partly because Europe seemed to be running out of room. The population of the Old World had more than doubled in the 19th century, and Europe began to generate a seething pool of apparently "surplus" people. America beckoned most strongly to the struggling masses of Europe, and the majority of migrants headed for the "land of freedom and opportunities." Also, a terrible rot attacked the potato crop, on which the people had become dangerously dependent (about 2 million people died). The people fled the Land of Famine for the Land of Plenty, flocked to America in the "Black Forties." They were too poor to move west and buy the necessary land, livestock, and equipment, so the swarmed into the larger seaboard cities (Boston and NY mostly). Forced to live in squalor, they were rudely crammed into the already-vile slums. Scorned by older American people, especially Protestant Bostonians. They did the hard, "back-breaking" labor. The Irish were hated by native workers. "No Irish Need Apply" (NINA) was a sign commonly posted at factory gates. ADD?
German immigration (reasons, locations, treatment)
Between 1830 and 1860 over a million and half ___ immigrants stepped onto American soil. The bulk of them were uprooted farmers, displaced by crop failures and other hardships. But a strong sprinkling were liberal political refugees who were saddened by the collapse of the democratic revolutions of 1848. Most of them pushed out to the lush lands of the Middle West, notably Wisconsin, where they settled and established model farms. Like the Irish, they formed an influential body of voters whom American politicians shamelessly wooed. The Conestoga wagon, the Kentucky rifle, and the Christmas tree were all ___ contributions to American culture. They were occasionally regarded with suspicion by their old-stock American neighbors. ADD?
Roman Catholic Schools
Roman Catholics, seeking to protect their children from Protestant indoctrination in the public schools, began in the 1840s to construct an entirely separate Catholic education system - an enormously expensive undertaking for a poor immigrant community, but one that revealed the strength of its religious commitment.
Order of the Star-Spangled Banner (Know-Nothings)
Older-stock Americans were alarmed at the mounting figures of Roman Catholics. They professed to believe the "alien riffraff" would "establish" the Catholic Church at the expense of Protestantism and would introduce "popish idols." The nosier American "nativists" rallied for political action. In 1849 they formed the _____, which soon developed into the formidable American, or "Know-Nothing," party - a name derived from its secretiveness. "Nativists" agitated for rigid restrictions on immigration and naturalization and for laws authorizing deportation of alien paupers.
anti-Catholic violence
As early as 1834, a Catholic convent near Boston was burned by a howling mob, and in ensuing years a few scattered attacks fell upon Catholic schools and churches. The most frightful flare up was in 1844 in Philadelphia, where the Irish Catholics fought back against the threats of the "nativists" (two Catholic churches had been burned and some thirteen citizens had been killed and fifty wounded in several days of fighting). These outbursts of intolerance, though infrequent and generally localized in the larger cities, remain an unfortunate blot on the record of America's treatment of minority groups.
Industrial Revolution (free enterprise system)
A group of British inventors, beginning about 1750, perfected a series of machines for the mass production of textiles. This harnessing of steam multiplied the power of human muscles some ten-thousandfold and ushered in the modern factory system - and with it, the so-called Industrial Revolution. It was accompanied by a no-less-spectacular transformation in agricultural production and in the methods of transportation and communication. The factory system gradually spread from Britain to other lands. It took a generation or so for it to reach western Europe, and then the US. The youthful American Republic was so slow to embrace the machine. For one thing, land was cheap in America. People were not going to coop themselves up in smelly factories when the might till their own acres in God's fresh air and sunlight. Labor was therefore scarce, and enough nimble hands to operate the machines were hard to find - until immigrants began to poor into the US. ADD/CHANGE
Samuel Slater and cotton spinning machine
___ has been acclaimed the "Father of the Factory System" in America. A skilled British mechanic, he was attracted by bounties being offered to British workers familiar with textile machines. After memorizing the plans for machinery, he escaped to America in disguise, where he won the backing of Moses Brown. Laboriously reconstructing the essential apparatus with the aid of a blacksmith and carpenter, he put into operation in 1791 the first efficient American machinery for spinning cotton thread.
Eli Whitney and the cotton engine (cotton gin)
Born in Massachusetts, he was another mechanical genius. While in Georgia, he was told the poverty of the South would be relieved if someone could only invent a workable device for separating the seed from the short-staple cotton fiber. Within ten days, in 1793, he built a crude machine called the cotton gin (short for engine) that was fifty times more effective than the handpicking process. The gin affected not only the history of America but that of the world.
King Cotton
Nickname for the cotton gin. Almost overnight the raising of cotton became highly profitable, and the South was tied hand and foot to the throne of _____. Human bondage had been dying out, but the insatiable demand for cotton reriveted the chains on the limbs of the downtrodden southern blacks. South and North both prospered. Slave-driving planters cleared more acres for cotton, pushing the Cotton Kingdom westward off the depleted tidewater plains, over the Piedmont, and onto the black loam bottomlands of Alabama and Mississippi.
reasons for New England industrialization (factors of production)
Factories at first flourished most actively in New England, though they branched out into the more populous areas of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. New England was singularly favored as an industrial center for several reasons. Farming was difficult (hence making manufacturing attractive), a relatively dense population provided labor and accessible markets, shipping brought in capital, and snug seaports made easy the import of raw material and the export of the finished products. Finally, the rapid rivers provided abundant water power to turn the cogs of the machines.
interchangeable parts (Eli Whitney)
Frustrated in his earlier attempts to monopolized the cotton gin, Whitney turned to the mass production of muskets for the U.S. Army. Up to this time, each part of a firearm had been hand-tooled, and if the trigger of one broke, the trigger of another might not fit. Whitney seized upon the idea of having machines make each part, so that all triggers, for example, would be as much alike as the successive imprints of a copperplate engraving. The principle of ____ was widely adopted by 1850, and it ultimately became the basis of modern mass-production, assembly line methods. By perfecting the cotton gin, Whitney gave slavery a new lease on life, and perhaps made the Civil War more likely. At the same time, by popularizing the principle of ____, Whitney helped factories to flourish in the North, giving the Union a decided advantage when the showdown came.
sewing machine, Isaac Singer
The ____ machine, invented by Elias Howe and perfected by _____, gave another strong boost to northern industrialization. It became the foundation of the ready-made clothing industry, which took root about the time of the Civil War. It drove many a seamstress from the shelter of the private home to the factory, where, like a human robot, she tended the clattering mechanisms.
patents
Each momentous new invention seemed to stimulate still more imaginative inventions. For the decade ending in 1800, only 306 patents were registered in Washington; but the decade ending in 1860 saw the amazing total of 28,000. Yet in 1838 the clerk of the Patent Office resigned in despair, complaining that all the worthwhile inventions had been discovered.
free incorporation
Laws of "____," first passed in New York in 1848, meant that businessmen could create corporations without applying for individual charters from the legislature.
Samuel F.B. Morse's telegraph
This was among the inventions that tightened the sinews of an increasingly complex business words. ___ finally secured from Congress, to the accompaniment of the usual jeers, an apportion of $30,000 to support his experiment with "talking wires." In 1844 he strung a wire forty miles from Washington to Baltimore and tapped out the historic message, "What hath God wrought?" The invention brought fame and fortune to him, as he put distantly separated people in almost instant communication with one another.
working conditions, child labor, strikes
Clearly the early factory system did not shower its benefits evenly on all. While many owners grew plump, working-people often wasted away at their workbenches. Hours were long, wages were low, and meals were skimpy and hastily gulped. Workers were forced to toil in unsanitary buildings that were poorly ventilated, lighted, and heated. They were forbidden by law to form labor unions to raise wages, for such cooperative activity regarded as criminal conspiracy. In 1820 a significant portion of the nation's industrial toilers were children under ten years of age. Victims of factory labor, many children were mentally blighted, emotionally starved, physically stunted, and even brutally whipped. Dozens of strikes erupted in the 1830s and 1840s, most of them for higher wages, some for the ten-hour day, and a few for unusual goals as the right to smoke on the job. The workers usually lost more strikes than they won, for the employer could resort to such tactics as the importing of strikebreakers.
women in the Lowell textile mill (Waltham, Mass.)
The Boston Associates proudly pointed to their textile mill at ____, Massachusetts, as the showplace factory. The workers were virtually all New England farm girls, carefully supervised on and off the job by watchful matrons. Escorted regularly to church and from their company boardinghouses and forbidden to form unions, they had few opportunities to share dissatisfactions over their grueling working conditions.
cult of domesticity
The vast majority of workingwomen were single. Upon marriage they left their paying jobs and took up their new work as wives and mothers. In the home they were enshrined in a "____," a widespread cultural creed that glorified the customary functions of the homemaker. From their pedestal, married women commanded immense moral power, and they increasingly made decisions that altered the character of the family itself.
fertility rate and contraceptives
The "___," or number of births among women age fourteen to forty-five, dripped sharply among white women in the years after the Revolution and, in the course of the 19th century as a whole, fell by half. Birth control was still a taboo topic for polite conversation, and contraceptive technology was primitive, but clearly some form of family limitation was being practice quietly and effectively in some families, rural and urban alike. Women undoubtedly played a large part (maybe the leading part) in decisions to have fewer children. This newly assertive role for women has been called "domestic feminism," because it signified the glorified power and independence of women, even while they remained wrapped in the "cult of domesticity."
trans-Allegheny west and importance of corn
The _____ region - especially the Ohio-Indiana-Illinois tier - was fast becoming the nation's breadbasket. Pioneer families first hacked a clearing out of the forest and then planted their painfully furrowed fields of corn. The yellow grain was amazingly versatile. It could be fed to hogs or distilled into liquor. Both of these products could be transported more easily than the bulky grain itself, and they became the early western farmer's staple market items.
John Deere plow
One of the first obstacles that frustrated farmers was the thickly matted soil of the West, which snagged and snapped fragile wooden plows. ____ of Illinois in 1837 finally produced a steel plow that broke the stubborn soil. Sharp and effective, it was also light enough to be pulled by horses, rather than oxen.
McCormick reaper
In the 1830s Virginia born ____ contributed to the the most wondrous contraption of all: a mechanical mower-reaper. The clattering cogs of ____'s horse-drawn machine were to the western farmers what the cotton gin was to the southern planters. Seated on his red-chariot reaper, a single husbandman could do the work of five men with sickles and scythes. It made ambitious capitalists out of humble plowmen, who now scrambled for more acres on which to plant more fields of billowing wheat.
large-scale cash-crop agriculture
Subsistence farming (growing just for you, your family, and your cows) gave way to production for the market, as large-scale ("extensive"), specialized, cash-crop agriculture (selling crops; not growing just for self) came to dominate the trans-Allegheny West. With it followed mounting indebtedness, as farmers bought more land and more machinery to work with. Soon the hustling farmer-businesspeople were annually harvesting a larger crop than the South - which was becoming self-sufficient in food production - could devour.
Lancaster Turnpike
Cheap and efficient carriers were imperative if raw materials were to be transported to factories and if finished products were to be delivered to consumers. In the 1790s, a private company completed the ____ Turnpike in Pennsylvania. It was a broad, hard-surfaced highway that thrust 62 miles westward from Philadelphia to ____. As drivers approached the tollgate, they were confronted with a barrier of sharp spikes, which they turned aside when they paid for their toll. It proved to be a highly successful venture, returning as high as 15 percent annual dividends to its stockholders. It attracted a rich trade to Philadelphia and touched off a turnpike-building boom that lasted about twenty years.
National (Cumberland) Road
In 1811 the federal government began to construct the elongated ____. This highway ultimately stretched from Cumberland, in western Maryland, to Vandalia, in Illinois, a distance of 591 miles. The War of 1812 interrupted construction, and states' rights shackles on internal improvements hampered federal grants. But the thoroughfare was belatedly brought to its destination in 1852 by a combination of aid from the states and the federal government.
Robert Fulton's steamboat--The Clermont
The steamboat craze, which overlapped the turnpike craze, was touched of by ___. He installed a powerful steam engine in a vessel that posterity came to know as the ____ but a dubious public dubbed "___'s Folly." On a historic day in 1807, the quaint little ship churned steadily from NYC up the Hudson River toward Albany. It made the run of 150 miles in 32 hours. The success of the steamboat was sensational. People could now in large degree defy wind, wave, tide, and downstream current.
Clinton's "Big Ditch" Erie Canal
A canal-cutting craze paralleled in turnpikes and steamboats. A few canals had been built around falls and elsewhere in colonial days, but ambitious projects lay in the future. Resourceful New Yorkers, cut off from federal aid by states' righters, themselves dug the Erie Canal, linking the Great Lakes with the Hudson River. They were blessed with the driving leadership of Governor DeWitt Clinton, whose grandiose project was scoffingly called "_____" or "the Governor's Gutter." Began in 1817, the canal eventually ribboned 363 miles. On its completion in 1825, a garlanded canal boat glided from Buffalo, on Lake Erie, to the Hudson River and on to New York harbor.
Ohio's Miami (Wabash) and Erie Canal (Toledo)
ADD
railroads and Pullman sleeping cars
It was fast, reliable, cheaper than canals to construct, and not frozen over winter. Able to go anywhere, even through the Allegheny barrier, it defied terrain and weather. The first ___ appeared in the US in 1828. By 1860, the US boasted thirty thousand miles of track, three-fourths of it in the rapidly industrializing North. Railroad pioneers had to overcome obstacles like feeble brakes, conjectural arrivals and departures, and numerous differences in gauge meant frequent changes of trains for passengers. But gauges gradually became standardized, better brakes did brake, safety devices were adopted, and the _____ (has bunk beds so you can lay down) was introduced in 1859.
Cyrus Field and trans-Atlantic telegraph cable
In 1858, ____ (called "the greatest wire-puller in history") finally stretched a cable under the deep North Atlantic waters from Newfoundland to Ireland. Although this initial cable went dead after three weeks of public rejoicing, a heaver cable laid in 1866 permanently linked the American and European continents.
clipper ships and Far East trade
In the 1840s and 1850s, a golden age dawned for American shipping. Yankee naval yards began to send down the ways sleek new craft called ____. Long, narrow, and majestic, they glided across the sea under towering masts and clouds of canvas. In a fair breeze, they could outrun any steamer. The stately clippers sacrificed cargo space for speed, and their captains made killing by hauling high-value cargoes in record times. They wrested much of the tea-carrying trade between the Far East and Britain from their slower-sailing British competitors, and they sped thousands of impatient adventurers to the goldfields of California and Australia.
stagecoaches; the Pony Express
By 1858 horse-drawn overland ___, immortalized by Mark Twain's "Roughing It," were a familiar sight. Their dusty tracks stretched from the bank of the muddy Missouri River clear to California. The ____ was established in 1860 to carry mail speedily the two thousand lonely miles from St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California. Daring, lightweight riders, leaping onto wiry ponies saddled at stations approximately ten miles apart, could make the trip in an amazing ten days. The speeding postmen missed only one trip, though the whole enterprise lost money heavily and folded after only eighteen legend-leaving months.
continental economy and regional specialization
By they eve of the Civil War, a truly ____ had emerged. The principle of division of labor, which spelled productivity and profits in the factory, applied on a national scale as well. Each region now specialized in a particular type of economic activity. The South raised cotton for export to New England and Britain; the West grew grain and livestock to feed factory workers in the East and in Europe; the East made machines and textiles for the South and the West.
market revolution
No less revolutionary than the political upheavals of the antebellum era was the "_____" that transformed a subsistence economy of scattered farms and tiny workshops into a national network of industry and commerce. Greater mechanization and a more robust market-oriented economy raised new legal questions about winner and losers. ADD
social mobility
Myths of "_____" grew up and over the buried memories of the unfortunate (forgotten) day laborers. Mobility did exist in industrializing America - but not in the proportions that legend often portrays. Rags-to-riches success stories were relatively few. Yet America, with its dynamic society and wide-open spaces, undoubtedly provided more "opportunity" than did the contemporary countries of the Old World - which is why millions of immigrants packed their bags and headed for New World shores.
"Corrupt Bargain" of 1824
The last of the old-style elections was marked by the ____ of 1824. Four presidential candidates towered above the others: John Quincy Adams (Massachusetts), William H. Crawford (Georgia), Andrew Jackson (Tennessee), and Henry Clay (Kentucky). All four confessed to be "Republicans," but there was no real political parties yet. Jackson won more popular votes than his rivals, but no one won the majority vote in the electoral college. In this deadlock, the House of Representatives was directed by the 12th Amendment to choose the top 3 candidates. Clay was thus eliminated, yet as Speaker of the House, he presided over the very chamber that had to pick a winner. Crawford suffered a stroke and was out of the picture. This left Adams and Jackson, who Clay hated. Clay told everyone to vote for Adams, who in exchange made Clay his Secretary of State. John C. Calhoun was VP.
John Quincy Adams as minority president
Congress elected him president in 1825. Fewer than 1/3 of voters had voted for him. As the first "____," he would have found it difficult to win popular support even under the most favorable conditions. He did not possess many of the usual arts of the politician and scorned those who did. He had achieved high office by commanding respect rather than by courting popularity. His political allies wished that he would make a few more "corrupt bargains," but he resolutely declined to oust efficient officeholders in order to create vacancies for his supporters.
nationalism (examples)
Adam's _____ views gave him further woes. Much of the nation was turning way from post-Ghent _____ and towards states' rights and sectionalism. He urged Congress to construct roads and canals, and renewed George Washington's proposal to have a national university. The public reaction to these proposals was prompt and unfavorable. If the federal government should take on such heavy financial burdens, it would have to continue the hated tariff duties. Worse, if it could meddle in local concerns like education and roads, it might even try to lay its hand on the "peculiar institution" of black slavery.
land policy
Adam's ______ likewise antagonized the westerners. They clamored for wide-opened expansion and resent the president's well-meaning attempts to curb feverish speculation in the public domain. The fate of the Cherokee Indians, threatned with evicition from their holdings in Georgia, brought additional bitterness. Adams attempted to deal fairly with the Indians, but the Georgia governor threatened to resort to arms.
National Republicans and Adams (Whigs)
Even before the election of 1828, the temporarily united Republicans of the Era of Good Feelings had split into two camps. One was the _____, with ___ as their standard-bearer. The other was the Democratic-Republicans.
Democratic-Republicans and Jackson (Democrats)
This party, headed by ____, had split from the Republicans of the Era of Good Feelings along with their competitor, the National Republicans. These followers presented their hero as a champion to the common man, while attacking Adams as a corrupt aristocrat. They argued that the will of the people had been thwarted in 1825 by the backstair "bargain" of Adams and Clay. The only way to right the wrong was to seat Jackson, who would then bring about "reform" by sweeping out the "dishonest" Adams gang.
Election 1828 "Old Hickory" Jackson
In the election of 1828, both National Republicans and Democratic-Republicans were criticizing the others every move. On voting day, the electorate split on largely sectional lines. Jackson was strongest in the West and South. The middle states and the Old Northwest were divided, while Adams won the backing of his own New England and the propertied "better elements" of the Northeast. When popular vote was converted to electoral votes, Jackson won by far: 178 votes to 83. He was the first president from the West, the first nominated at a formal party convention (in 1832), and only the second without a college education (Washington was the first).
spoils system (patronage)
Once in power, Democrats, famously suspicious of the federal government, demonstrated that they were not above striking some bargains of their own. Under Jackson the _____ - that is, rewarding political supporters with public office - was introduced to the federal government on a large scale. The system had already secured a firm hold in New York and Pennsylvania. Jackson defended the ___ on democratic grounds that every man was as good as his neighbor, so why develop the aristocracy, bureaucracy, and officeholding classes? Better to bring in new blood; each generation deserved its turn at the public trough. The system was less about finding new blood than about rewarding old cronies. It was accompanied by scandal since men had bought their new positions through contributions to the campaign. Illiterates, incompetents, and plain crooks were given positions of public trust; men on the make lusted forth the spoils - rather than toils - of office. It was an important element of the emerging two-party order.
Daniel Webster, pro-tariff
Tariffs protected American industry against competition from European manufactured goods, but they also drove up prices for all Americans and invited retaliatory tariffs on American agricultural exports abroad. In 1820s, influential New Englanders like ___ gave up their traditional defense of free trade to support higher tariffs. In 1824, Congress had increased the tariffs significantly. Ardent Jacksonites now played a cynical political game. They now promoted a high-tariff bill, expecting to be defeated, which would give a black eye to President Adams. To their surprise, the tariff passed in 1828, and Andrew Jackson inherited the political hot potato.
Tariff of Abominations (1828)
Southerners were hostile to tariffs. It was branded the "Black Tariff" and the "___________". Several southern states adopted formal protests. In South Carolina flags were lowered to half-mast. Southerners believed, not illogically, that the Yankee tariff discriminated against them. The bustling Northeast was experiencing a boom in manufacturing, the developing West was prospering from rising property values and a multiplying population, and the energetic Southwest was expanding into virgin cotton lands. But the Old South was falling on hard times, and the tariff provided a convenient and plausible scapegoat. Southerners sold their cotton and other farm produce in a world market completely unprotected by tariffs but were forced to buy their manufactured goods in an American market heavily protected by tariffs. Protectionism protected Yankee and middle-state manufacturers. The farmers and planters of the Old South felt they were stuck with the bill.
John C. Calhoun
He was a South Carolinian who was educated at Yale. As a foremost nullifier, he died trying to reconcile strong states' rights with a strong Union. In his last years, he advocated a Siamese-twin presidency, probably unworkable, with one president for the North and one for the South. His former plantation home is now the sit of Clemson University. He secretly wrote "The South Carolina Exposition" when he was VP. The Exposition denounced the Tariff of Abominations as unjust and unconstitutional. It bluntly proposed the states should nullify the tariff.
Denmark Vesey slave rebellion and abolition
In 1822, there was a free black named _____ who lead an aborted slave rebellion in Charleston. The South Carolinians, still closely the British West Indies, knew that their slaveowning West Indian cousins were feeling the mounting pressure of British Abolitionism on the London government. Abolitionism in America might similarly use the power of the government in Washington to suppress slavery in the South. If so, now was the time, and the tariff was the issue, to take a strong stand against all federal encroachments on states' rights.
"the South Carolina Exposition" theory of nullification
South Carolinians took the lead in protesting against the Tariff of Abominations. Their legislature went so far as to publish in 1828 a pamphlet known as __________________. It had been secretly written by John C. Calhoun, and it denounced the recent tariff as unjust and unconstitutional. Going a stride beyond the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions of 1798, it bluntly proposed that the states should nullify the tariff.
nullies vs. unionists
Through Jackson's fist term, _____ tried strenuously to muster the necessary 2/3 vote for ____ in the South Carolina legislature. They were blocked by the determined minority of _____. Congress tipped the balance by passed the new Tariff of 1832 which pared away the worst of the "abominations" of 1828, but it was still protective and fell far short of meeting southern demands. Worse yet, to many southerners it had a disquieting air of permanence. In state elections of 1832, these two groups went head to head. The ____ emerged with more than a two-thirds majority. The state legislature called for a special convention, where it was solemnly declared that the existing tariff to be null and void within South Carolina.
Clay's compromise tariff
Jackson sent the navy and army to Palmetto Sates, while quietly preparing a sizable army. He issued a proclamation against nullification, to which the South Carolina governor responded with a counter-proclamation. To avoid civil war, ___ stepped forward and threw his influence behind a compromise bill that would gradually reduce the Tariff of 1832 by about 10 percent over a period of eight years. By 1842, the rates would be back at the mildly protective level of 1816. (compromise Tariff of 1833)
Force Bill
Congress passed the ___, known by South Carolinians as the "Bloody Bill," as a face-saving device. It authorized the president to use the army and navy, if necessary, to collect federal tariff duties. ADD
Cherokees and Sequoyah
Jackson's democrats were committed to western expansion, but such expansion necessarily meant confrontations with the current inhabitants of the land. Federal policy toward the Native Americans varied. Beginning in the 1790s, the Washington government ostensibly recognized the tribes as separate nations and agreed to acquire land from them only through formal treaties. Much energy was devoted to "civilizing" and Christianizing the Indians. Although many tribes violently resisted white encroachment, others followed the path of accommodation. The Cherokees of Georgia made especially remarkable efforts to learn the ways of the whites by adopting the system of settled agriculture (giving up their seminomadic life) and a notion of private property. Missionaries opened schools among the Cherokees, and the Indian Sequoyah devised a Cherokee alphabet. In 1808 the Cherokee National Council legislated a written legal code, and in 1827 it adopted a written constitution that provided for executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Some even became successful cotton plantation owners (also owning slaves). But in 1828, the Georgia legislature declared the Cherokee tribal council illegal and asserted its own jurisdiction over Indian affairs and Indian lands.
Supreme Court decision (Worcester v. Georgia)
In 1828, Georgia legislature declared the Cherokee tribal council illegal and asserted its own jurisdiction over Indian affairs and Indian lands. The Cherokees appealed this move to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court upheld rights of Indians, but Jackson (who clearly wanted to open Indian lands to white settlement) refused to recognize the Court's decisions.
Indian Removal Act, Bureau of Indian Affairs
Jackson proposed the bodily removal of the remaining eastern tribes - Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles - beyond the Mississippi. Emigration was supposed to be voluntary because it was "cruel and unjust" to force the Indians to move. Jackson's policy led to the forced uprooting of more than 100,000 Indians. In 1830, Congress passed the ____, providing for the transplanting of all Indian tribes then resident east of the Mississippi. The heaviest blow fell on the Five Civilized Tribes. Indians died on the route to the new Indian Territory were they would be permanently free of white encroachments. _____ was established in 1836 to administer relations with Indians. The permanent frontier lasted about 15 years.
Trail of Tears
"One each day, and all are gone. Looks like maybe all dead before we get to new Indian country, but always we keep marching on. Women cry and make sad wails. Children cry, and many men cry, and all look sad when friends die, but they say nothing and just put heads down and keep on toward west . . . She [his mother] speak no more; we bury her and go on." The route Indians took when they were forced to immigrate to the newly established Indian territory (Oklahoma-Texas area?)
Black Hawk rebellion and Captain Lincoln
Suspicious of white intentions from the start, Sauk and Fox braves from Illinois and Wisconsin, ably lead by ___, resisted eviction. They were crushed in 1832 by regular troops, including Lieutenant Jefferson Davis of Mississippi, and by volunteers, including Captain ______ of Illinois.
Monster Bank of the US, Nicholas Biddle
President Jackson did not hate all banks and businesses, but he distrusted monopolistic banking and over-big businesses. The national government minted gold and silver coins in the mid 19th century but did not issue paper money. Paper notes were printed by private banks whose value fluctuated with the health of the bank and the amount of money printed, giving private bankers considerable power over the nation's economy. The US bank had the most power almost acting as a branch of government. It was the principal depository for the funds of government and controlled much of the nation's gold and silver, and its notes had a stable value. The bank was a important part of the nations expanding economy. It was a private institution accountable not the people but to its moneyed investors. ______ was its president, and he held an almost unconstitutional amount of power over the nation's financial affairs. He was dubbed "Czar Nicolas I," and the bank was called "hydra of corruption."
Clay's recharter bill and Jackson's veto
In 1832, the Bank War broke out when Daniel Webster and Henry Clay presented Congress with a bill to renew the Bank of the US's charter. The charter was not set to expire until 1836, but Clay pushed for renewal four years early to make it an election issue in 1832. Clay looked upon the bank issue as a surefire winner. Clay's recharter bill was sent through Congress to the White House, where if Jackson did not sign it, he would alienate himself from his western followers. If he vetoed it, he would presumably lose the presidency in the forthcoming election by alienating the wealthy and influential groups in the East. But the "best people" were now only a minority, and most feared Jackson anyhow. Jackson vetoed it, and declared the monopolistic bank unconstitutional. Of course, the Supreme Court had earlier declared it constitutional in the case of McCulloch v. Maryland, but Jackson acted as though he regarded the executive branch as superior to the judicial branch. His veto message not only squashed the bank bill, but amplified the power of the presidency.
election 1832, Jackson v. Clay
In this election Jackson (Democrat) and Clay (Whig/National Republican) were the leading candidates. For the first time, a third party entered the field. The Anti-Masonic party opposed the influence and fearsome secrecy of the Masonic order. They appealed to long-standing American suspicions of secret societies, which they condemned as citadels of privilege and monopoly - a note that harmonized with the democratic chorus of the Jacksonians. Since Jackson was a public member of the Masons, the Anti-masons were also anti-Jacksons. Clay's campaign had ample funds, including "life insurance" from the Bank of the Unites States. However, Jackson easily beat Clay 219 to 49.
national nominating conventions
This was called during the election of 1832 to name candidates. Each party formally names their nominee and adopt formal platforms, publicizing their positions on the issues.
problems with pet (wildcat) banks
In bringing down the federal bank, surplus federal funds were placed in several dozen state institutions called "____" which were chosen for their pro-Jackson sympathies. Without a sober central bank in control, the ___ banks and smaller "___" banks flooded the country with paper money. Jackson tried to rein in the runaway economy in 1836. "____" currency had become so unreliable, esp. in the West, that Jackson authorized the Treasury to issue Specie Circular.
Specie Circular
It was a decree that required all public lands to be purchased with hard or metallic money. Wildcat currency had become so unreliable, esp. in the West, that Jackson authorized the Treasury to pass it. This drastic step stopped the speculative boom which caused a financial panic and crash in 1837.
Whig Party
Jackson's opponents, angered at his exercise of presidential power, began to coalesce as the _____ - a name deliberately chosen to recollect 18th century British and Revolutionary American opposition to the monarchy. It contained so many diverse elements that it was mocked as first as "an organized incompatibility." Hatred for Jackson and his "executive usurpation" was its only apparent cement in its formative days. The ___ first emerged in the Senate, where Clay, Webster, and Calhoun joined forces in 1834 to pass a motion censuring Jackson for his single-handed removal of federal deposits from the Bank of the US. The party attracted group alienated by Jackson: supporters of Clay's American System, southern states' righters offended by Jackson's stand on nullification, the larger northern industrialists and merchants, and eventually many of the evangelical Protestants associated with Anti-masonic party. They called for international improvements such as canals, railroads, and telegraph lines; the institution of prisons, asylums, and public schools.
Martin Van Buren (1836)
He was the New York successor of Jackson who the Whigs portrayed as an imperious aristocrat. He was a yes-man through which Jackson could try and live a third term. He was not popular among Jacksonites although he promised to follow in the foot steps of his predecessor. The Whigs were not able to nominate a presidential candidate; they planned to run several candidates with different regional appeal so that no one candidate would win the majority. The House of Representatives, where the Whigs might have a chance, would have to break the deadlock. Van Buren still won by a close 765,483 to 739,795 popular vote and 170 to 124 electoral vote.
Panic of 1837
Its basic cause was the rampant speculation prompted by a mania of get-rich-quickism. Gamblers in western lands were doing a "land-office business" on borrowed capital, much of it in the shaky currency of wildcat banks. Jacksonian finance, including the Bank War and the Specie Circular, also helped cause the panic along with failures of wheat crops (caused by Hessian fly) causing grain prices to go up. In 1836, the failure of two prominent British banks created tremors, and these in turn caused British investors to call in foreign loans. Europe's economic distresses have often become America's distresses, for every major American financial panic has been affected by conditions overseas. American banks collapsed in the hundreds carrying 7 million in government funds down with them. Commodity prices drooped, sales of public lands fell off, and customs revenues dried to a rivulet. Factories closed their doors, and unemployed workers milled in the streets.
Stephen Austin and Texas
Americans and Spanish wanted to populate ____, but before they could Mexico won its independence. A new regime in Mexico City thereupon concluded arrangements in 1823 for granting a huge track of land to _______ in 1823 with the understanding that he would bring 300 American families into the area. Immigrants were to be of the established Roman Catholic faith and upon settlement were to become properly Mexicanized. These 2 stipulations were ignored because immigrants were American at heart and resented the trammels imposed by a "foreign" government. They were especially annoyed by the presence of Mexican soldiers, many of whom were ragged ex-convicts.
Texas settlers; conflict with Mexico and Santa Anna
Most of them were law-abiding, God-fearing people, but some of them had left the "States" only one or two jumps ahead of the sheriff. "G.T.T." (Gone to Texas) became current descriptive slang. The settlers were not easy to push around, and tension between Mexicans and Texans over issues such as slavery, immigration, and local rights increased. In 1833, Stephen Austin went to Mexico City to negotiate slavery in Texas, and he was put in jail for eight months by the Mexican dictator _________. In 1835, _______ wiped out all local rights and started to raise an army to suppress the upstart Texans.
The Lone Star Rebellion of 1836, Sam Houston
In 1836, the Texans declared their independence, unfurled their Lone Star flag, and made __________ their commander in chief. Santa Anna's 6,000 men went to Texas and trapped a band of nearly 200 pugnacious Texans at the Alamo in San Antonio.
Battle of the Alamo, Battle of the Goliad
At the _____ in San Antonio, Santa Anna wiped out the 200 soldiers with his 6,000 men after a 13 day siege. In ____, a group of 400 Texans were surrounded and butchered as "pirates." All these operations further delayed the Mexican advance and galvanized American opposition.
capture of Santa Anna at San Jacinto
General Sam Houston's small army retreat to the east, luring Santa Anna near the site of the city that now bears Houston's name. Texans number 1300, while the Texans numbered 900. In April 1836, Houston turned, taking full advantage of the Mexican siesta. He wiped out the pursuing force and captured Santa Anna. The leader signed two treaties in which he agreed to withdraw Mexican troops and recognize the Rio Grande as the extreme southwestern boundary of Texas.
denial of statehood, Republic of Texas
In 1837, Texas wanted to be annexed for states hood as part of the US. However, antislavery crusaders in the North opposed the annexation calling it a scheme to bring to slave states into the Union. For some time Texas was their own country, the ______. ADD
Election 1840 -- Whigs
Martin Van Buren was renominate by the Democrats in 1840, albeit without terrific enthusiasm. The Whigs united under one candidate: Ohio's William Henry Harrison who was mainly nominated because he was issueless and enemyless. John Tyler of Virginia was selected as his vice presidential running mate. The Whigs published no official platform, and a Democratic editor played into their hands by attacking Harrison - and by doing so, the West. Whigs adopted log cabins and hard cider as their symbols for campaign because of this criticism. Harrison won by 234 to 60 electoral votes.
'Tippecanoe (Harrison) and Tyler Too"
He was an aging hero who was known for his successes against the Indians and the British as the Battles of Tippecanoe and the Thames. Therefore he won this nick name. "Old Tip, he wears a homespun shirt, He has no ruffled shirt, wirt, wirt. But Matt, he has the golden plate, and he's a little squirt, wirt, wirt." He later became president, but was only in office a month before he died. (William Henry Harrison)
two-party system
The second dramatic change that resulted from the 1840 election was the formation of a vigorous and durable _____. The Jeffersonians had been so successful in absorbing the programs of their Federalist opponents that a full-blown two-party system had never truly emerged in the subsequent Era of Good Feelings. The idea had prevailed that parties of any sort smacked of conspiracy and "faction" and were injurious to the health of the body politic in a virtuous republic. By 1840, political parties were accepted because of Jackson's and Van Buren's tenacity. Democrats glorified the liberty of the individual and were fiercely on guard against inroads of "privilege" in government. Whigs supported natural harmony of society and the value of community, and were willing to use government to realize their objectives. They hated leaders whose appeals to self-interest fostered conflict among individuals, classes, or sections.
War of 1812
It was a divisive and ill-fought war. There was no burning national anger to motivate. The supreme lesson of the conflict was the folly of leading a divided and apathetic people into war. And yet, despite the unimpressive military outcome and even less decisive negotiated peace, Americans came out of the war with the renewed sense of nationhood.
Canada
Canada became an important battleground in the war because Britain was weakest there, so the Americans conducted a three pronged invasion. Invading forces marched from Detroit, Niagara, and Lake Champlain but were beaten back shortly after crossing the border. The Canadians took American fort of Michilimackinac, which commanded the upper Great Lakes and the Indian-inhabitated area to the south and west.
U.S.S. Constitution ("Old Ironsides")
Man for man and ship for ship, the American navy did much better than the army. In comparison to British ships, American craft on the whole were more skillfully handled, had better gunners, and were manned by non-press-gang crews who were burning to avenge numerous indignities. Similarly, American frigates, like the ______, had thicker sides, heavier firepower, and larger crews, of which one sailor in six was a free black.
Oliver Hazard Perry and Battle of Lake Erie
Control of the Great Lakes was vital, and an energetic American naval officer, _____, managed to build a fleet of green-timbered ships on the shores of Lake Erie, manned by even greater seamen. When he captures a British fleet in a furious engagement on the lake, he reported to his superior, "We have met the enemy and they are ours." His victory and his slogan infused new life into the drooping American cause.
Battle of the Thames
After the Battle of Lake Erie, the redcoats were forced to retreat from Detroit and Fort Malden. They were overtaken by General Harrison's army and beaten at the Battle of the _____ in October 1813.
Plattsburgh and Thomas Macdonough
In 1814, 10,000 British troops prepared for a crushing blow into New York along the Lake Champlain water way. A weaker American fleet, commanded by ____, challenged the British. The ensuing battle was desperately fought near Plattsburgh on September 11, 1814, on floating slaughterhouses. The American flagship at one point was in grave trouble. But ____, unexpectedly turning his ship about with cables, confronted the enemy with a fresh broadside and snatched victory from the fangs of defeat. The results of this battle caused the British army to retreat, and thus saved at least upper New York from conquest, New England from further disaffection, and the Union from possible dissolution. Also profoundly affected was the concurrent negotiations of the Anglo-American peace treaty in Europe.
Washington, D.C. burned
A British force of about 4,000 landed in the Chesapeake Bay areas in August 1814. Advancing on Washington, it easily dispersed some 6,000 panicky militia at Bladensburg. The invaders entered the capital and set fire to most of the public buildings, including the Capitol and the White House. But while Washington burned, the Americans at Baltimore held firm.
Baltimore -- Ft. McHenry
While Washington burned, the Americans in ____ held firm. The British fleet hammered Fort McHenry with their cannon but could not capture the city.
Francis Scott Key's "Star Spangled Banner"
_____, a detained American, anxiously watching the bombardment from a British ship, was inspired by the doughty defenders to write the words of "The ______." Set to the tune of a saucy English tavern refrain, the song quickly attained popularity.
Battle of New Orleans and Andrew Jackson
This was the third British blow of 1814 aimed at New Orleans and menaced the entire Mississippi Valley. _____, who had just finished crushing southwest Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, was placed in command. He lead a force consisting 7,000 sailors, regulars, pirates, Frenchmen, as well as militiamen from Louisiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Among the defenders were two Louisiana regiments of free black volunteers, numbering about four hundred men. The over confident British, numbering 80,000 men, blundered badly. They made the mistake of launching a frontal assault on January 8, 1815, on the entrenched American riflemen and cannoneers. The attackers suffered the most devastating defeat of the entire war, losing over two thousand, killed and wounded, in a half an hour, as compared with some seventy for the Americans. _____ became a national hero. The war had ended two weeks before this battle, but word of the peace treaty had not yet reached them.
Treaty of Ghent
Tsar Alexander I of Russia proposed mediation between the clashing Anglo-Saxon cousins (France and Britain) in 1812. His feeler eventually set in motion the machinery that brought five American peacemakers (headed John Quincy Adams) to Ghent Confident after in 1814. The British made sweeping demands for a neutralized Indian buffer state in the Great Lakes region, control of the Great Lakes, and a substantial part of conquered Maine. The Americas flatly rejected these terms, and talks appeared stalemated. News of the British reverses in upper N.Y. and at Baltimore as well as the increasing war weariness in Britain, made London more willing to compromise. The ______ was signed on Christmas Eve 1814 with both sides agreeing to stop fighting and restore conquered territory. No mention was made of the grievances for which America had ostensibly fought: the Indian menace, search and seizure, Orders in Council, impressment, and confiscation.
Hartford Convention
____ was caused by Federalist discontent late in 1814 when the capture of New Orleans seemed eminent. Massachusetts called for a convention in ____, Connecticut. Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island dispatched full delegations; New Hampshire and Vermont sent partial representation. Twenty-six men in all met in complete secrecy for about three weeks to discuss their grievances and to seek redress for their wrongs. The convention demanded financial assistance from Washington to compensate for lost trade and proposed constitutional amendments requiring a two-thirds vote in Congress before an embargo could be imposed, new states admitted, or war declared. They sought to abolish the 3/5 clause, to limit presidents to single term, and to prohibit the election of two successive presidents form the same state. The Convention changed nothing except the Federalist party, which the Convention caused it to die. The Federalists were never again to mount a successful presidential campaign.
Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817
Many Canadians felt betrayed by the treaty of Ghent, and they fully expected the frustrated Yankees to return. For a time the Americans and British engaged in a floating arms race on the Great Lakes. But in 1817 the _____ agreement between Britain and the US and Canada severely limited naval armament on the lakes. Better relations brought the last border fortifications down in the 1870s, with the happy result that the US and Canada came to share the world's longest unfortified boundary - 5,527 miles long.
examples of nationalism
____, or national oneness, was the most impressive by-product of the War of 1812. It was shown in distinctively national literature such as the writings of Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. School textbooks were now being written by Americans for Americans. Magazines such as the North American Review began to be published. Even American painters increasingly celebrated their native landscapes. ____ was also seen in finance with the revival of the Bank of the United States when it was voted back by Congress in 1816, and national capital was starting to be printed. The army was expanded to 10,000 men. The navy was further covered itself with glory in 1815 when it administered a thorough beating to the piratical North African pirates. Stephen Decatur embodied the country's nationalist mood in the toast "Our country! In her intercourse with foreign nations may she always be in the right; but our country, right or wrong!"
Henry Clay's "American system"
____ threw himself behind the _____ in 1824. It was a plan to develop a profitable home network. It had three man parts: first, it began with a strong banking system that would provide easy and abundant credit; second, it had a protective tariff which the eastern manufacturing would flourish; third, the revenues from the tariff would provide funds for a network of roads and canals, especially in the thriving Ohio Valley. Through these new arteries of transportation would flow foodstuffs and raw materials from the South and West to the North and East. In exchange, a stream of manufactured goods would flow in the return direction, knitting the country together economically and politically.
Madison's veto of internal improvements (Bonus Bill)
Attempts to secure federal funding for the American system stumbled on Republican constitutional scruples. Congress voted in 1817 to distribute $1.5 million to the states for internal improvements, but President Madison sternly vetoed the handout measure, saying it was unconstitutional. The states were thus forced to venture ahead with construction programs of their own, including the Erie Canal, triumphantly completed by New York in 1825.
James Monroe (elected 1816, 1820)
He was nominated for the presidency in 1816 by the Republicans. He won 183 electoral votes to 34. He straddled two generations: the bygone age of the Founding Fathers and the emergent age of nationalism. He was in intellect and personal force the least distinguished of the first eight presidents. But the times called for sober administration, not dashing heroics. And Monroe was an experienced, levelheaded executive, with an ear-to-the-ground talent for interpreting popular rumblings. In 1817, he undertook a goodwill tour to inspect military defenses pushing northward into New England and then westward to Detroit.
Era of Good Feelings
It came with the era of nationalism and James Monroe. Boston newspapers called Monroe's coming "_______________." This happy phrase has been commonly used since then to describe the administrations of Monroe. However, it was something of a misnomer because the issues of the tariff, the bank, internal improvements, and the sale of public lands were being hotly contested. Sectionalism was crystallizing, and the conflict over slavery was beginning to raise its hideous head.
Panic of 1819
In 1819, a paralyzing economic panic descended. It brought deflation, depression, bankruptcies, bank failures, unemployment, soup kitchens, and overcrowded pest houses known as debtor's prisons. It was the first national financial panic since George Washington took office. It was mainly caused by the over speculation of frontier lands. It lasted in some degree for a couple of years, giving a rude setback to the nationalistic arbor. In the West, The Bank of the US forced wildcat western banks to wall and foreclose mortgages on countless farms. The poorer classes were severely strapped, and in their troubles was sown the seed of Jacksonian democracy.
(summarize key ideas) "Settlers of the Old Northwest"
The original 13 colonies were joined by 9 frontiers states. Westward movement had been going on since colonial days, the cheap land appealed to the European immigrants. Land was exhausted in older tobacco states, and speculators accepted small down payments, making it easier to buy new holdings. ADD pg 244
Land Act 1820
The West was still weak in population and influence. Not potent enough politically to make its voice heard, it was forced to ally itself with other sections. In 1820, the West called for cheaper acreage, which was partially achieved in the ____, which authorized a buyer to purchase 80 virgin acres at a minimum of $1.25 an acre in cash. It also demanded cheaper transportation, and cheap money issued by the West's own wildcat banks.
Tallmadge Amendment
Sectional tensions, involving rivalry between the slave South and free North over control of the beckoning West, were stunningly revealed in 1918. Missouri wanted to become a slave state. The House of Representatives hampered the plans of the Missourians by passing the ____. It stipulated that no more slaves should be brought into Missouri and also provided for the gradual emancipation of children born to slave parents already there. This caused anger in slave-holding southerners and depression-cursed pioneers who favored unhampered expansion of the West by many northerners. Southerners managed to defeat the Amendment in the Senate, but they viewed it as ominous threat to the sectional balance.
Virginia Dynasty
By electing James Monroe, the people undertook to continue the "___" of Washington, Jefferson, and Madison. Diehard Federalists were eager to use the the Tallmadge Amendment issue to break the ____.
peculiar institution
It was the system of black slavery in the southern states of the US. If Congress could abolish "___" in Missouri, might it not attempt to do like wise in the older states of the South?
Clay's Missouri Compromise (of 1820 and 36*30' Line)
In 1820, the deadlock over the slave-states and free-states was broken by a bundle of three settlements. Congress agreed to admit Missouri as a slave state. But free-soil Maine, which until then had been part of Massachusetts, was admitted as a separate state. The balance between North and South was kept at twelve states each and remained there for 15 years. Although Missouri was permitted to retain slaves, all future bondage was prohibited in the remainder of the Louisiana Purchase north of the Southern boundary of Missouri.
McCulloch v. Maryland and loose construction
START HERE This was a case of Chief of Justice John Marshall which was one of his most famous decisions that bolstered the power of the federal government at the expense of the states. The suit involved an attempt by the state of Maryland to destroy a branch of the Bank of the US by imposing a tax on its notes. Marshall declared the bank constitutional by invoking the Hamiltonian doctrine of implied powers. He also strengthened the federal authority and slapped at state infringements when he denied the right of Maryland to tax the bank. Marshall's ruling gave the doctrine of "______" its most famous formulation. The Constitution derived from the consent of the people and thus permitted the government to act for their benefit. He further argued that the Constitution was "intended to endure for ages to come and, consequently, to be adapted to the various crises of human affairs."
Gibbons v. Ogden and interstate trade
It was another case tried by Marshall. The suit was also known as the "steam boast case." It grew out of an attempt by the state of New York to grant a private concern a monopoly of waterborne commerce between New York and New Jersey. Marshall sternly reminded the upstart state that the Constitution conferred on Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshall thus struck with one hand another blow at states' rights, while upholding with other sovereign powers of the federal government. Interstate streams were cleared of this judicial snag; the departed spirit of Hamilton may well have applauded.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
It was the best remembered of Marshall's decisions. ____ College had been granted a charter by King George III in 1769, but the democratic New Hampshire state legislature had seen fit to change it. The college appealed the case. Marshall put the states firmly in their place when he ruled that the original charter must stand since it was a contract and contracts were protected under the Constitution from state encroachment. Its decision had the fortunate effect of safe guarding business enterprise from domination by the state governments, but it had the unfortunate effect of creating a precedent that enabled chartered corporations to escape the handcuffs of needed public control.
Secretary of State John Quincy Adams
He was Monroe's Secretary of State who was the son of the ex-president John Adams. He rose above the ingrown Federalist sectionalism of his native New England and proved to be one of the great secretaries of state.
Treaty of 1818
Monroe's administration negotiated the ____ with Britain. This pact permitted Americans to share the coveted Newfoundland fisheries with their Canadian cousins. This multisided agreement also fixed the vague northern limits of Louisiana along the 49* parallel from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. The treaty further provided for a 10 year joint occupation of the untamed Oregon Country, without a surrender of the rights or claims of either America or Britain.
Andrew Jackson and Seminole attacks
Epidemic revolutions in Argentina, Venezuela, and Chile caused the Spanish to withdraw forces form Florida to put down the revolts. General _____, under the pretext that hostile Seminole Indians and fugitive slaves were using Florida as a refuge, secured a commission to enter Spanish territory, punish the Indians, and recapture the runaways. But he was to respect all posts under the Spanish flag. In 1818, he swept across the Florida border, hanging two Indian chiefs and executing two British subjects without trials for assisting the Indians. He also seized the two most important Spanish posts in the area including St. marks and Pensacola where he deposed the Spanish governor.
Florida Purchase Treaty of 1819
John Quincy Adams would not agree to deny and discipline Jackson but called for huge concessions from Spain leading to the ___, a misnamed treaty. It caused Spain to cede Florida as well as claims to Oregon. In exchange, America would abandon claims to Texas. Also, the vague boundary of Louisiana was made to run zigzag along the Rockies to the forty-second parallel and then turn due west to the Pacific, dividing Oregon from Spanish holdings.
Monroe Doctrine written by J.Q. Adams
It was born in the late 1823, when nationalistic Adams won the nationalistic Monroe over to his way of thinking. The president incorporated a stern warning to the European powers in his regular annual message to Congress in December 1823. It featured noncolonization and nonintervention. Monroe proclaimed to a Russian in the Northwest that the era of colonization in the Americas had ended and that henceforth the hunting season was permanently closed. Monroe warned against foreign intervention since he was concerned with regions to the south for Spanish American republics. He directed the crowned heads of Europe to keep their monarchical system out of this hemisphere. In return, the Americans would not assist the Greeks in war for independence against the Turks. European monarchs were angered by this.
anti-Jefferson propaganda
In defense from recent anti-Federalist attacks, the Federalists focused their fire at ______ who became the victim of one of America's earliest "whispering campaigns." He was accused to having robbed a widow and her children of a trust fund and of having fathered numerous mulatto children by his own slave woman. The orthodox clergy attacked him as a atheist.
Revolution of 1800 and the Three-Fifths clause
Jefferson won the election of 1800 by a majority of 73 electoral votes to 65, and the unpopular Adams polled more electoral strength than he had gained four years earlier. _____ was the cause for Jefferson's success in the 1800 elections because it gave southern voters a bonus that helped Jefferson win the White House. Jefferson compared the the election to the revolution of 1776, meaning that he believed the election brought America back to the original spirit of the Revolution.
Jefferson's Inaugural Address
It was well phrased with classic statements of democratic principles: "The will of the majority is in all cases to prevail" and "that will to be rightful must be reasonable; the minority possess their equal rights, which equal law must protect, and to violate would be oppression." To allay the Federalists' he intoned,"We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists." As for foreign affairs, he pledeged "honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliance with none."
Aaron Burr and election tie
He was a master wire-puller who helped Jefferson win over the Empire State (New York). He, Jefferson's vice-presidential running mate, and Jefferson had the same number of electoral votes. Jefferson was the winning candidates because some representatives abstained from voting.
Alien and Sedition Acts expirations and pardons
Jefferson wanted to undo the Federalist abuses caused by the anti-French hysteria. These acts had already expired, so Jefferson speedily pardoned the "martyrs" who were serving sentences sentences under the Sedition Act, and the government remitted many fines.
new Naturalization Act
In 1802, Jeffersonians enacted this act which reduced the unreasonable requirement of fourteen years of residence to the previous and more reasonable requirement of five years.
repeal of the excise tax
Jefferson only kicked away one substantial prop of the Hamiltonian system. He hated the ____ because it bred bureaucrats and bore heavily on his farmer following, and he early persuaded Congress to repeal it. This cost the federal government about a million dollars a year in urgently needed revenue.
balanced budget
Albert Gallatin, secretary of the Treasury, agreed with Jefferson that a national debt was a bane rather than a blessing, and by strict economy, successfully reduced it substantially while _____. Occurs when the total sum of money a government collects in a year is equal to the amount it spends on goods, services, and debt interest.
Judiciary Act of 1801
It was also called the deathbed, and it was one of the last important laws passed by the expiring Federalist Congress. It created sixteen new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. It was a long overdue reform, but it aroused bitter resentment. "Packing" these lifetime posts with anti-Jeffersonian partisans was, in Republican eyes a brazen attempt by the ousted party to entrench itself in one of the three powerful branches of government. The newly elected Republican Congress bestirred itself to repeal the Act in the years after its passage. Thus the Jeffersonians swept sixteen benches from the recently elected midnight judges.
Adams and the midnight judges
He remained at his desk until nine o'clock in the evening of his last day in office, supposedly signing the commissions of the Federalist "_______." When the newly elected Republican Congress worked to repeal the Judiciary Act of 1801, the Jeffersonians swept sixteen benches from the recently elected _____.
Chief of Justice John Marshall (Federalists)
Jeffersonians were ready to make him step down. He was appointed tot the Supreme Court by Adams in the dying days of his term. He was a cousin of Thomas Jefferson. His formal legal schooling had only lasted 6 weeks. He shaped the American legal tradition more profoundly than any other single figure. While serving in Valley Forge, he was painfully impressed by the drawbacks of feeble central authority. The experience made him a life long Federalist, committed above all else to strengthen the power of the federal government.
William Marbury
He was one of the midnight judges, appointed by President Adams to be justice of peace for the District of Columbia. He offered Marshall a historic opportunity. When he had learned that his commission was being shelved by the new secretary of state, James Madison, he sued for its delivery. Marshall knew that his Jeffersonian rivals, entrenched in the executive branch, would hardly spring forward to enforce a writ to deliver the commission to his Federalist. He therefore dismissed ____'s suit, avoiding a direct political showdown.
Marbury vs. Madison
When he learned that his commission was being shelved by the new secretary of state, he sued for its delivery. Chief Justice Marshall knew that his Jeffersonian rivals would not enforce a writ to deliver the commission to his fellow Federalist. Marshall dismissed his suit to prevent a political showdown. However, Marshall said that the part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 on which Marbury tried to base his appeal was unconstitutional. This case clouded the question of who had the final authority to determine the meaning of the Constitution. Marshall promoted the principle of "judiciary review" - the idea that the Supreme Court alone had the last word on the question of constitutionality. In this landmark case, Marshall inserted the keystone into the arch that supports the tremendous power of the Supreme Court in American life.
judicial review
It was the idea that the Supreme Court alone had the last word on the question of constitutionality. This was a principle instituted by John Marshal in opposition to Jefferson's Kentucky resolution (tried to allot the right of who had final authority to determine the meaning of the Constitution to the states).
impeachment attempt of Samuel Chase
Marshall's decision regarding Marbury spurred the Jeffersonians to seek revenge by urging Jefferson to impeach this unpopular Supreme Court justice. In 1804, the impeachment charges were voted by the House of Representatives, which then passed the question of guilt or innocence on to the Senate. The indictment by the House was based on "high crimes and misdemeanors," as specified in the Constitution. Evidence was plain that the judge had not been guilty of "high crimes," but only of unrestrained partisanship and a big mouth. The Senate could not muster enough votes to convict and remove Chase.
reduction of the military
One of Jefferson's first actions as president was to ______ to a mere police force of 2,500 officers and men. This reduction was more about republican ideals then reluctance to invest in soldiers and ships. Jefferson hoped that American could transcend bloody wars and entangling alliances of Europe. The U.S. would set an example for the world, forswearing military force and winning friends through "peaceful coercion." Also, the Republicans distrusted large standing armies as standing invitations to dictatorship.
Barbary States pirates
This caused Jefferson's policy to reduce the military and not build ships to change. The _____ had blackmailed and plundered merchant ships that ventured into the Mediterranean. By 1798, America was sending 26 barrels of blackmail dollars to piratical Algiers. In 1801, the pasha of Tripoli declared war on the US because he was dissatisfied with his share of protection money. Jefferson sent the American infant navy to the shores of Tripoli. After fours years of off and on fighting, Jefferson extorted a peace treaty from Tripoli in 1805 by paying $60,000 to get back captured Americans.
Louisiana
In 1800, Napoleon Bonaparte induced the king of Spain to cede to France in exchange for the immense trans-Mississippi region of ______, which included the New Orleans area. In 1802, Spaniards in New Orleans withdrew the right of deposit guaranteed America by the treaty of 1795. These deposit privileges were vital to frontier farmers who floated their produce down the Mississippi to its mouth to await oceangoing vessels. Farmers threatened to attack New Orleans. Jefferson thought ____ in the senile grip of Spain posed no real threat; America could seize the territory when the time was right. But ____ in the iron fist of Napoleon foreshadowed a dark and blood-drenched future. In early 1803, he sent James Monroe to Paris to join forces with the regular minister there, Robert R, Livingston. They were to buy New Orleans and as much land to the east as they could get for a maximum payment of $10 million. Napoleon decided to sell all of Louisiana and give up hid dream of a New World Empire.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Napoleon failed in his efforts to reconquer the sugar-rich island of Santo Domingo, for which Louisiana was to served as a source of foodstuffs. Infuriated ex-slaves were lead by ______, who had put up a stubborn resistance that was ultimately broken. However, mosquitoes carrying yellow fever had crippled the French presence on the island. Since Santo Domingo could not be had, Louisiana was not needed.
why Jefferson hesitated to purchase Louisiana
Jefferson sent Monroe to Paris to join forces with the regular minister there, Robert R, Livingston. They were to buy New Orleans and as much land to the east as they could get for a maximum payment of $10 million. If that failed and the situation became critical, negotiations were to be open with Britain for an alliance (make an alliance with an old for against an old friend). On April 30, 1803, the entire Louisiana territory was sold to America for $15 million. Jefferson was startled because he had authorized his envoys to pay no more than $10 million for New Orleans and what ever land east they could get. Instead they had signed three treaties that pledged $15 million for New Orleans, plus an immeasurable tract entirely to the west - an area that would more than double the size of the US. They had bought a wilderness to get a city.
Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, Sacajawea
In the spring of 1804, Jefferson sent his personal secretary to explore the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase along with a young army officer. These two men and their party were aided by a Shoshoni woman to cross the Missouri River, cross the Rockies, and descend the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It was a 2 1/2 year expedition which harvested scientific observations, maps, knowledge of the Indians in the region, and wilderness adventure stories.
Aaron Burr conspiracies and trial
He was Jefferson's first-term vice president who aroused fears of the expansion of the federal governments power and the fears of secession and foreign intrigue. When he was dropped from the cabinet in Jefferson's second term, he joined a group of Federalist extremists to plot secession of New England and New York. Hamilton exposed and foiled the conspiracy. Hamilton dueled with ____, but refused to fire. ___ killed Hamilton with one shot. This man blew the brightest brain out of the Federalist party and destroyed its one remain hope of effective leadership. He then plotted with James Wilkinson to cause the separation of the West from the East. He was arrested and tried for treason, but was acquitted. He fled to Europe and urged Napoleon to make peace with Britain and launch a joint attack on America (Napoleon refused).
Election 1804
Jefferson was reelected in 1804 with 162 electoral votes to only 14 votes for his Federalist opponent.
England and France, harm to U.S. shipping
At the Battle of Trafalgar, Britain secured its supremacy over the sea (beat French and Spanish fleets off the coast of Spain), while at the Battle of Austerlitz (in Austria) France secured its supremacy over the land (beating the Austrians and Russians). Since the two powers could not directly hurt each other, they had to strike indirect blows that fell upon America. In 1806, Parliament issued a series of Orders in Council that closed the European ports under French control to foreign shipping, including American, unless the vessels first stopped at a British port. Napoleon struck back by ordering all merchant ships to be seized, including American, that entered British ports. There was no way to trade with either nation without facing the other's guns. American vessels were, quite literally, caught between the Devil and the deep blue sea.
impressment
It is the forcible enlistment of sailors which was a crude form of conscription that the British, among others, had employed for over four centuries. Six thousand legal American citizens were ______ by the "piratical man-stealers." A number of these luckless souls died or were killed in His Majesty's service, leaving their relatives and friends bereaved and embittered.
Chesapeake affair
In 1807, a royal frigate overhauled a U.S. frigate, the Chesapeake, about ten miles off the coast of Virginia. The British captain bluntly demanded the surrender of four alleged deserters. London had never claimed the right to seize sailor from a foreign warship, and the American commander refused the request. The British warship fired three broadsides at close range that killed three Americans and wounded eighteen. The deserters were dragged away, and the bloody hulk called the Chesapeake limped back to port. d
Embargo Act of 1807
Jefferson passed this act to avoid war since Europe depended on the US for raw materials and foodstuffs in times of war. He reasoned that if America voluntarily cut off its exports, the offending powers would be forced to bow, hat in hand, and agree to respect its rights. The act was passed in 1807 and forbade the export of all goods from the US, whether in American or in foreign ships. The embargo would vindicate the rights of neutral nations and point to new way of conduction foreign affairs if it worked, but it would cause the Republic to perish, subjugated to European powers or sucked into their ferocious war if it failed. This hurt the American commerce long before France and Great Britain began to comply.
Non-intercourse Act
Because of threats of secession and violence, Congress repealed the embargo act in 1809 and passed this which formally reopened trade with all nations except France and Britain.
Madison elected 1808 (1812)
Jefferson stepped down after two terms, and his friend and fellow Virginian, ____, was elected. He took oath on March 4, 1809. He was crippled as president by factions within his party and his cabinet. Unable to dominate Congress as Jefferson had done, he often found himself holding the bag for risky foreign policies not of his own making.
Macon's Bill No. 2, and Britain
This was passed after the embargo was completely dismantled and trade with all the world was reopened. It was to lure England and France. If either nation repealed its commercial restrictions, America would restore its embargo against the nonrepealing nation. It practically admitted that the US could not survive without one of the belligerents as a commercial ally. In August 1810, Napoleon's foreign ministers declared that French decrees might be repealed if Britain also lifted its Orders in Council. The offer was accepted, and Britain was given three months to live up to its implied promise by revoking the Orders in Council and reopening the Atlantic to neutral trade. However, London did not since they had firm control of the seas. Madison had to reestablish the embargo against Britain alone, which would be the end of American neutrality and a step towards war.
Tecumseh and the Prophet
He was a Shawnee Indian born in the Ohio Country who was a gifted organizer and leader as well as a noted warrior. He fought the tribal custom of torturing prisoners and opposed the practice of permitting any one tribe to sell land that, he believer, belong to all Indians. ___ was what non-Indians called Tenskwatawa, ____ brother. They believed that it was time to stem the westward flow of whites. They brought together tribes east of the Mississippi, inspiring vibrant movement of Indian unity and cultural renewal. Their followers gave up textile clothing for traditional buckskin garments, and their warriors forswore alcohol. Rejecting whites' concept of "ownership," ___ urged his supporters never to cede land to whites unless all Indians agreed.
William Henry Harrison and the Battle of Tippecanoe
In the fall of 1811, the governor of Indiana Territory gathered an army and advanced on the Tecumseh's headquarters at the junction of the Wabash and Tippecanoe Rivers in Indiana. Tecumseh was absent, recruiting supporters in the South, but the Prophet attacked Harrison's army with a small force of Shawnees. The Shawnees were routed and their settlement was burned. It made Harrison a national hero, discredited the Prophet, and drove Tecumseh into an alliance with the British.
Mr. Madison's War -- 1812 and War Hawks
By spring 1812, Madison believed that war with Britain to be inevitable. He turned to war to restore confidence in the republican experiment. British arming of Indians and the whoops of the war hawks of his own party pushed him to this decision. The war hawks wanted to wipe out the Indians Canadian base. In 1812, with a vote of 79 to 49 in the House and 19 to 13 in the Senate, Congress voted to go to war.
New England opposition
They greeted the declaration of war with muffled bells, flags at half-mast, and public fasting. Pro-British Federalist in the Northeast sympathized with Britain and resented the Republicans' sympathy with Napoleon, whom they regarded as the "Corsican butcher" and the "anti-Christ of the age." New England's bitterness led them to treason or near-treason. New England gold holders probably lent more dollars to the British Exchequer than to the federal Treasury. Federalists farmers sent crops to Canada, enabling the British to invade New York. New England governors refused to permit their militia serve outside their own states.
population changes
Population was doubling about every twenty-five years, and the first official census of 1790 recorded almost 4 million people. The population was still 90 percent rural, despite the flourishing cities.
George Washington election (of 1789; also 1792)
General Washington, the esteemed war hero, was unanimously drafted as president by the Electoral College in 1789 - the only presidential nominee ever to be honored by unanimity. Perhaps the only president who didn't in some way angle for this exalted office. He commanded his followers by strength of character rather than by the arts of the politician. Took the oath of office on April 30, 1789, on a crowded balcony overlooking Wall Street, which some have regarded as a bad omen.
cabinet
Washington soon put his stamp on the new government, especially by establishing the ____. The Constitution does not mention this; it merely provides that the president "may require" written opinions of the heads of the executive-branch departments. This system probed so cumbersome, and involved so much homework, that ___ meetings gradually evolved in the Washington administration. At first there were only three full-fledged department heads: Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury, and Secretary of War.
Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson
Part of the Washington administration. Represented the US internationally (like an ambassador); deals with foreign affairs.
Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton
Part of Washington's administration. Concerned with financial and monetary matters. He regarded himself as a kind of prime minister in Washington's cabinet and on occasion thrust his hands into the affairs of other departments, including that of his archrival, Thomas Jefferson, who served as secretary of state. He set out immediately to correct the economic vexations that had crippled the Articles of Confederation.
Secretary of War Henry Knox
Part of Washington's administration. Head of the War Department; responsible for all military and naval affairs.
Bill of Rights -- Amendments 1 through 10
Amendments to the Constitution could be brought up two ways: 2/3 of the states requesting a new constitutional convention, or 2/3 vote of both houses of Congress. James Madison determined to draft the amendments himself, in fear that a new convention might unravel the narrow federalist victory in the ratification struggle. Adopted by the necessary number of states in 1791, the first ten amendments to the Constitution (the Bill of Rights) safeguard some of the most precious American principles. Protections for freedom of religion, speech, and the press; the right to bear arms and to be tried by a jury, and the right to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances. The Bill of Rights also prohibits cruel and unusual punishments and arbitrary government seizure of private property. The Ninth Amendment declares that specifying certain rights "shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people." The Tenth Amendment reserved all rights not explicitly delegated or prohibited by the federal Constitution "to the States respectively, or to the people."
Hamilton's financial Plan
He set out to correct the economic vexations that had crippled the Articles. His plan was to shape the fiscal policies of the administration in such a way as to favor the wealthier groups. They, in turn, would gratefully lend the government monetary and political support. The first objective was to bolster the national credit. Without public confidence, he could not secure the funds for his risky scheme. He therefore boldly urged Congress to "fund" the entire national debt "at par" and to assume completely the debts incurred by the states during the recent. He was willing, even eager, to have the new government shoulder additional obligations. While pushing the funding scheme, he urged Congress to assume the debts of the states, totaling some $21.5 million.
funding the national debt "at par"
The federal government would pay off its debts at face value, plus accumulated interest - a then-enormous total of more than $54 million. So many people believed the infant Treasury incapable of meeting those obligations that government bonds had depreciated to ten or fifteen cents on the dollar. NOT pennies on the dollar.
"assumption" of state debts
Hamilton was willing, even eager, to have the new government shoulder additional obligations. While pushing the funding scheme, he urged Congress to assume the debts of the states, totaling some $21.5 million, because they could be regarded as a proper national obligation, for they had been incurred in the war for independence. Hamilton believed that assumption would chain the state's more tightly to the "federal chariot." States burdened with heavy debt (like Mass.) were delighted by Hamilton's proposal. States with small debts (like Virginia) were less charmed. As a compromise, Hamilton convinced Jefferson to line up enough votes in Congress for assumption, and in return, Virginia would have the federal district on the Potomac River.
Hamilton "Father of the National Debt"
The national debt swelled to $75 million owing to Hamilton's insistence on honoring the outstanding federal and state obligations alike. But Hamilton, "____," wasn't greatly worried. His objectives were as much political as economic. He believed that within limits, a national debt was a "national blessing" - a kind union adhesive. The more creditors to whom the government owed money, the more people there would be with a personal stake in the success of his ambitious enterprise. His unique contribution was to make a debt - ordinarily a liability - an asset for vitalizing the financial systems as well as the government itself.
tariffs and excise taxes
Hamilton wanted to use customs duties, derived from a tariff, to pay for the interest on the huge debt and run the government. Tariff revenues, in turn, depended on a vigorous foreign trade, another crucial link in Hamilton's overall economic strategy for the new Republic. Hamilton sough additional internal revenue and in 1791 secured from Congress an excise tax on a few domestic items, notably whiskey.
Bank of the United States
As the capstone for his financial system, Hamilton proposed a __________. He took as his model the Bank of England. Specifically, he proposed a powerful private institution, of which the government would be the major stockholder and in which the federal Treasury would deposit its surplus monies. The bank would also print urgently needed paper money and thus provide a sound and stable national currency, badly needed since the days when the Continental dollar was "not worth a Continental."
strict or loose interpretation of the Constitution
Thomas Jefferson argued against the National Bank because there was no specific authorization in the Constitution for such a financial octopus. He believed in a literal interpretation of the Constitution, and therefore was convinced that all powers not specifically granted to the central government were reserved to the states. He concluded that the states, not Congress, had the power to charter banks. Hamilton believed that what the Constitution did not forbid, it permitted; while Jefferson believed that what it did not permit, it forbade. Hamilton invoked the clause of the Constitution that stipulates that Congress may pass any laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers vested in various government agencies. Through virtue of "implied powers," Congress would be fully justified in establishing the Bank of the United States. Hamilton contended for the loose interpretation of the Constitution. He and his federalist followers thus evolved the theory of the "loose construction" by invoking the "elastic clause" of the Constitution - a precedent for enormous federal powers.
necessary and proper clause
This clause stipulate that Congress may pass any law "______" to carry out the powers vested in various government agencies.Congress was explicitly empowered to collect taxes and regulate trade. In carrying out these basic functions, a national bank would not only be proper but necessary.
Whiskey Rebellion
It flared up in southwestern Pennsylvania in 1794 challenged the new national government. Hamilton's high excise tax bore harshly on these homespun pioneer folk who regarded it not as a tax on a frivolous luxury but as a burden on an economic necessity and medium of exchange. Defiant distillers finally erected whiskey poles, similar to the liberty poles of anti-stamp tax days, and raised the cry "Liberty and No Excise," and tarred and feathered revenue officers, bringing collecting to a halt. Washington summoned the militia from several states to put down these "self-created societies." There was much doubt as to whether men from other states would muster to crush the rebellion in a fellow state. The militia made up of 13 thousand quickly dispersed the "Whiskey Boys" and ended the rebellion. Washington's government now commanded a new respect; however, opposers of the administration condemned the use of brutal force.
political parties (Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans)
What had once been a personal feud between Hamilton and Jefferson developed into a full-blown and frequently bitter political rivalry. National political parties were not known when Washington took office (Tories and Whigs, federalists and antifederalists were only factions that faded away once they had won their cause or been defeated). In the 1790s, Jefferson and Madison organized opposition to Hamilton's program publishing their opinions in widely read papers and causing primitive political parties to emerge. The competition between parties for political power was among the indispensable ingredients of a sound democracy. The party out of power - "the loyal opposition" - traditionally plays the invaluable role of the balance wheel on the machinery of government, ensuring that politics never drifts too far out of kilter with the wishes of the people. Jefferson: Democratic-Republican. Hamilton: Federalist.
French Revolution
In 1789, the French Revolution began, and it would take 26 years for Europe to return to peace. The French Revolution was peaceful in its early stages, successfully putting constitutional shackles on Louis XVI. Americans cheered on the French Revolution as a second chapter to their own revolution. By 1792, the France declared war on Austria, pushed back the invaders, and declared themselves a republic in 1793. The French Revolution caused Americans to rename thoroughfares: King Street became Liberty Street and Royal Exchange Alley became Equality Lane. However, in 1793, the King was beheaded, the church was attacked, and the Reign of Terror had begun. This caused aristocratic Federalists to fear the Jeffersonian masses who believed that a few thousand aristocratic heads were a cheap price to pay for human Freedom.
the Proclamation of Neutrality
The Franco-American alliance of 1778, which bound the U.S. to help the French defend their West Indies (which were sure to be attacked by the British), was supposed to last forever. Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans favored honoring the alliance, eager to enter the conflict against Britain. America owed France its freedom, they argued, and now was the time to pay the debt of gratitude. However, Washington, backed by Hamilton, believed that war had to be avoided at all costs. The nation in 1793 was militarily feeble, economically wobbly, and politically disunited. Washington wisely reasoned that if America could avoid the broils of Europe for a generation or so, it would then be populous enough and powerful enough to assert its maritime rights with strength and success. Hamilton and Jefferson (who usually disagreed) agreed with Washington on delaying. In 1793, Washington issued ______, shortly after the outbreak of war between Britain and France. It proclaimed Americans neutrality in the arising conflict and warned American citizens to be impartial towards both armed camps. The Democratic-Republicans hated it, while the Federalists loved it. The ____ showed that the true cement of alliances was self-interest.
Citizen Edmond Genet affair
He was a representative of the French Republic who landed in Charleston, South Carolina and undertook to fit out privateers and take advantage of the existing Franco-American alliance. He believed that the Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 did not reflect the true wishes of Americans because the Democratic-Republicans were glad to see him. Therefore, he recruited armies to invade Spanish Florida and Louisiana and British Canada (which was not part of the French alliance). He threatened to appeal over the head of Washington to sovereign voters, so the president demanded Genet's withdrawal, and the Frenchman was replaced with a less impulsive emissary.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
In defiance of the peace treaty of 1783, Britain kept a northern chain of frontier posts on U.S. soil. The London government did not want to give up the lucrative fur trade in the Great Lakes area, and they openly gave firearms and firewater to the Indians of the Miami Confederacy, who terrorized Americans invading their lands and, in 1790 and 1791, defeated the Americans. In 1794, Anthony Wayne routed the Miamis at this battle. British refused to shelter Indians from this battle. Abandoned by the British when it counted, the Indians soon offered Wayne the peace pipe.
"Mad" Anthony Wayne
He lead a new army in 1794 and routed the Miamis at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Indians offered him the peace pipe after the British abandoned them.
Treaty of Greenville
In the _____, signed in in 1795, the confederacy gave up vast tracts of Old Northwest, including Indiana and Ohio, and in exchange the Indians won $20,000 as well as the right to hunt the lands they had ceded. The Indians believed that the treaty, although an unequal relationship, put some limits on the ability of the U.S. to decide the fate of the Indian peoples.
Jay's Treaty
To avert war with Great Britain, who was seizing American ships in the West Indies and impressing American sea men into service on British vessels as well as throwing hundreds into their dungeons, George Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to London in 1794. Jay entered the negotiations with weak cards which were further sabotaged by Hamilton who supplied the British with details regarding America's bargaining strategy because he feared war. Jay won few concessions, but the British did promise to evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and consented to pay damages for seizures of American ships. They did not pledge to do anything about future maritime seizures or supplying arms to Indians. They forced America to pay debts still owed to British merchants on pre-Revolutionary accounts. His treaty vitalized the Democratic-Republican party who thought that it was to close to a surrender to Britain.
Pinckney's Treaty
Spain feared Jay's Treaty foreshadowed an Anglo-American alliance, so they moved hastily to strike a deal with the US. In 1795, this treaty granted the Americans virtually everything they demanded: free navigation of the Mississippi and the large disputed territory north of Florida.
Washington's farewell address
Exhausted after the diplomatic and partisan battle of his second term, Washington decided to retire, which contributed to establishing a two-term tradition for presidents. In his ____ in 1796, which was never given orally but printed in the newspapers, Washington advised the avoidance of permanent alliances like the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. He only favored temporary alliances for emergencies which was good advice for the weak, divided country. Washington left office in 1797.
Election of 1796 (describe, and explain footnote p. 202)
In this campaign, political passions ran high between Democratic-Republican Jefferson and Federalist John Adams. John Adams found his support in New England with the narrow margin of 71 votes to 68 in the Electoral College. Jefferson became vice president as runner up. This was such an inharmonious two-party combination that (in the future) the Twelfth Amendment prevented the runner up to an election to become the vice president.
John Adams
He was one of the ablest statesmen of his day, he impressed his observers as a man of stern principles who did his duty with stubborn devotion. He was a prickly intellectual aristocrat who did not appeal to the masses, and didn't wish to cultivate any appeal. He stepped into Washington's shoes, which no successor could hope to fill. He was hated by Hamilton who resigned from treasury in 1795 and who now headed the war faction of the Federalist part, known as the "High Federalist." Also, Adam's inherited a quarrel with France - a quarrel whose gunpowder lacked only a spark.
the XYZ affair
The French were angered by Jay's Treaty, so they seized defenseless American merchant vessels and the Paris regime refused to receive America's newly appointed envoy even threatening him with arrest. Trying to avoid war, Adams appointed three men as part of a diplomatic commission. Reaching Paris in 1797, they hoped to meet Talleyrand, a French foreign minister, but instead they were met by three go-betweens later known as X, Y, and Z, who demand a loan of 32 million florins and a bribe of $250,000 just to talk to Talleyrand. Negotiations quickly broke down, and John Marshall, on reaching New York in 1798, was hailed as a conquering hero for his steadfastness.
Convention of 1800 (with France)
It was a treaty signed in Paris in which France agreed to annul the twenty-two-year-old marriage of (in)convenience, but as a kind of alimony the United States agreed to pay the damage claims of American shippers. So ended the nation's only peacetime military alliance for a century and a half.
changes in citizenship rules
Federalists used the anti-French frenzy to get laws approved by Congress in 1798 that would minimize the Jeffersonian party. These laws were focused on pro-Jeffersonian "aliens," who were scorned by the Federalist aristocracy because they were European immigrants lacking wealth. They were welcomed as voters by Jeffersonians. Federalists in Congress raised the residence requirements for aliens who desired to become citizens from a tolerable five years into an intolerable fourteen. This violated the American policy of open-door hospitality and speedy assimilation.
Alien laws
These empowered the president to be able to deport dangerous foreigners in time of peace and to deport or imprison them in time of hostilities. This was an arbitrary grant of executive power contrary to American tradition and to the spirit of the Constitution, even though they were never enforced.
Sedition Laws
They were a direct slap to two of the freedoms guaranteed in the Constitution by the Bill of Rights - freedom of speech and freedom of the press. It provided that anyone who impeded the policies of the government or falsely defamed its officials would be liable to a heavy fine and imprisonment. Federalists believed this was justified because verbal violence was unrestrained, and the foul-penned editors (some of them exiled aliens) vilified Adam's anti-French policy in vicious terms. Many outspoken Jeffersonian editors were indicted under this act. The Act seemed to be in direct conflict with the constitution. However, the Supreme court, dominated by Federalists, was not likely to declare this law unconstitutional. The law was intentionally written by the Federalists to expire in 1801, so that it could not be used against them if they lost the next election.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Jefferson secretly wrote a series of resolutions because he feared that the Federalists would take away more constitutional rights or even stamp out the Jeffersonian Party. The Kentucky legislature approved these resolutions in 1798 and 1799. Jefferson's friend James Madison drafted similar but less extreme statements for Virginia which were passed in the legislature in 1798. They both stressed the compact theory which meant that the thirteen sovereign states, in creating the federal government, had entered into a "compact," or contract, regarding jurisdiction. The national government was a creation of the states; therefore, the individual states were the final judges of whether their agent had broken the "compact" by overstepping authority originally granted. The resolutions were a brilliant formulation of the extreme states' rights view regarding the Union - indeed more sweeping in their implications than their authors had intended. They were later used by southerners to support nullification - and ultimately secession.
nullification, states' rights
The Kentucky resolution concluded that the Alien and Sedition Acts (the federal regime) had exceded its constitutional powers so that the states had the right to ____. The states had the right to refuse to accept these acts. Other state legislatures refused to endorse the resolutions, and some (the Federalist states) added ringing condemnations.
Election 1800 -- Jefferson's political ideas
Jefferson focused on the middle class and the underprivileged, having sympathy for the common people, especially the downtrodden, the oppressed, and the persecuted. He did not approve of central power, wanting the bulk of the power to be with the states. There, the people could keep and eye on their public servants. Otherwise a dictatorship might develop. Central authority should be kept at a minimum through strict interpretation of the Constitution. He wanted to pay off the national debt which he saw as a curse to later generations. He thought that agriculture was the favored branch of economy and formed the foundation of his political thought, "those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God." He favored government for the people, but not by all the people - only by those white men who were literate enough to inform themselves and wear the mantle of American citizenship worthily. Universal education would have to precede universal suffrage. He also reconciled slaveholding because if their were not slaves poor white farmers would have to provide cheap labor and they would never acquire land. Jefferson wanted to protect and strengthen democracy at home, especially in the frontier regions beyond the Appalachian, rather than flex America's muscle abroad.
Jefferson's arguments against a national bank
Jefferson argued vehemently against the bank. There was, he insisted, no specific authorization in the Constitution for such a financial octopus. He was convinced that all powers not specifically granted to the central government were reserved to the states, as provided in the about-to-be-ratified Bill of Rights. He therefore concluded that the states, not Congress, had the power to charter banks. Believing that the Constitution should be interpreted "literary" or "strictly," Jefferson and his states' rights disciples zealously embraced the theory of "strict construction."
changes in voting, indentured servitude, primogeniture
After the American Revolution, most states reduced (but usually didn't eliminate altogether) property-holding requirements for ____. In 1784 New Yorkers released a shipload of freshly arrived ______, on the grounds that their status violated democratic ideals; by 1800 servitude was virtually unknown. Citizens in several states, flushed with republican fervor, also sawed off the remaining shackles of medieval inheritance laws, such as ______, which awarded all of a father's property to the eldest son.
Anglican Church -- Episcopal Church
A protracted fight for separation of church and state resulted in notable gains. Although the well-entrenched Congregational Church continued to be legally established in some New England states, the ______ Church, maintained by association with the British crown, was humbled. De-anglicized, it re-formed as the Protestant _____ Church and was everywhere disestablished.
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
The struggle for divorce between religion and government proved fiercest in Virginia. It was prolonged to 1786, when freethinking Thomas Jefferson and his co-reformers, including the Baptists, won a complete victory with the passage of the _________.
Quakers and antislavery
Philadelphia ____ in 1775 founded the world's first ______ society. Hostilities hampered the deadly trade in "black ivory," and Continental Congress in 1774 called for the complete abolition of the slave trade, a summons to which most states responded positively. Several northern states went further and either abolished slavery outright or provided for the gradual emancipation of blacks. But this revolution of sentiments was sadly incomplete. No states southern of Pennsylvania abolished slavery, and in both North and South, the law discriminated harshly against freed blacks and slaves alike. Emancipated African Americans could be barred from purchasing property, holding certain jobs, and educating their children. Laws against interracial marriage also sprang up.
limited equality of women
The extension of the doctrine of equality to women was incomplete. Some women did (disguised as men) serve in the military, and New Jersey's new constitution in 1776 even, for a time, enabled women to vote. But though Abigail Adams teased her husband John in 1776 that "the Ladies" were determined "to foment a rebellion" of their own if they were not given political rights, most women in the Revolutionary era were still doing traditional women's work.
"civic virtue" and the idea of "republican motherhood"
Central to the republican ideology was the concept of "_____" - the notion that democracy depended on the unselfish commitment of each citizen to the public good. The selfless devotion of a mother to her family was often cited as the very model of proper republican behavior. The idea of "_______" thus took root, elevating women to a newly prestigious role as the special keepers of the nation's conscience. Educational opportunities for women expanded, in the expectation that educated wives and mothers could better cultivate the virtues demanded by the Republic in their husbands, daughters, and sons. Republican women now bore crucial responsibility for the survival of the nation.
new state constitutions -- list common features
The Continental Congress in 1776 called upon the colonies to draft new constitutions. The newly penned constitutions had many features in common. Their similarities made easier the drafting of a workable federal charter when the time was ripe. The documents the Americans drafted were contracts that defined the powers of government, as did the old colonial charters, but they drew their authority from the people, not from the royal seal of a distant king. As written documents the state constitutions were intended to represent fundamental law, superior to the transient whims of ordinary legislation. Most of these documents included a bill of rights, specifically guaranteeing long-prized liberties against later legislation encroachment. Most of them required the annual election of legislators, who were thus forced to stay in touch with the mood of the people, and all of the deliberately created weak executive and judicial branches, at least by present-day standards.
state capitals moved westward
In all the new state governments, the legislatures, as presumably the most democratic branch of government, were given sweeping powers. The democratic charter of the new state legislatures was vividly reflected by the presence of many members from the recently enfranchised poorer western districts. Their influence was powerfully felt in their several successful movements to relocate state capitals from the haughty eastern seaports into the less pretentious interior. In the Revolutionary era capitals of New Hampshire, New York, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia were all moved westward. The geographical shifts foreshadowed political shifts that deeply disturbed many more conservative Americans.
Loyalists lands
States seized control of former crown lands, and although rich speculators had their day, many of the large Loyalist holdings were confiscated and eventually cut up into small farms. The frightful excesses of the French Revolution were avoided, partly because cheap land was easily available (would much rather chop down trees than chop off heads).
economic changes
It is highly significant that in the United States, economic democracy, broadly speaking, preceded political democracy. A sharp stimulus was given to manufacturing by the prewar nonimportation agreements and later by the war itself. Goods that were previously imported from Britain were mostly cut off, and the ingenious Yankees were forced to make their own. Economically speaking, independence had drawbacks. American shippers were now barred from British and British West Indies harbors. However, Americans could now trade freely with foreign nations, subject to local restrictions. War had spawned demoralizing extravagance, speculation, and profiteering, with profits for some as indecently high as 300 percent. States governments had borrowed more from the war than they could ever hope to repay. Runaway inflation had been ruinous to many citizens, and Congress had failed in its feeble attempts to curb economic laws.
Articles of Confederation (1777); list weaknesses
Shortly before declaring independence in 1776, Congress appointed a committee to draft a written constitution for the new nation, the _____. Adopted by Congress in 1777, it wasn't ratified by all thirteen states until 1781, less than eight months before the victory at Yorktown. It provided for a loose confederation or "firm league of friendship." There was a unicameral legislature, no authority for Congress to impose taxes, one vote in Congress for each state, no national court system, no provision for a uniform national currency, no chief executive, a requirement that nine of the thirteen states approve passage of certain legislation, unanimity for amendment of the AOC, and no authority for Congress to regulate either interstate or foreign commerce.
Land Ordinance (of 1785)
It provided that the acreage of the Old Northwest should be sold and that the proceeds should be used to help pay off the national debt. The vast area was to be surveyed before sale and settlement, thus forestalling endless confusion and lawsuits. It was to be divided into six townships six miles square, each of which in turn was to be split into 36 sections of one square mile each. The sixteenth section of each township was set aside to be sold for the benefit of the public schools.
Shay's Rebellion
Flared up in western Massachusetts in 1786. Impoverished backcountry farmers, many of them Revolutionary War veterans, were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies. Led by Captain Daniel Shays, a veteran of the Revolution, these desperate debtors demanded that the state issue paper money, lighten taxes, and suspend property takeovers. Mass. authorities responded with drastic actions (raising a small army). Several skirmishes occurred and the movement collapsed. However, the Massachusetts legislature soon passed debtor-relief laws of the kind Shays had championed.
Philadelphia Constitutional Convention (1787)
The convention was not to deal with commerce alone, but to bolster the entire fabric of the Articles of Confederation. It was called by Congress "for the sole and express purpose of revising" the Articles of Confederation. A quorum of the fifty-five emissaries from twelve states finally convened at Philadelphia on May 25, 1787. Sessions were held in complete secrecy, with armed sentinels posted at the doors. George Washington, towering austere and aloof among the "demigods," was unanimously elected chairman. Delegates were determined to preserve the union, forestall anarchy, and ensure security of life and property against dangerous uprisings by the "mobocracy." Above all, they sought to curb the unrestrained democracy rampant in various states. The delegates decided upon a daring step. They would completely scrap the old Articles, despite explicit instructions from Congress to revise.
Virginia Plan, New Jersey Plan, the Great Compromise
Virginia proposed a scheme (known as "the large-state plan") was first pushed forward as the framework of the Constitution. Its essence was that representation in both houses of a bicameral (two branches) Congress should be based on population - an arrangement that would naturally give the larger states an advantage. New Jersey countered with "the small-state plan." This provided for equal representation representation in a unicameral (one branch) Congress by states, regardless of size and population, as under the existing Articles. After a long and bitter debate between the big and small states, the "_______" of the convention was hammered out and agreed upon. In this compromise, the larger states were conceded representation by population in the House of Representatives, and the smaller states were appeased by equal representation in the Senate. Each state, no matter how poor or small, would have two senators. The delegates also agreed that every tax bill or revenue measure must originate in the House, where population counted more heavily.
president (executive branch)
The new Constitution provided a robust - though still legally restrained - executive in the presidency. The president was to have broad authority to make appointments to domestic offices - including judgeships - as well as veto power over legislation. Yet presidential power was far from absolute. The president, as commander in chief, was granted the power to wage war, but Congress retained the crucial right to declare war - a division of responsibilities that has been an invitation to conflict between president and Congress ever since.
"division of responsibilities" (separation of powers)
Having three branches that check and balance each other. The executive, legislative, and judicial.
Electoral college
The method of indirectly electing the president through the _____. While the larger states would have the advantage in the first round of popular voting, as a state's share of electors was based on the total of its senators and representatives in Congress, the small states would gain a larger choice if no candidate got a majority of electoral votes and the election was thrown to the House of Representatives, where each state had only one vote.
Three-Fifths Compromise
The South, not wishing to be deprived of influence, thought that the voteless slaves in their states should count as a person in apportioning direct taxes and in according to representation in the House of Representatives. The North, however, argued no, since slaves were not citizens. As a compromise, it was decided that a slave may count as three-fifths of a person.
compromise of slave trade (also no tax on exports) are Commercial Compromises
Most of the states wanted to shut off the African slave trade. But South Carolina and Georgia, requiring slave labor in their rice paddies and malarial swamps, raised fervent protests. By way of compromise, the convention stipulated that the slave trade might continue until the end of 1807, at which time Congress could turn off the spigot. It did so as soon as the prescribed interval had elapsed. The compromise of the slave trade and no tax on exports are _____.
three branches, "Checks and Balances"
Politically, the members of the Constitutional Convention were in basic agreement; they favored a stronger government, with three branches and with checks and balances among them. ADD
safeguards against the "mob"
The delegates deliberately erected ____ against the excesses of the "___," and they made these barriers as strong as they dared. The awesome federal judges were to be appointed for life. The powerful president was to be elected indirectly by the Electoral College; the lordly senators were to be chosen indirectly by state legislatures. Only in the case of one-half of one of these three branches (the House of Representatives) were qualified (propertied) citizens permitted to choose their officials by direct vote.
republicanism (2 parts)
That only legitimate government was one based on the consent of the governed, and that the powers of the government should be limited - in this case specifically limited by a written constitution.
ratification (2/3 of states = 9 of 13)
The Framing Fathers early foresaw that nationwide acceptance of the Constitution would not be easy to obtain. A formidable barrier was unanimous ratification by all thirteen states, as required for amendment by the Articles of Confederation. But since absent Rhode Island was certain to veto the Constitution, the delegates boldly adopted a different scheme. They stipulated that when nine states had registered their approval through specially elected conventions, the Constitution would become the supreme law of the land in those states ratifying. This was extraordinary, even revolutionary. It was in effect an appeal over the heads of the Congress that had called the convention, and over the legislatures that had chosen its members, to the people - or those of the people who could vote.
antifederalists (list leaders and ideas)
Because of the new Constitution, the ____, who opposed the stronger federal government, were arrayed against the federalists, who obviously favored it. A motley crew of gathered in the ___ camp. Its leaders included prominent revolutionaries like Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee. They cried with much truth that it had been drawn up by the aristocratic elements and hence was antidemocratic. They charged that the sovereignty of the states was being submerged and that the freedoms of the individual were jeopardized by the absence of a bill of rights. They decried the dropping of annual elections for congressional representatives, the erecting of a federal stronghold ten miles square (DC), the creation of a standing army, the omission of any reference to God, and the highly questionably procedure of ratifying with only two-thirds of the states.
Federalists
They favored a strong federal government (like the one given by the Constitution). They had power and influence on their side. They enjoyed support of such commanding figures as George Washington and Benjamin Franklin. They were wealthier, better organized, and more educated than the antifederalists. They also controlled the press (only a dozen out of a hundred plus newspapers supported antifederalists).
absence of a bill of rights
Antifederalists charged that the sovereignty of the states was being submerged and that the freedoms of the individual were jeopardized by the absence of a bill of rights.
"The Federalists" essays by Hamilton, Jay, Madison
New York experienced an uphill struggle, burdened as it was with its own heavily antifederalist state convention. Alexander Hamilton at heart favored a much stronger central government than that under debate, but he contributed his sparkling personality and persuasive eloquence to whipping up support for federalism as framed. He also joined John Jay and James Madison in penning a masterly series of articles for the NY newspapers. Though designed for propaganda, these essays remain the most penetrating commentary ever written on the Constitution and are sill widely sold in book form.
North Carolina and Rhode Island resistance
A hostile convention met in NC, then adjourned without taking a vote. Rhode Island didn't even summon a ratifying convention, rejecting the Constitution by popular referendum. They were to change their course, albeit unwillingly, only after the new government had been in operation for some months.
conservative triumph
A militant minority of conservatives - now embracing many of the earlier radicals - had engineered the peaceful revolution that overthrew the inadequate constitution know as the Articles of Confederation. Conservatism was victorious. Safeguards had been erected against mob-rule excesses, while republican gains of the Revolution were conserved.
branches of government -- executive, judicial, legislative
Unlike the antifederalists, who believed that the sovereignty of the people resided in a single branch of government - the legislature - the federalists contended that every branch - the executive, judiciary, and legislature - effectively represented the people. By ingeniously embedding the doctrine of self-rule in a self-limiting system of checks and balances among these branches, the Constitution reconciled the potentially conflicting principles of liberty and order.
Northwest Ordinance (1787)
It related to the governing of the Old Northwest. This law came to grips with the problem of how a nation should deal with its colonies - the same problem that had bedeviled the king and Parliament in London. The solution provided by the ___ was judicious compromise: temporary tutelage, then permanent equality. First, there would be two evolutionary territorial stages, during which the area would be subordinate to the federal government. Then, when a territory could boast sixty thousand inhabitants, it might be admitted by Congress as a state, with all the privileges of the thirteen charter members. The ordinance also forbade slavery in the Old Northwest.
Minute Men
Bloodshed at Lexington and Concord in April of 1775 was a clarion call to arms. About 20,000 musket-bearing "_____" swarmed around Boston, there to coop up the outnumbered British.
Second Continental Congress (1775)
It met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775, and this time all 13 colonies were represented. The conservative Congresss was still strong, despite the shooting in Massachusetts. There was still no want for independence - just desire to keep fighting sin the hope that the king and Parliament would consent to a redress of grievences. They adopted a measure to raise money and to create and army and navy.
General George Washington
Perhaps the most important single action of the Congress was to select this man, one of its members already in a officer's uniform, to head the hastily improvised army besieging Boston. He had great leadership skills and immense strength of character that lead the people to trust him. They sensed that when he put himself at the head of a cause, he was prepared, if necessary, to go down with the ship.
Ethan Allen, Benedict Arnold, fort Ticonderoga
In May 1775, a tiny American force under ____ and ____ surprised and captured the British garrisons at ____ and Crown Point. A priceless store of gunpowder and artillery for the siege of Boston was thus secured.
Bunker (Breed) Hill
In June 1775 the colonists seized a hill from which which they menaced the enemy in Boston. The British, instead of cutting off the retreat of their foes by flanking them, blundered bloodily when they launched a frontal attack with 3,000 men. The 15,000 Americans mowed down the advancing redcoats. However, the colonist supply of gun powder ran out, and they were forced to abandon the hill.
Olive Branch Petition
In July 1775, the Continental Congress adopted the ______, professing American loyalty to the crown and begging the king to prevent further hostilities. But following Bunker Hill, King George III slammed the door on all hope of reconciliation. In August 1775 he formally proclaimed the colonies in rebellion; the skirmishes were now out-and-out treason, a hanging crime.
failed invasion of Canada
In Fall 1775, American leaders believed (erroneously) that the conquered French were explosively restive under the British yoke. A successful assault on Canada would add a fourteenth colony, while depriving Britain of a valuable base for striking at the colonies in revolt. The attack, involving some two thousand American troops, contradicted the claim of the colonists fighting defensively for a redress of grievances. Invasion northward was undisguised offensive warfare. The attack narrowly missed success. The French, who were well treated by the Quebec Act of 1774, had no desire to revolt.
British evacuation of Boston
In March the British were forced to evacuate Boston, taking with them the leading friends of the King.
Thomas Paine's "Common Sense"
In 1776, ____ was published. It is considered one of the most influential pamphlets ever written. Its author was the radical Thomas Paine. His tract became a best seller and within a few months, reaching an astonishing total of 120,000 copies. Paine argued that the tiny island of Britain could not control the vast continent of North America. Paine claimed the king was nothing but "the Royal Brute of Great Britain." He for a new kind of society: a republic. He didn't only want independence, he wanted a new kind of political society: a republic. He wanted government run by the people.
Thomas Jefferson (Enlightenment)
Shortly after Richard Henry Lee moved that "these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states," Congress appointed a committee to prepare a more formal statement of separation (Declaration of Independence). The task of drafting it fell to ____. Despite his youth, he was already recognized as a brilliant writer, and he measured up splendidly to the assignment. He gave his appeal universality by invoking the "natural rights" of humankind (from the Enlightenment) - not just British rights.
Declaration of Independence; July 4, 1776
It was formally approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. It might better have been called "the Explanation of Independence." Jefferson gave his appeal universality by invoking the "natural rights" of humankind (from the Enlightenment) - not just British rights. It also had a list of the presumably tyrannous misdeeds of George III. It allows foreign aid to be solicited with greater hope of success. Those Patriots who defied the king were now rebels, not loving subjects shooting their way into reconciliation.
American Revolution, patriots
AKA War of Independence. It was a war within a war: loyalists (Tories; loyal to the King) against patriots (American rebels; aka Whigs), who also fought the British redcoats. It was minority movement with many colonist apathetic or neutral. ADD MORE pg. 146
loyalists (Tories; problems they faced)
Loyalists were also called Tories after the dominant political factions in Britain. A Tory is a thing whose head is in England, and its body in America, and its neck ought to be stretched. They numbered about 16% of the population. They were least numerous in New England. They remained true to their king. Before the Declaration persecution of loyalists was relatively mild. Yet they were subjected to some brutality, including tarring and feathering. After the Declaration, which sharply separated Loyalists from Patriots, harsher methods prevailed.
Washington evacuates New York
In July 1776, a British fleet of 500 ships appeared of the coast of New York. General Washington was dangerously out numbered, so he evacuated New York escaping to Manhattan Island in a fog. Retreating northward, he crossed the Hudson River to New Jersey and finally reached the Delaware River with he British close behind.
Battle of Trenton (Washington Crosses the Delaware)
Washington continued to retreat from New York across the Delaware River with the British close on his heels. Washington's opponent General William Howe decided to rest Christmas Eve. Washington recrossed the Delaware River and at Trenton on December 26, 1776, he surprised and captured a thousand Hessians who were sleeping off the effects of their Christmas celebration. A week later, he defeated a smaller British detachment at Princeton.
General Burgoyne and the Battle of Saratoga
He was to carry out London officials intricate scheme to cut of New England from the rest of the colonies by capturing the vital Hudson River valley in 1777, in hopes of paralyzing the American cause. The British were forced to go back to Canada and start a new the next year. Burgoyne had been slowed down north of Albany, while a host of American militiamen, scenting the kill, swarmed around him. Unable to advance or retreat, Burgoyne was forced to surrender his entire command at Saratoga on October 17, 1777, to the American general Horatio Gates. Saratoga ranks high among the decisive battles of both American and world history. The victory immensely revived the faltering colonial cause. Even more important, it made possible the urgently needed foreign aid from France, which in turn helped ensure American independence.
Ambassador to France Benjamin Franklin
Ben Franklin had been sent to Paris as an envoy, to negotiate the treaty with France. He was determined that his very appearance should herald the diplomatic revolution the Americans hoped to achieve. He violated every norm of diplomatic behaivor in his clothing and demeanor to show revolution. He shocked the royal court, besotted as it was with pomp and protocol. But ordinary Parisians adored him as a specimen of a new democratic social order, devoid of pretense and ornament. On Feburary 6, 1778, France offered the Americans a treaty of alliance. It did not conform to the Treaty that Franklin had brought with him - an early example of practical self-interest trumping abstract idealism in America's conduct of foreign affairs.
France, Spain, Holland join American efforts
In 1779, Spain and Holland joined the war against Britain. Combined Spanish and French fleets outnumbered those of Britain, and on two occasions the British Isles seemed to be at the mercy of hostile warships.
Benedict Arnold, traitor of West point
In 1780, General Benedict Arnold turned traitor when he plotted with the British to sell out the key stronghold of West Point for money and an officer's commission. By the sheerest accident, the plot was detected in the nick of time, and Arnold fled to the British.
British Southern strategy
The British meanwhile had devised a plant to roll up the colonies, beginning in the South where the Loyalists were numerous. The colony of Georgia was ruthlessly overrun in 1778-1779; Charleston, South Carolina fell in 1780. The surrender of the city to the British involved the capture of five thousand men and four hundred cannon and was a heavier loss to the Americans, in relation to existing strength, than that of Burgoyne was to the British. Warfare was now intensified in the Carolinas, where Patriots bitterly fought their Loyalist neighbors. ADD
George Rogers Clark in the Ohio Valley
In 1778-1779, George Roger Clark, conceived the idea of seizing forts in the Ohio valley by surprise, floated down the Ohio River with about 175 men, captured forts Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes. Clark's admirers have argued that his success forced the British to cede the region north of the Ohio River to the United States at the peace table in Paris.
"privateer" ships
These craft were privately owned armed ships - legalized pirates in a sense - specifically authorized by Congress to prey on enemy shipping. Altogether over a thousand American _____, responding to the call of patriotism and profit, sallied forth with about seventy thousand men ("sailors of fortune"). They captured some six hundred British prizes, while British warships captured about as many American merchantmen and privateers.
Battle of Yorktown (1780)
British general Cornwallis had fallen back to the Chesapeake Bay at Yorktown to await seaborne supplies and reinforcements, assuming the British would continue to control the sea. French Admiral Grasse added the Americans in an assault on Cornwallis. Washington beset the British by land while the French blockaded them from the sea. Cornwallis surrendered on October 19, 1781.
Franklin, J. Adams, John Jay
Three envoys with explicit instructions from Congress to make no separate peace and to consult with their French allies at all stages of the negotiations. John Jay was unwilling to let France take advantage of the United States. He spoke to Britain and a preliminary treaty of peace was signed in 1782. ADD
Treaty of Paris (1783), major parts
The British formally recognized the independence of the United States, granted generous boundaries, stretching from the Mississippi to the Great Lakes to Spanish Florida. They also received Newfoundland. Loyalists were not to be persecuted, Congress was to recommend to the state legislatures that confiscated Loyalist property be returned, and the states vowed to put no lawful obstacles in the way of the collection of debs owed to British creditors.
difference between New World and Old World
People of the Old World were surrounded by their Ancestors and were brought up in a changeless surroundings, but the New World colonists were filled with fresh ideas such as republicanism and Whig philosophy which made the colonists alert for threats to their rights. The New World nurtured new ideas about the nature of society, citizen, and government. European immigrants in the New World were not as easily subdued as the Old World folk who didn't question their social status.
republicanism
It came from the ancient Greek and Roman republics. It was a society in which citizens subordinated their private, selfish interest to the common good. Both the stability of society and the authority of the government thus depended on the virtue of the citizenry (its capacity for selflessness, self-sufficiency, and courage) and especially its appetite for civic involvement. It was in opposition to hierarchical and authoritarian institutions such as aristocracy and monarchy. Together, ____ and Whig ideas predisposed the American colonists to be on hair-trigger alert against any threat to their rights.
Whig philosophy
It was derived from British political commentators called the "radical ____" who feared the threat to liberty by the arbitrary power of the monarch and his ministers relative to elected representatives in Parliament. They also did not approve of bribes by the king's ministers. They warned citizens to be on guard against possible conspiracies to deprive them of their hard-won liberties. Together, republicanism and ____ ideas predisposed the American colonists to be on hair-trigger alert against any threat to their rights.
mercantilism
This was a theory that justified British control over the colonies. The _____ believed that wealth was power and that a country's economic wealth (and hence its military/political power) could be measured by the amount of gold or silver in its treasury. To get gold or silver, a country needed to export more than it imported. Possessing colonies thus conferred distinct advantages, since the colonies could both supply raw materials to the mother country (thereby reducing the need for foreign imports) and provide a guaranteed market for exports. Americans also reaped benefits from the system: London paid liberal bounties to colonial producers of ship parts, over the protests of British competitors. They also benefited from the protection of the world's mightiest navy and a strong, seasoned army of redcoats - all without a penny of cost.
purpose of colonies
Possessing colonies conferred distinct advantages, since the colonies could both supply raw materials to the mother country (reducing the need for foreign imports) and providing a guaranteed market for exports. The London government also looked on the American colonists as tenants. They were expected to furnish products needed in the mother country (tobacco, sugar, ships' masts, etc.), to refrain from making for export certain products (woolen cloth or beaver hats), to buy imported manufactured goods exclusively from Britain, and not to indulge in bothersome dreams of economic self-sufficiency or, worse, self-government.
Navigation Laws
It was passed by Parliament in 1650. It was aimed at rival Dutch shippers trying to elbow their way into the Americas carrying trade. All commerce flowing to and from the colonies would be transported only in British vessels. Following laws required that European goods destined for America had to go through Great Britain where tariff duties could be collected a British middlemen could get some of the profits. Other laws stated that American merchants had to ship "enumerated" products, notably tobacco, exclusively to Britain, even though prices might be better elsewhere.
currency problems
The Navigation Laws caused a ____ shortage in the colonies because colonists bought more from Britain than they sold to Britain, and the difference had to be made up in hard cash. Every year money earned in illegal trade with Spanish and French West Indies, drained out of the colonies, causing a money shortage. The colonists exchanged butter, nails, pitch, and feathers to make their everyday purchases. The colonies had to issue paper money which caused merchants and creditors to complained to England which no longer allowed the colonies to print money and passing indulgent bankruptcy laws - practices that might harm British merchants. The Americans grumbled that their welfare was being sacrificed for the well-being of British commercial interests.
royal veto (nullification)
The British crown had the right to nullify any legislation passed by colonial assemblies. This was used sparsely just 496 times in connection with 8,563 laws. However, colonist resented its existence - another example of how principle could weigh more heavily than practice in fueling colonial grievances.
Navigation Laws loosely enforced (salutary neglect)
They were not an intolerable burden until 1763 because they were only loosely enforced. Colonial merchants learned to avoid troublesome restrictions. Some of the First American fortunes were gathered by wholesale smuggling.
British Prime Minister George Grenville
He first aroused the resentment of the colonist in 1763 by ordering the British navy to begin strictly enforcing of the Navigation Laws. He also secured from Parliament the Sugar Act of 1764 and the Quartering Act in 1765. Also in 1765, he imposed the stamp tax (to raise revenues to support the new military force). He regarded all these measures as reasonable and just. He was simply asking the Americans to pay a fair share of the costs for their own defense, through taxes that were already familiar in Britain. However, the Americans were angrily aroused at what they regarded as Grenville's fiscal aggression.
Sugar Act of 1764
It was passed in 1764 and was the fist law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenue in the colonies for the crown. It increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies, and after protest from the colonists, the duty was lowered substantially.
Quartering Act of 1765
This act passed in 1765 required certain colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops. (Americans resented it)
Stamp Act of 1765
Grenville also imposed this act, which was the most offensive measure of all. It was to raise revenues to support the new military force, and it mandated the use of stamped paper or the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of tax. Stamps were required on bills of sale for 50 trade items and on certain types of commercial and legal documents: playing cards, pamphlets, newspapers, diplomas, bills of lading, and marriage licenses. The colonist focused their rebellious fire on this act.
admiralty court trials (why unfair)
Offenders of the Sugar Act and Stamp Act were tried in these hated courts where juries were not allowed. The burden of proof was on the defendants who were assumed to be guilty unless they could prove themselves innocent. Trail by jury and he precept of "innocent until proved guilty" were ancient privileges that British people everywhere, including the American colonist held most dear.
"no taxation without representation"
It was a slogan that the colonists used to protest against the taxes the Parliament was imposing. There was irony in the slogan because those along the coast did not give equal representation to those in the back country. Americans made a distinction between "legislation" (which affected the entire empire, including regulation and trade) and "taxation" (which only effected the Americans, who had no representatives in Parliament). The Americans insisted that only their own elected colonial legislatures could tax them. Taxes levied by the distant British Parliament amounted to robbery, a piratical assault of the sacred rights of poverty.
virtual representation
Grenville stated that the power of Parliament was supreme and undivided, and in any case the Americans were represented in Parliament. Grenville claimed that every member of Parliament represent all British subjects, even those Americans in Boston or Charleston who had never voted for a member of Parliament. The Americans scoffed at this notion, but (truthfully) didn't want direct representation in Parliament (b/c any member of the House of Commons could have proposed an oppressive tax bill for the colonies, and the American representatives, few in number, would have stood bereft of a principle with which to resist).
Stamp Act Congress of 1765
Colonial outcries against the hated stamp tax took varied forms. The most conspicuous assemblage was the _____. This was an assembly which brought together in NYC twenty-seven distinguished delegates from nine colonies. After a debate, the members drew up a statement of their rights and grievances and beseeched the king and Parliament to repeal the repugnant legislation. It was largely ignored in England but made a little splash at that time in America. It also caused the sectional suspicions to fall apart, but brought together the same table leaders from different and rival colonies.
non-importation agreements (boycotts)
More effect than the Stamp Act Congress at bringing together the colonies was the wide-spread adoption of _____ against British goods. Woolen garments of homespun fabric became fashionable, and the eating of lamb chops was discouraged so that the wool-bearing sheep would be allowed to mature. They were a promising stride toward union; they spontaneously united American people for the first time in common action. They gave ordinary American men and women new opportunities to participate in colonial protests. People became involved in signing petitions swearing to uphold the terms of the consumer boycotts.
spinning bees and homespun fabric
Groups of women would gather in public to hold ____ and make homespun cloth as a replacement for shunned British textiles. Such public defiance helped spread angry resistance throughout American colonial society.
Sons/Daughters of Liberty
They were a group who took the law into their own hands. By crying "Liberty, Property, and No Stamps," They enforced nonimportation agreements against violators, usually tarring and feathering them. Patriotic mobs ransacked he houses of unpopular officials, confiscated their money, and hanged effigies of stamp agents on liberty poles.
tar and feathering
This is what the Sons and Daughter of Liberty did to violators of the non-importation agreements. (cover in tar, then in feathers)
repeal of the Stamp Act
Shaken by colonial commotion (the tar and feathers), the machinery for collecting the tax broke down. On that day in 1765 when the new act was to go into effect, the stamp agents had all been forced to resign, and there was no one to sell the stamps. The law was openly and flagrantly defied - or, rather, nullified. Merchants, manufacturers, and shippers suffered from the colonial nonimportation agreements, and hundreds of laborers were thrown out of work. Loud demands converged on Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act. But many members could not understand why 7.5 million Britons had to pay heavy taxes to protect the colonies, whereas some 2 million colonists refused to pay for only one-third of the cost of their own defense. After a stormy debate, Parliament in 1766 grudgingly repealed the Stamp Act.
Townshend Acts 1767 (lead, glass, paper, paint, tea)
In 1767, Charley Townshend convinced Parliament to pass this act which put a light import duty on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea. This was made an indirect customs duty payable at American ports which differentiated between internal and external taxes. It revenues were to pay salaries of royal governors and judges in America. START HERE
Boston Massacre 1770
In 1768, British officials landed two regiments of troops, many of which were drunken profane characters, in Boston. On the evening of March 5, 1770, a crowd of some sixty townspeople began taunting and throwing snowballs at a squad of ten redcoats. The Bostonians were still angry oat the death of a 11 yr old boy who was shot ten days earlier. Soldiers opened fire on the jeering crowd. Both sides were to blame for the Massacre.
Crispus Attucks
He was the mulatto ringleader of the crowd at the Boston massacre. A picture of him at the Boston Massacre was circulated in the 1850s as a way to bolster the abolitionist movement. he was one of the first to die in the Boston Massacre.
John Adams
He was the future US President who served as the defense attorney for the soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre.
King George III
By 1770, he was strenuously attempting to assert the power of the British Monarchy. He surrounded himself with cooperative men notably his prime minister Lord North.
repeal of all Townshend Acts except Tea Act
The government of Lord North persuaded Parliament to repeal the Townshend revenue duties, but the 3 pence toll on tea which the colonists found most offensive would remain.
Samuel Adams and the Committees of Correspondence
He, a Bostonian, kindled resistance through his propaganda. He lived for politics and was ultra-sensitive to infractions on colonial rights. He appealed to what was called his "trained m"ob. His contribution was to organize in Massachusetts the local committees of correspondence, the first of which he had formed in Boston in 1772. Some 80 towns in the colony set up similar organizations. Their function was to spread the spirit of resistance by exchanging letters and thus keep alive opposition to British policy. In 1773, Virginia established the first intercolonial committees of correspondence. Soon every colony had established a central committee through which it could exchange ideas and info with other colonies.
Boston Tea Party 1773
In 1773, The British East India Company had not sold 17 million pounds of tea and was on the brink of bankruptcy. Its collapse would cause a great lost to London government tax revenue, so the company was awarded complete monopoly of the American tea Business. Even thought the tea was cheaper, many Americans saw this British move as a way to bait Americans with cheaper tea and having to pay the detested tax. Principle remain more important than price. In Philadelphia and New York, demonstrations force the tea bearinf ships to return t England with their cargo holds still full. Marylanders burned both cargo and vessels. In South Carolina, officials seized the tea for nonpayment of duties after intimidated local merchants refused to accept delivery. Only in Boston did the officials refuse to be cowed when Bostonian governor Hutchinson ordered tea shops not to clear Boston Harbor until they had unloaded their cargoes. On December 16, 1773, Bostonians bumped 347 chests of tea into the Atlantic.
Intolerable (Coercive) Acts 1774
Unanimously in 1774, Parliament responded to the Boston Tea Party by passing a series of acts designed to chastise Boston in particular, Massachusetts in general. They were branded in America as the masacre of American Liberty. The most drastic of these was the Boston Port act which closed the harbor until damages were paid and order was restored. These acts swept away charter rights the colony and ability to hold meetings. The Quartering Act which gave local authorities the power to lodge British soldiers anywhere, even in private homes.
Quebec Act 1774
It accompanied the Intolerable Acts in 1774. It was erroneously regarded in English-speaking America as par of the British reaction to turbulence in Boston. This actually was a the good way that GB decided to rule its new French subjects. It allowed them to keep their Catholic Religion, keep their old customs and institutions, and old boundaries of the province of Quebec were now extended southward all the way to the Ohio River. To Americans it was the most notorious Intolerable Act since it sustained unrepresentative assemblies and denials of jury trial as well as snatching from the land west of the Alleghenies from land speculators grasps. It also aroused anti-catholics.
First Continental Congress 1774
It was the most memorable response to the Intolerable Act which was summonnded in 1774. It was to meet in Philadelphia to consider ways of redressing colonial grievances. Twelve of the thirteen colonies, only Georgia missing, sent 55 well-respected men (Sam Adams, John Adams, George Washington, and Patrick Henry). Intercolonial frictions were partially melted away by social activity after working hours. It deliberated for seven weeks, from September 5 to October 26, 1774. It was not a legislative but a consultative body. After long arguments, the congress drew up several dignified papers.
"Declaration of Rights"
It was one of the dignified papers that the Continental Congress came up with.
The Association
It was the most significant action of the Congress. It called for a complete boycott of British goods: nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption. It is important to note that the delegates were not yet calling for independence.
Battle of Lexington and Concord 1775
In April 1775 the British commander in Boston sent a detachment of troops, who were to seize stores of colonial gunpowder and also to bag the rebel ringleaders (Sam Adams and John Hancock) to nearby Lexington and Concord. At Lexington colonial Minutemen refused to disperse rapidly enough, and shots were fired that killed eight Americans and wounded seven others. The red coats pushed on to Concord where they were forced to retreat by the Americans. The Americans caused the Brits three hundred casualties including 70 deaths.
Hessians (mercenaries)
George III had 30,000 of the foreign soldiers under his control.
list Imperial Britain's weaknesses
oppressed Ireland was a smoking volcano, and British troops had to be detached to watch it. France, bitter from its recent defeat, was awaiting an opportunity ti stab Britain in the back. The London government was confused and inept. George III and Lord North were not the organizers of victory like William Pitt. Many British did not want to kill Americans. The English Whigs opposed Lord North and cheered American victories. British generals in America were second-hand and the troops were maltreated. Provisions were scare and of poor quality. Britain was operating 3,000 miles from its home base adding delays. America's geography was different than that of England and it was widely variable. Plus, the united colonies had no urban nerve center whose capture would cripple the country on whole. Plus American birth rate was so high that Red coats could not cripple the population.
list American weaknesses
American rebels were badly organized in war lacking unity and filled with uncertainty. The Continental Congress got weaker as the war progressed with no written constitution. Jealousy between the states and sections (esp. over appointed military leaders) caused weakness. Economic difficulties were almost unsolvable with little metallic money and the Continental Congress not wanting to issue taxation. It was forced to print paper money which caused the value to go down. Inflation skyrocketed prices, and soldiers fighting on the front deserted to help families.
Valley Forge winter camp conditions
It was bitterly cold, soldiers went without bread for three successive days, and manufactured goods were in short supply(food, clothes,shoes). The men were barefoot and some were nearly naked in the cold winter. The snow was often marked with blood. Woolens were needed for the winter, but they were not to be found. Some men even rapped themselves in woolen bed covers.
the role of African Americans
Blacks also fought in the American revolution. Although originally barred from the militia, 5,000 blacks ended up serving in the war. They fought at Trenton, Brandywine, Saratoga, and other important battles. Prince Whipple became a military hero. Others served as cooks, spies, drivers, and road builders. They also served with the British. Lord Dunmore, royal governor of Virginia, promised freedom for any slave who joined the British army. Within one month 3,000 slaves enlisted in the British Army.
issuing of Declaratory Act
Parliament passed the Declaratory Act after the repeal of the Stamp Act. This act reaffirmed Parliament's right to bind the colonies in all cases whatsoever.
England (Great Britain)
This country was called Great Britain after its Union with Scotland in 1707. It was involved in a conflict over the ownership of the North Americas along with Spain and France. It unavoidably swept up Native American peoples as well. From 1688 to 1763, four bitter wars between the three countries convulsed Europe. All four were world wars. They amounted to a death struggle for domination in Europe as well as in the New World, and they were fought on the waters and soil of two hemispheres.
Seven Year's War/French and Indian War
It set the stage for America's independence. It was one of the nine world wars that had been waged since 1688. It was known as the _____ War in Europe and the ______ War in America.
French Protestant Huguenots
This religious group came into conflict with Roman Catholics in France during the 1500s. On St. Bartholomew's Day, 1572, over a thousand of them were murdered. A new era dawned in 1598 when the Edict of Nantes, issued by the crown, granted limited toleration to the French Protestants. They had the religious motivation to move to New France, but they were not given refuge there. The French wanted to keep a close eye on their dissenters. If New France had accepted the _____, the French might have won the war. America might be part of Canada.
Quebec 1608
In 1608, the permanent beginnings of a vast empire for France in the New World were established in this place along the St. Lawrence river. The leading figure was Samuel de Champlain, an intrepid soldier and explorer whose energy and leadership fairly earned him the title "Father of New France."
Hurons v. Iroquois
Champlain, the leading figure in Quebec, entered friendly relations with Huron tribes, joining with them in a battle against the Iroquois tribes of the upper New York area. The whites' guns frightened the Iroquois, killed some, and earned the lasting enmity of the Iroquois towards France. They thereafter hampered French penetration of the Ohio Valley, sometimes ravaging French settlements and frequently serving as allies of the British in the prolonged struggle for supremacy on the continent.
Samuel de Champlain
He was the leading figure in Quebec, An intrepid soldier and explorer whose energy and leadership earned him the title of "Father of New France." He entered into friendly relations with the the Huron Indian tribes, joining them in battle against the Iroquois tribes of the upper New York area.
Catholic New France (Canada)
It came underneath the control of the French king after companies had faltered and failed. It was a royal regime that was autocratic (did not have the same rights as English Colonies - didn't elect representative assemblies or have the right to trial by jury). The population grew slowly because the landowning French had little economic motive to move. Protestant Huguenots, who might have had religious motive to migrate, were denied a refuge in the colony. The French government, in any case, favored its Caribbean island colonies, rich in sugar and rum, over the snow-cloaked wilderness of Canada.
beaver pelts and "coureurs de bois"
This fur was highly valued in Europe, and it was abundant in New France. French fur-trappers ranged the woods and waterways of North America in search of the animal. Slaughtering the ____ by the boatload also violated many Indians' religious beliefs. The colorful French fur trappers were named ____ which meant runners of the woods. They were an immoral bunch who left behind many place names, including Baton Rouge (red stick), Terre Haute (high land), and Des Moines (some monks). The fur-trappers all but extinguished the ___ population in many areas.
Jesuit missionaries
These mere the French Catholic missionaries who tried to save Indians for Christ and from fur-trappers. Some missionaries suffered unspeakable tortures at the hands of the Indians. Although they made few conversions, they were great explorers and geographers.
Detroit, Louisiana, New Orleans, and Illinois
Antoine Cadillac founded ____ (for France), the "City of Straits," to thwart English settlers pushing into the Ohio River Valley in 1701. Robert de La Salle founded _____ (in honor of King Louis XIV) to stop Spanish settlement in the Gulf of Mexico. The French also establish ____ with forts and trading post, making it the garden of France's North American empire. The most important of several fortified posts was _____, which was established in 1718. ADD MORE
Deerfield massacre
1704. It is also known as King William's War (1689-1697) by the British and Queen Anne's War (1702-1713). It pitted British colonists against the French coureurs de bois, with both sides recruiting whatever Indian allies the could. It was fought by the Indians because the British and French thought that America was not important enough to dispatch troops to. The combatants waged a kind of primitive guerrilla warfare. The French Indians attack the frontiers settlements esp. Schenectady N.Y. and Deerfield Mass. Peace terms, signed at Utrecht in 1713, revealed how badly France and its Spanish ally had been beaten. Britain was rewarded with French-populated Acadia (renamed Nova Scotia or New Scotland), Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay.
Georgia as a buffer colony
The War of Jenkins' Ear (1739) was fought in this buffer colony and the Caribbean Sea where Oglethorpe (British) fought the Spaniards to a standstill. It was named because the British Captain Jenkins had his ear cut off by a Spanish commander. Jenkins went back to Britain and told the story, creating furious resentment for the Spanish in Britain. This war was a small-scale scuffle in America, but soon merged with the large-scale King George's War (as called in America) in Europe.
Ohio Country
It was the chief bone of contention between Great Britain and France because it was a critical area into which the westward-pushing British colonists would inevitably penetrate. To France it was a the key to the continent that they wanted to retain particularly because they needed to connect their Canadian holdings to those of the lower Mississippi Valley. Rivalry over the Ohio River Valley brought tensions to a snapping point.
Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh)
This was a French fort which the French were setting up in the disputed wilderness of the Ohio River Valley. It was a pivotal point where the Monongahela and Allegheny Rivers join to form the Ohio. A few miles away from this fort Washington, and his troops of 150 Virginia militiamen, fired the firsts shots of the globe-girdling new war. The French leader was killed and his men retreated.
French-Indian War
This was the 4th Anglo-French war which was started in America. It began in 1754 when George Washington shot a Frenchman in the Ohio River Valley. It was the 7 yrs War fought in widespread areas: Europe, America, West Indies, Philippines, Africa, and the oceans. The French focused so much of their energy in Europe that they didn't have the strength to send an adequate force into the New World. The Colonies had lacked a sense of Unity in the past couple of wars, but for this war they came together.
Young George Washington and Fort Necessity
In 1754, the governor of Virginia told 21-year-old Washington make English claims to the Ohio River Valley. He and his men came across a small group of French troops from Fort Duquesne. The French soon returned with reinforcements that surrounded the quickly made Fort Necessity. He was forced to surrender his entire command in July 1754, but was permitted to march his men away with the full honors of war.
Albany conference
In 1754 the British government summoned an intercolonial congress to Albany, N.Y.. Only Seven delegates from the 13 colonies showed up. The immediate goal of the meeting was to keep the Iroquois tribes loyal to the British in the spreading war. Its long-range purpose was to achieve greater colonial unity and bolster the common defense against France.
Benjamin Franklin's Albany Plan of Union (why failure)
A month before the Albany Conference, Franklin published the most famous cartoon in the colonial era in his newspaper the Pennsylvania Gazette. It showed separate Colonies as parts of a disjointed snake, and broadcasted the slogan "Join, or Die." His outstanding contribution was a well-devised but premature scheme for colonial home rule. The Albany delegates unanimously adopted the plan, but the individual colonies rejected it, as did the London regime. To the colonists, it didn't seem to give enough independence; to the British officials, it seemed to give too much. The disappointing result approved one of Franklin's sage observations: all people agreed on the need for union, but their "weak noddles" were "perfectly distracted" when they attempted to agree on details.
British Prime Minister William Pitt
He was a excellent British leader who was known as the Great Commoner. He drew his strength from the common people, who admired him greatly. He was also a great public speaker who believed in his cause, his country, and himself. In 1757 he became the foremost leader in the London government and soon earned the title Organizer of Victory. He played down the French attacks and concentrated on Canada in the Quebec-Montreal area. Named Pittsburgh after him.
Wolfe's attack on Quebec
He was chosen by Pitt for the attack on Quebec. Wolfe's men were making slow progress toward Quebec until he made a night move on a poorly guarded area of Quebec. This vanguard scaled up the cliff leading the way for the rest of the troops. In the morning the two armies fought on the Plains of Abraham where both leaders (Wolfe and Marquis de Montcalm) were fatally wounded, but the French were defeated and the city surrendered.
Examples of British and American mutual dislike
The British officers held contempt for the raw colonial soldiers, refusing to recognize any American militia commission above the rank of captain - a demotion humiliating to "Colonel" George Washington. British officers were also very condescending to the colonists. The energetic and hard-working American settlers believed themselves to be the cutting edge of British civilization. They deserved credit rather than contempt for risking their lives to secure a New World empire. British officials were further distressed by the reluctance of the colonists to support the common cause wholeheartedly. American shippers, using fraudulent papers, developed a trade with the enemy ports of the Spanish and French West Indies. This trade actually kept some of the West Indies' hostile Island from starving when the British navy was trying to subdue them. ADD MORE: CHECK CLAIRE'S
intercolonial disunity
This had been present since the early days of the colonies and was caused mainly by enormous distances, geographical barriers, conflicting religions, varied nationalities, different colonial governments, boundary disputes and resentment of the crude backcountry settlers against the aristocratic big shots.
Pontiac's Rebellion
The removal of the French from Canada and the Spanish from Florida deprived the Indians of their most powerful diplomatic weapon, the ability to play off rival European powers against on another. Now they would have to negotiate exclusively with Britain. In 1763, Ottawa chief Pontiac led several tribes, aided by French traders, in a violent campaign to drive British out of the Ohio Country. They besieged Detroit and overran all but 3 British posts west of the Appalachians killing some 2 thousand soldiers and settlers. The British responded with primitive biological warfare by sending blankets infected with smallpox to Indians there. Such tactics crushed the uprising and brought an uneasy truce to the frontier.
Proclamation Line of 1763
The London government issued this. It prohibited settlement in the area beyond the Appalachians, pending further adjustments. This was not designed to oppress the colonists but to work out the Indian problem fairly and prevent Indian uprisings. However, many colonists, esp. land speculators, were dismayed and angered. In complete defiance of the proclamation, they clogged the westward trails. In 1765 an estimated one thousand wagons rolled through Salisbury, North Carolina, on their way "up west." This wholesale defiance of royal authority boded ill for the longevity of British rule in America.
St. Lawrence River
...
Bering Land Bridge (nomadic hunters)
A land bridge connecting Eurasia with North America that was exposed when the sea level dropped due to the Ice Age. Nomadic hunters ventured across it, becoming the "immigrant" ancestors of Native Americans.
Incas, Mayans, and Aztecs
Natives living in the Americas split into countless tribes, including three big ones in Peru, Central America, and Mexico. They shaped sophisticated civilizations, their agriculture fed large populations, they built elaborate cities, and carried on far-flung trade.
Pueblo People (corn cultivation)
cultivation of this crop spread across the Americas from the Mexican heartland. It transformed nomadic hunters into settled agricultural villagers. It powerfully molded the ____ culture. These people constructed intricate irrigation systems b/c of it.
Ohio Mound Builders
They sustained some large settlements after the incorporation of corn planting into their ways of life. However, ancient cultures like the ______, Mississippian culture of the lower Midwest, and the desert-dwelling Anasazi peoples of the Southwest, fell into decline by about AD 1300 due to prolonged drought.
Iroquois (location and Confederacy)
Found in the northeastern woodlands, they created perhaps the closet North American approx. to the great nation-states of Mexico and Peru. The ____ developed the political and organizational skills to sustain a robust military alliance. It was made by five Indian nations bound together (?).
Christian Crusaders
America's indirect discovers. While trying to win the Holy Land, they developed a taste for the exotic delights in Asia. But these delights were expensive due to the traveling it took to get them. Consumers and distributors became eager to look for a less excessive route or alternate sources of supply.
Portuguese in the Sub-Saharan Africa
______ mariners create the caravel, so they could sail southward. Sub-Saharan Africa was now available to the Europeans, and the _____ set up trading along the coast for gold and slaves.
Slavery (sugar plantations)
Portuguese adopted the Arab and African practices, setting up their own systematic traffic in ___ to work the _____ on the African coastal islands. ___ trading became a big business. Millions of Africans taken to ______ and then to America.
Nation-states
a political entity (a state) associated with a particular cultural entity (a nation). Spain created a modern national state using unity, wealth, and power to discover, conquest, and colonize.
Renaissance
The revival of art and literature under the influence of classical models in the 14th-16th centuries. Nurtured an ambitious spirit of optimism and adventure.
Printing Press
made around 1450 helped the spread of scientific knowledge
Christopher Columbus' failure/success
Sailed west in search of the Indies. Failure seemed imminent, when on October, 12 1492, they sighted an island in the Bahamas. The successful achievement of finding a new world obscures the fact that he was one of the most successful failures in history. Columbus was convinced that he reached the edge of the Indies, and called the natives Indians
Columbian Exchange
The New World and the Old World exchanged things from their worlds. Indians introduced Europeans to their animals and plants/foodstuff that would change the European diet and feed the rapid population growth in the Old World. Europeans introduced Old World crops and animals to the Americas. The Europeans also brought along germs that the Indians were not protected against.
Treaty of Tordesillas
When the Americas riches (mostly gold and silver) were discovered, Spain secured its claim to Columbus' discovery in the Treaty in 1494. They divided the "heathen lands" of the New World with Portugal. Portugal received the compensating territory in Africa, Asia, and Brazil while Spain kept the "lion's share" (parts of the Americas).
Conquistadores
"Conquerors." Spanish ____ spread throughout the Caribbean and (eventually) the mainland of the American continent in search of gold and glory, and in the service of God.
Ferdinand Magellan
Spanish conquistador. He planned to circumnavigate the globe. However, after beating through the storm-lashed straight off the tip of South America, he was slain by the people of the Philippines. The one remaining ship made it back to Spain in 1522.
Juan Ponce de Leon
Spanish conquistador. Explored Florida, which he first thought was an island. The explorer was seeking gold, and probably not the mythical "fountain of youth." He was killed by an Indian with an arrow.
Francisco Coronado and Province of New Mexico
Spanish conquistador. Wandered through Arizona and New Mexico, getting as far as east Kansas. He had been in search of the fabled golden cities that turned out to be adobe pueblos. On his expedition he discovered two natural wonders: the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River and enormous herds of buffalo (bison).
Hernando de Soto
Spanish conquistador. Went from Florida westward, discovering and crossing the Mississippi River just north of its intersection with the Arkansas River. He mistreated the Indians (iron collars and fierce dogs). Died at length from fever and wounds. His troops secretly dumped his remains into the Mississippi River so that the Indians wouldn't exhume and abuse their abusers corpse.
Encomienda system
The islands of the Caribbean (AKA the West Indies) had loosely organized and vulnerable native communities. The system, which was tested on these communities, allowed the government to give Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to try to Christianize them (slavery).
John Cabot
English explorer. Other powers were sniffing around the Spanish domain, eager to gain their own share of the promised wealth of the new lands. The upstart English sent ___ to explore the northeastern coast of North America in 1497 and '98.
Verrazano and Cartier
French explorers. Giovanni (an Italian sailing for France) was sent to probe the eastern seaboard in 1524. Jacques journeyed hundreds of miles up the St. Lawrence River ten years later.
Spanish province of New Mexico
In Mexico, stories of Coronado's expedition to the upper Rio Grande and Colorado River continued to beckon conquistadores northward. Don Juan de Onate led Spaniards through the bare Sonora Desert from Mexico into the Rio Grande valley in 1598. This land was proclaimed the province of ___ in 1609.
Roman Catholic missions
Settlers in New Mexico found few furs and precious little gold, but they did discover a wealth of souls to be harvested for the Christian religion. The ____ became the central institution in colonial New Mexico until the missionaries' efforts to suppress native religious customs provoked an Indian uprising.
Pueblo (Pope's) Revolt (1680)
The Indian uprising started due to missionaries trying to suppress native religious customs. The Pueblo rebels destroyed nearly every Catholic Church and killed a score of priests and hundreds of Spanish settlers. It took nearly half a century for the Spanish to fully reclaim New Mexico.
California
Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo had explored ____ in 1542, but hadn't found anything interesting (like San Francisco Bay). In 1769, Spanish missionaries led by Father Junipero Serra founded their first mission in San Diego. The missionaries gathered the semi-nomadic Indians into fortified missions and taught them horticulture and basic crafts. The "mission Indians" adopted Christianity, but they lost contact with their native cultures and often lost their lives to the white man's diseases.
King Henry VIII and the Protestant Reformation
King ___ broke with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s, launching the English ____. Catholics battled ____ for decades, and the religious balance of power seesawed. In 1558, ____ Elizabeth ascended to the English throne, and ____ became dominant in England, and rivalry with Catholic Spain intensified.
Queen Elizabeth
When she ascended to the throne Protestantism became dominant in England, and rivalry with Catholic Spain intensified. The Catholic Irish, which was technically under English rule, sought help from Catholic Spain to throw off the yoke of the new Protestant English Queen. However, the Spanish aid never amounted to much; ____'s troops crushed the Irish uprising with terrible ferocity. The ambitious Queen proved to be a successful ruler even though she never married.
Sea dogs
Hardy English buccaneers (pirates) swarmed out upon the shipping lanes. They sought to promote the twin goals of Protestantism and plunder by seizing Spanish treasure ships and raiding Spanish settlements. Famous: Francis Drake was knighted after winning Spanish riches.
Sir Walter Raleigh and Roanoke
He lead the second attempt at English colonization. He organized an expedition that first landed in 1585 on North Carolina's ____ Island (off the coast of Virginia). After several false starts, the hapless ____ colony mysteriously vanished.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
Philip II of Spain (foe of Protestant Reformation) used his imperial gains to create an "Invincible Armada" of ships for an invasion of England. In 1588, the Spanish armada hove into the English Channel. The English sea dogs fought back. They inflicted heavy damage on the cumbersome, over laden Spanish ships. England's victory over the Spanish Armada damped Spain's fighting spirit and helped ensure England's naval dominance in the North Atlantic.
Enclosing (enclosure)
In the ever-green countryside, landlords were "____" (surrounding?) croplands for sheep grazing, forcing small farmers into precarious tenancy or off the land altogether.
Primogeniture
The laws of ____ (first-born's right of inheritance) decreed that only eldest sons were eligible to inherit landed estates. Landholder's younger sons were forced to seek their fortunes elsewhere.
Virginia Company of London
A joint-stock company who received a charter from King James I of England for a settlement in the New World. Was intended to endure for only a few years, after which its stockholders hoped to liquidate it for a profit. This put severe pressure on the luckless colonists, who were threatened with abandonment in the wilderness if they did not quickly strike it rich on the company's behalf.
Joint-stock company
Provided the financial means for English colonization. Normally they were expected to endure for only a few years before its stockholders would liquidate it for a profit. Ex. Virginia Company of London
Rights granted by Virginia Company's charter
It granted overseas settlers the same rights of the Englishmen that would have enjoyed if they stayed at home. This helped reinforce the colonists' sense that even on the far shores of the Atlantic, they remained comfortably within the embrace of traditional English institutions.
Jamestown (1607)
The Virginia Company landed near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, where Indians attacked them. Pushing up the bay, the colonists eventually chose a location on the wooded and malarial banks of the ___ River. The early years of the colony proved a nightmare for all concerned. Settlers died by the dozens from disease, malnutrition, and starvation.
Captain John Smith
Virginia was saved from utter collapse at the start largely by the leadership and resourcefulness of Captain _____. He whipped the colonists into shape with the rule "he who shall not work shall not eat." He was kidnapped by Indians in 1607, and subjected to a mock execution by the Indian chieftain Powhatan.
Powhatan and Pocahontas
The Indians kidnapped Smith and subjected him to a mock execution by the Indian chieftain _____. His daughter _____ "saved" Smith by dramatically interposing her head between his and the war clubs of his captors. The symbolism of the ritual was intended to impress Smith with ______'s power and with the Indian's desire for peaceful relations with the Virginians. The daughter became an intermediary between the Indians and the settlers, helping preserve a shaky peace and to provide needed foodstuff.
"Starving Time'
the winter of 1609-1610. Out of the four hundred settlers who managed to make it to Virginia by 1609, only sixty survived the "_____." The others settlers died in droves from starvation and disease. Some were reduced to desperate acts of eating dogs, cats, rats, mice, and even corpses
Effects of the first and second Anglo-Powhatan Wars
During the First _____ the settlers raided Indian villages, confiscated provisions, and burned houses and cornfields. The war was ended in 1614 with a peace settlement, sealed with the first interracial marriage between Pocahontas and John Rolfe. In 1644, the Indians tried once again to dislodge the Virginians. The Indians were defeated, and the peace treaty (1646) erased any hope of assimilating natives into Virginian society or of peacefully coexisting with them. It banished the Chesapeake Indians from their ancestral lands and separating Indian from white areas of settlement (origins of later Indian reservations).
Effects of disease
Disease killed elders who had preserved oral traditions that held clans together. Without these elders, devastated Indians had to reinvent themselves without the benefit of accumulated wisdom or kin networks. The destruction and forced migration scrambled the natives together in entirely new ways. Different bands would join together to make new Indian tribes.
Tobacco
John Rolfe: father of __ industry and an economic savior of the Virginia colony. He perfected methods of growing and "curing" the crop, removing most of the bitter tang. European demand for it was nearly insatiable, so it was planted everywhere. It put the colony on firm economic foundations. However, due to growing the crop successively, the soil they planted it on was ruined. It also enchained the fortunes of Virginia to the changeable price of a single crop. It also increased the demand for labor.
1619: Slaves and House of Burgesses
A Dutch warship appeared off Jamestown and sold about 20 Africans. This planted the seeds of the North American slave system. However, blacks cost too much for the colonists. Representative self-government was also created in 1619 primitive Virginia. The London Company authorized the settlers to summon an assembly, known as the _______. This was the first of many miniature parliaments to flourish in the soil of America. King James I distrusted the House.
James I and royal colony
The King detested tobacco and distrusted the House of Burgesses. So, he grew hostile toward Virginia. He revoked the charter of the bankrupt and struggling Virginia Company, making Virginia a _____ directly under his control.
Maryland; Lord Baltimore; Act of Toleration
Founded in 1634 by Lord ____, of a prominent English Catholic family. He wanted to reap financial profits and create a refuge for his fellow Catholics. Lord Baltimore permitted an unusual amount of freedom to the colonists (mostly in religion/worship). He hoped that this would create toleration for his own fellow Catholics. The Catholics placed their support behind the Act of ___. This Act guaranteed toleration to all Christians. It decreed the death penalty for all who denied Jesus' divinity.
Location of Chesapeake region
Located in the colonies of Virginia and Maryland (tobacco and Indian regions)
"Restoration" of Charles II; proprietors; Carolina
The son of Charles I, Charles II, was restored to the throne in 1660. ____, named for Charles II, was formally created in 1670, after he granted the Lord ____ (eight of his court favorites) an expanse of land weaving across the continent to the Pacific. _____: legal owner; someone with partial rights over something.
Rice
Emerged as the principal export crop in Carolina. ___ was grown in Africa, so the Carolinians paid for West African slaves. Because of the Africans' agricultural skill and their relative immunity to malaria, they were the ideal laborers on the hot and swampy ___ plantations.
Georgia; James Oglethorpe; charity colony
Formally founded in 1733. The last of 13 colonies to be planted, England intended it to be a buffer to protect the Carolinas from Spaniards in Florida and French in Louisiana. Launched by a high-minded group of philanthropists, it was supposed to be a haven for wretched souls in imprisoned for debt. The philanthropists were also determined to keep slavery out of the colony. The ablest of the founders was _____, who was keenly interested in prison reform because one of his friends died in debtors' jail. As an able military leader, he repelled Spanish attacks. He was able to save "the _____ Colony" by his energetic leadership and by heavily mortgaging his own personal fortune.
Plantation colonies [commonalities]
Southern colonies (Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia). Broad-acred, they were all (to some degree) devoted to exporting agricultural products. Slavery was found in all of them (only after 1750 in reform-minded Georgia). The wide-scattered farms hindered the growth of cities and made the establishment of churches and schools difficult and expensive. All the colonies permitted some religious toleration, and were in some degree expansionary.
Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation
A German friar who nailed his protests against Catholic doctrines (95 Theses) to the door of Wittenberg's Cathedral. He declared the Bible the only source of God's word (denouncing the authority of priests and popes), which ignited the ______ that spread through Europe. The _____ divided people, toppled sovereigns, and kindled the spiritual fervor of millions of men and women.
Calvinist beliefs
Started by John ___. God was all-powerful and all-good, and humans were weak and wicked b/c of the corrupting effect of original sin. God was also all-knowing, and knew who was going to heaven/hell since the first moment of creation. Some souls were destined for eternal bliss, and others for eternal torment. Good deeds would not save those destined for hell.
the "elect" and signs of "conversion"
The souls the Calvinists believed were destined for heaven. Since good deeds couldn't save them, Calvinists searched for signs of ____ to prove they were destined for heaven. These signs were thought to be an intense, identifiable personal experience in which God revealed to the ___ their heavenly destiny.
Puritans
When King Henry VIII became head of the Church of England, some religious reformers undertook a total purification of English Christianity. They believed only "visible saints" (people who felt the stirring of grace in their souls and could prove it) should be admitted to church membership. The Church enrolled the king's subjects though, and a small group of _____ (known as Separatists) broke away entirely from the Church of England.
Separatists, Mayflower, Plymouth New England (1620)
The group of Puritans that broke away from the Church of England. They traveled on the ______ in hopes of settling in the London Company's jurisdiction. The shipped missed its destination, arriving off the stony coast of New England. The Pilgrims surveyed the lands and decided to settle in _____ Bay.
Mayflower Compact
The document the Pilgrim leaders drew up before disembarking. It was not a constitution, but it set an invaluable precedent for later written constitutions. It was an agreement to form a crude government and to submit to the will of the majority.
William Bradford
Chosen for governor thirty times in the Plymouth colony(?). His major fear was that independent, non-Puritan settlers "on their particular" might corrupt his godly experiment in the wilderness. He was a self-taught scholar who could read Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, and Dutch
Puritans (1630), Massachusetts Bay Colony
A group of non-Separatist ___, fearing for their faith and for England's future, secured a royal charter to form the ________ Company. They brought their charter with them and used it as a kind of constitution, out of easy reach of royal authority. Continuing turmoil in England brought more ____ to _______.
Great Migration
1630s. About seventy thousand refugees left England (not all were Puritans and not all went to Mass.). Many were attracted to warm and fertile West Indies.
John Winthrop
Became Mass Bay Colony's first governor. Eagerly accepted the chance to be governor, and believed that he had a "calling" from God to lead the new religious experiment. He served as governor or deputy governor for nineteen years.
Congregational Church
Puritan congregations collectively. "Freemen" (adult males belnging to the ____) were able to vote and shape the colony.
rights under the "Bible Commonwealth"
A congregation had the right to hire or fire its minister and to set his salary. Clergymen were also barred from holding formal political office. In a limited way, the bay colonists thus endorsed the idea of the separation of church and state.
Anne Hutchinson's trial
Carried to logical extremes the Puritan doctrine of predestination. She said that holy life was no sure sign of salvation and that the truly saved need not bother to obey the law of either God or man. She bewildered her clerical inquisitors for days, until she claimed she came upon her beliefs through direct revelation from God. She was banished.
antinomianism
"Against the law." A high heresy claiming that the holy life was no sure sign of salvation and that the truly saved need not bother to obey the law of either God or man.
Roger Williams
Popular Salem minister with radical ideas and unrestrained tongue. An extreme Separatist, he pestered his fellow clergymen to make a clean break from the Church of England. He also challenged the legality of the Bay Colony's charter. He condemned the charter for confiscating the land from the Indians without fair compensation. He denied the authority of civil government to regulate religious behavior. Found guilty for distributing "new and dangerous opinions" and ordered him banished. Allowed to stay (sick) then planned to exile him to England, but he fled to the Rhode Island area.
Rhode Island
Roger Williams fled to the ____ area, and built a Baptist church. Established complete freedom of religion, demanded no oaths regarding religious beliefs, no compulsory attendance at worship, and no taxes to support a state church. This endorsement of religious tolerance made ____ more liberal than any other English settlement in the New World. The people in Rhode Island had little in common except being unwelcome elsewhere. It became strongly individualistic and stubbornly independent. Squatter colony until 1644.
Connecticut's Fundamental Orders
Settlers of Connecticut River Valley drafted in open meeting this trailblazing document. It was in effect a modern constitution, which established a regime democratically controlled by the "substantial" citizens. Essential features from the Orders were later used in its colonial charter, and eventually the state constitution.
New Hampshire
Sprang up from the fishing and trading activities along its narrow coast. It was absorbed in 1641 by Mass Bay Colony, under a strained interpretation of the Massachusetts charter. In 1679, the king separated it from Massachusetts and made it a royal colony.
(1621) Thanksgiving Day
The Wampanoag chieftain, Massasoit, signed a treaty with the Plymouth Pilgrims in 1621 and helped them celebrate the first ____ after the autumn harvests that same year.
Wampanoags (Squanto and Massasoit)
The local __ Indians befriended the settlers. __, an Indian who had learned English from a captain when he was kidnapped, helped with cultural accommodations. The chieftan, ___, signed a treaty with the Plymouth Pilgrims and helped them celebrate Thanksgiving.
Metacom and "King Philip's War"
Massasoit's son ____, called King ____ by the English, forged a pan-Indian alliance against the spreading English settlements. When the war ended in 1676, hundreds of colonists and many more Indians died. King ______ slowed the westward march of English settlement in New England for several decades. But it also inflicted a lasting defeat on New England Indians.
Dominion of New England
Created in 1686 by royal authority. The Dominion aimed at bolstering colonial defense in the event of war with the Indians and hence, from the imperial viewpoint of Parliament, was a statesmanlike move. More importantly, it was designed to promote urgently needed efficiency in the administration of the English Navigation Laws. These laws sought to stitch England's overseas possessions more tightly to the motherboard by throttling American trade with other countries not ruled by the English crown.
Sir Edmond Andros
English military man who was put at the head of the Domain of New England. He generated much hostility for his open association with the despised Church of England. He ruthlessly curbed the cherished town meetings; laid heavy restrictions on the courts, press, and schools; and revoked all land titles. He also taxed people without consent of their duly elected representatives, strove to enforce the unpopular Navigation Laws, and suppress smuggling.
Glorious (Bloodless) Revolution; William and Mary
Old England vs. New England for resisting oppression. Dethroning the despotic and unpopular Catholic James II, they enthroned the Protestant rulers of the Netherlands, the Dutch-born ___ III and his English wife, ___, daughter of James II. When news of the revolution reached America, the ramshackle Domain of New England fell like a house of cards.
New royal colony
Inspired by the challenge to the crown in old England, many colonists seized the occasion to strike against royal authority in America. Unrest rocked both New York and Maryland, until newly appointed royal governors restored a semblance of order. Most importantly, the new monarchs relaxed the royal grip on colonial trade, inaugurating a period of "salutary neglect" when the much-resented Navigation Laws were only weakly enforced.
New Netherlands and New Amsterdam; Hudson River
____ planted on a permanent basis in the ____ River area. Established by the Dutch West India Company for its quick-profit fur trade, it was never more than a secondary interest of the founders. ____ (later NYC) was a company town. It was run by and for the Dutch company, in the interests of the stockholders. Vast feudal estates fronting the Hudson River, known as patroonships, were granted to promoters who agreed to settle fifty people on them.
Duke of York takes Dutch Islands (New York, New Jersey)
The days of the Dutch on the Hudson were numbered. Charles II had granted the area to his brother, the Duke of York, a strong English squadron appeared off the decrepit defenses of New Amsterdam. Peter Stuyvesant, short on all munitions except courage, was forced to surrender without firing a shot. New Amsterdam was then renamed New York. New Jersey (pg. 60) was started in 1664 when two noble proprietors received the area from the Duke of York.
Quakers
AKA Religious Society of Friends. A popular group of dissenters arose in England during the mid-1600s. They were especially offensive to the authorities, both religious and civil. They refused to support the established Church of England with taxes. They abhorred strife and warfare and refused military service. Although at times they seemed and unreasonable, they were a simple, devoted, democratic people, contending in their own high-minded way for religious and civic freedom.
William Penn
He was attracted to the Quaker faith in 1660, at sixteen years old. Quakers were mistreated, so he was eager to establish an asylum for his people. He also hoped to experiment with liberal ideas in government and at the same time make a profit. In 1681, he managed to secure from the king an immense grant of fertile land, which the king called Pennsylvania ("Penn's Woodlands"). Penn's liberal land policy, which encouraged substantial holdings, was instrumental in attracting a heavy inflow of immigrants.
How Pennsylvania was different (from other colonies)
The treatment of the Indians was so fair that the Quakers went among them unarmed and even employed them as baby-sitters. The new property regime was unusually liberal and included a representative assembly elected by the landowners. No tax-support state church drained coffers or demanded allegiance. Freedom of worship was guaranteed to all residents. The death penalty was imposed only for treason and murder, and no provision was made for a military defense. No restrictions were placed on immigration, and naturalization was made easy. The Quakers developed a strong dislike for black slavery. ___ also attracted many different ethnic groups, including numerous religious misfits.
Delaware
Named after Lord De La Warr, the harsh military governor who had arrived in Virginia in 1610. Harboring some Quakers, and closely associated with Penn's prosperous colony, __ was granted its own assembly in 1703. But until the American Revolution, it remained under the governor of Pennsylvania.
Benjamin Franklin
Modern-minded ___, often regarded as the most representative American personality of his era, was a child of the middle colonies (New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania). He was born a Yankee in Boston, but moved to Philadelphia at 17 in 1720.
Separatists in Holland
The group of Puritans that broke away from the Church of England. The most famous congregation migrated to _____ in 1608 to flee royal wrath. They became increasingly distressed by the "Dutchification" of their children during the 12 years of toil and poverty. They wanted to find a haven where they could live and die as English men and women, and as purified Protestants. America was the logical solution, so they negotiated rights to settle under the London Company's jurisdiction.
"Unhealthy Chesapeake" and effect on families
Malaria, dysentery, and typhoid took a cruel toll, cutting ten years off the life expectancy of newcomers from England. Families were both few and fragile in this ferocious environment. Most men could not find mates, marriages were destroyed by the death of a partner, scarcely did children reached adulthood with two parents, and no one knew a grandparents.
indentured servants
With the increased demand for tobacco, came the increased need for laborers. England had a "surplus" of displaced farmers, desperate for employment. These people voluntarily mortgaged their work for several years to the Chesapeake masters. In return they received transatlantic passage and eventually freedom dues (barrels of corn, a suit of clothes, and perhaps a small parcel of land).
headright system
Both Virginia and Maryland employed the _____ system to encourage the importation of servant workers. Under its terms, whoever paid the passage of a laborer received the right to acquire fifty acres of land. Masters thus reaped the benefits from the system (not the servants).
merchant-planters
Some masters used the headright system to hire servants, and then turn their investment into vast holdings in real estate. They became the great ____, lords of sprawling river-front estates that came to dominate the agriculture and commerce of the southern colonies.
Governor William Berkeley
Governor of Virginia. A mass of footloose, impoverished, freeman traveled about the Chesapeake region. Created friendly politics towards the Indians, whose thriving fur trade the governor controlled. The frontiersman who had been forced into the backcountry resented the friendly policies towards the Indians.
Bacon's Rebellion
Nathanial Bacon lead this rebellion in 1676. The rebels were mostly frontiersman who had been forced into the backcountry in search of arable land, and they fiercely resented Berkeley's friendly policies towards the Indians. When Berkeley refused to retaliate to a series of brutal Indian attacks on frontier settlement, Bacon and the rebels fell murderously upon the Indians, chased Berkeley from Jamestown, and torched the capital.
Colonial slavery
During the early 1600s (until the 1680s) very few Africans were used as slaves. Hard-pinched white colonists could not afford to pay high prices for slaves that would die soon after arrival. White servants might die too, but they were cheaper. In the 1680s, rising wages in England decreased the amount of penniless folk willing to work as indentured servants in America. In 1698 the Royal African Company, first chartered in 1672, lost its crown-granted control on carrying slaves to the colonies. Enterprising Americans rushed to cash in on the lucrative slave trade, and the supply of slaves rose steeply.
Middle Passage
Most of the slaves who reached North America came from the west coast of Africa (Senegal to Angola). Usually branded and bound, the captured Africans were herded aboard sweltering ships for the gruesome "_____," on which death rates ran as high as 20 percent. Survivors were shoved onto auction blocks.
auction blocks
Africans who survived the middle passage were shoved onto _____ in ports like Newport, Rhode Island, or Charleston, South Carolina, where a giant slave market traded in human misery for more than a century.
slave codes
Beginning in Virginia in 1662, laws appeared that decreed the iron conditions of slavery for blacks. These "____" made blacks and their children property for life of their white masters. Slaves were not allowed to be taught how to read or write, and they couldn't qualify for freedom by converting to Christianity. Thus, the God-fearing whites put the fear of God into their unfortunate African slaves.
Half-Way covenant
When the amount of Puritan conversions declined, troubled ministers announced a new formula for the church membership (1662). This formula modified the covenant to admit to baptism - but not full communion - the unconverted children of existing members. By conferring partial membership rights, the ___ weakened the distinction between the "elect" and others.
population changes
Among the distinguishing characteristics that eventually rebellious settlements shared was lusty population growth. In 1700 the 13 colonies held fewer than 300,000 people, and by 1775 they held 2.5 million. To amazement and dismay of Europeans, the Americans were doubling their population every twenty-five years. In 1700 there were twenty English subjects for each American colonist, but by 1775 the English advantage in numbers had fallen three to one. This set the stage for a momentous shift in balance of power between the colonies and Britain.
major ethnic groups (European and African) and locations
Germans (Pennsylvania), Scots-Irish (frontier; moved around colonies; along the eastern Appalachian foothills from Pennsylvania to Georgia), 5% of population: French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Jews, Irish, Swiss, and Scots Highlanders. Africans made up nearly 20% of the total population. The population in the thirteen colonies was perhaps the most mixed to be found anywhere in the world. These different ethnic groups set the foundation for a new multicultural American national identity unlike any other in Europe.
colonial social structure
In eighteenth-century America, the social ladder was open. A former indentured servant could rise from a lower rung to a higher one, which was rare in England. No titled nobility dominated society from on high, and no pauperized underclass threatened it from below. However, colonial society on the eve of the Revolution began to show signs of division and barriers of mobility (moving up the social ladder). Individuals began to be placed above other based wealth, job, and family. Prominent individuals came to be seated in churches and schools according to their social rank. Least fortunate of all were the black slaves. They enjoyed no equality with whites and dared not even dream of ascending the ladder of opportunity. The slaves were America's closest approximation to Europe's volatile lower classes.
colonial economic activities by region
Agriculture was the leading industry (90%), Tobacco was the staple crop in Maryland and Virginia and wheat cultivation spread through the Chesapeake. The fertile middle colonies produced large quantities of grain. Fishing ranked below agriculture, but harvesting the sea was still a major industry in New England. This also stimulated shipbuilding along the northern coast. Trading, both coastwise and overseas, enriched all the colonies, especially the New England group, New York, and Pennsylvania. Manufacturing in the colonies was of only secondary importance, but there was a surprising variety of small enterprises, including rum being distilled in Rhode Island and Massachusetts, smoking iron forges (like in Pennsylvania), and lumbering (at first in New England and then elsewhere).
triangular trade
New England's rum -> Africa for slaves -> slaves to West Indies for molasses -> New England to be distilled into rum. Repeat
religious denominations
Congregationalists/Puritans (New England: MA, CT, NH), Anglicans/Church of England (NY and South: MD, VA, NC, SC, GA), Presbyterians (Frontier), German Churches - Lutheran (PA), Dutch Reformed (NY and NJ), Quakers (PA, NJ, DE), Baptists (RI, PA, NJ, DE), Roman Catholics (MD and PA), Methodists (scattered), and Jews (NY and RI).
Great Awakening, New Light ministers
In the 1730s and 1740s, it was a rousing religious revival started by Jonathan Edwards. Edwards inspired George Whitefield, who would reveal a different style of evangelical preaching, and would inspire American imitators. Preaching, these imitators would heap abuse on sinners and shake enormous audiences with emotional appeals. As opposed the "old lights" (orthodox clergymen) who were deeply skeptical of the emotionalism and theatrical antics of the revivalists, "_______" defended the Awakening for its role in revitalized American religion.
Jonathon Edwards
Edwards, a pastor, started the Great Awakening in Northampton, Massachusetts. He was perhaps the deepest theological mind ever nurtured in America. He proclaimed with burning righteousness the idiocy of believing in salvation through good works and declared the need for complete dependence on God's grace. Edward's preaching style was learned and closely reasoned, but his stark doctrines sparked a warmly sympathetic reaction among his parishioners in 1734.
colonial eduction
A time-honored English idea regarded education as a blessing for the aristocratic few, not for the unwashed many. Puritan New England was more zealously interested in education than any other section because it stressed the need for Bible reading by the individual worshipper. New Englanders established primary and secondary schools, which varied widely in the quality of instruction and the length they remained open each year. Most of the emphasis was placed on religion and the classical languages (Latin and Greek), not experiment and reason. Discipline was quiet severe. College education - at least in New England - was geared toward preparing men for the ministry.
Trial of John Peter Zenger
Newspaper printer. In 1734 Zenger's newspaper had assailed the corrupt royal governor. Charged with seditious libel, the accused was hauled into court, where he was defended by a former indentured servant, now a distinguished Philadelphia lawyer, Andrew Hamilton. Zenger argued that he had printed the truth, but the royal chief justice instructed the jury not to consider the truth or falsity of Zenger's statements; the mere fact of printing, irrespective of the truth, was enough to convict. Hamilton argued that "the very liberty of both exposing and opposing arbitrary power" was at stake. The jurors defied the judges and returned a verdict of not guilty. The Zenger decision was a banner of achievement for freedom of the press and for the health of democracy.
colonial politics
The thirteen colonial governments took a variety of forms. By 1775 eight of the colonies had royal governors, three (Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware) were under proprietors who themselves chose the governors, and two (Connecticut and Rhode Island) elected their own governors under self-government charters. Practically every colony utilized a two-house legislative body. The upper house was normally appointed by the crown in the royal colonies, by the proprietor in the proprietary colonies, and by the voters in the self-governing colonies. The lower house was elected by the people - or rather those who owned enough property to qualify as voters. Legislatures, in which the people had direct representation, voted on taxes as they chose necessary expenses of colonial government. Self-taxation through representation was a precious privilege that Americans had come to cherish most above all others.
The Effects of Bacon's Rebellion
Bacon and the rebels fell murderously upon the Indians, chased Berkeley from Jamestown, and torched the capital. Bacon had ignited the smoldering resentments of landless former servants, and he had pitted the hardscrabble backcountry frontiersmen against the haughty gentry of the tidewater plantations. Even when the rebellion was over, tensions remained. Lordly planters, surrounded by still-seething sea of malcontents, looked for less troublesome laborers. Their eyes set on Africa. (African slaves to come).
Salem witch trials
A group of young girls in Salem, Massachusetts, claimed to have been bewitched by certain older women. A hysterical "witch hunt" ensued, leading to legal lynching in 1692 of twenty individuals. The reign of horror in Salem grew not only from the superstitions and prejudices of the age but also from the unsettled social and religious conditions of the rapidly evolving Massachusetts village (most of the accused witches were from families that were a part of Salem's growing market economy).
Lasting effects of the Great Awakening
Its emphasis on direct, emotive spirituality seriously undermined the older clergy, whose authority had derived from their education and erudition. The schisms it set off in many denominations greatly increased the number and competitiveness of American churches. It encouraged a fresh wave of missionary work among the Indians and black slaves, and led to the founding of "new light" centers of higher learning. Perhaps the most significant, the Awakening was the first spontaneous mass movement of the American people.
George Whitefield
Whitefield loosed a different style of evangelical preaching on America (compared to Edwards) and touched off a fire of religious passion that revolutionized the spiritual life of the colonies. Whitefield trumpeted his message of human helplessness and divine omnipotence. During these roaring revival meetings, countless sinners confessed conversion. Whitefield inspired American imitators. Preaching, these imitators would heap abuse on sinners and shake enormous audiences with emotional appeals.