The church became the focus of black community life in the years following emancipation. As slaves, blacks had worshipped alongside whites, but now they formed their own churches pastored by their own ministers. Black churches grew robustly. The 150,000-member black ____ Church of 1850 reached 500,000 by 1870, while the ______ Church quadrupled in size from 100,000 to 400,000 in the first decade after emancipation. These churches formed the bedrock of black community life, and they soon gave rise to other benevolent, fraternal, and mutual aid societies. All these organizations helped blacks protect their newly won freedom. The emancipators were faced with the brutal reality that the freedmen were overwhelmingly unskilled, unlettered, without property or money, and with scant knowledge of how to survive as free people. To cope with this problem throughout the conquered South, Congress created the ____ on March 3, 1865. On paper at least, the bureau was intended to be a kind of primitive welfare agency. It was to provide food, clothing, medical care, and education both to freedmen and to white refugees. Heading the bureau was a warmly sympathetic friend of blacks, Union general Oliver O. Howard, who later founded and served as president of Howard University in DC. The bureau achieved its greatest success in education, teaching an estimated 200,000 blacks how to read. Although the bureau was authorized to settle former slaves on forty-acre tracts confiscated from the Confederate, little land actually made it into blacks' hands. Instead local administrators often collaborated with planters in expelling blacks from towns and cajoling them into signing labor contracts to work for their former masters, Born to impoverished parents in North Carolina and orphaned early, he never attended school but was apprenticed to a tailor at age ten. Ambitious to get ahead, he taught himself to read, and later his wife taught him to write and do simple arithmetic. He early became active in politics in Tennessee, where he had moved when seventeen years old. He shone as an impassioned champion of poor whites against the planter aristocrats, although he himself ultimately owned a few slaves. He excelled as a two-fisted stump speaker before angry and heckling crowds, who on occasion greeted his political oratory with cocked pistols, not just cocked ears. Elected to Congress, he attracted much favorable attention in the North (but not the South) when he refused to secede with his own state. After Tennessee was partially "redeemed" by Union armies, he was appointed was governor and served courageously in an atmosphere of danger. He became Lincoln's VP, and later became President after Lincoln's assassination. Johnson agreed with Lincoln that the seceded states had never legally been outside the Union. Thus he quickly recognized several of Lincoln's 10 percent governments, and on May 29, 1865, he issued his own Reconstruction proclamation. It disfranchised certain leading Confederates, including those with taxable property worth more than $20,000, though they might petition him for personal pardons. It called for special state conventions, which were required to repeal ordinances of secession, repudiate all Confederate debts, and ratify the slave-freeing Thirteenth Amendment. States that complied to these conditions, Johnson declared, would be swiftly readmitted to the Union. Looking to the future, the Republicans were alarmed to realize that a restored South would be stronger than ever in national politics. Before the war a black slave counted as three-fifths of a person in apportioning congressional representation. Now the slave was five-fifths of a person. Now, owing to full counting of free blacks, the rebel states were entitled to twelve more votes in Congress, and twelve more presidential electoral votes, than they previously enjoyed. Republicans feared that Southerners might join hands with Democrats in the North and win control of Congress or maybe even the White House. If this happened, they could perpetuate the Black Codes, virtually re-enslaving the blacks. They could dismantle the economic program of the Republican party by lowering tariffs, rerouting the transcontinental railroad, repealing the free-farm Homestead Act, possibly even repudiating the national debt. Johnson provided the radicals with a pretext to begin _____ proceeding when he abruptly dismissed Stanton early in 1868. The House immediately voted 126 to 47 to __ Johnson for "high crimes and misdemeanors," as required by the Constitution, charging him with various violations of the Tenure of Office Act. With evident zeal the radical-led Senate now sat as a court to try Johnson on the dubious ___ charges. The House conducted the prosecution. The trial aroused intense public interest and, with one thousand tickets printed, proved to be the biggest show of 1868. Johnson kept his dignity and sobriety and maintained a discreet silence. His battery of attorneys argued that the president, convinced that the Tenure of Office Act was unconstitutional, had fired Stanton merely to put a test case before the Supreme Court. House prosecutors (Benjamin F. Butler and Thaddeus Stevens) had a harder time building a compelling case for ___. On May 16, 1868, the day for the first voting in the Senate, the tension was electric, and heavy breathing could be heard in the galleries. By a margin of only one vote, the radicals failed to muster the two-thirds majority for Johnson's removal. ADD The Russians by 1867 were in a mood to sell the vast and chilly expanse of land now known as ___. They had already overextended themselves in North America, and they saw that in the likely event of another war with Britain, they probably would lose their defenseless northern province to the sea-dominant Britain. They preferred the US to any other purchaser, primarily because they wanted to strengthen further the Republic as a barrier against their ancient enemy, Britain. In 1867 Secretary of State William ____, an ardent expansionist, signed a treaty with Russia that transferred ___ to the US for the bargain price of $7.2 million. But his enthusiasm for these frigid wastes was not shared by his ignorant or uniformed countrymen, who jeered at "______,"
___'s Icebox," "Frigidia," and "Walrussia." The American people, still preoccupied with Reconstruction and other internal vexations, were economy-minded and anti-expansionist.
A Union army of some 30,000 men drilled near Washington in the summer of 1861. It was ill-prepared for battle, but the press and the public clamored for action. Lincoln eventually concluded that an attack on a smaller Confederate force at ___ (Manassas Junction), some 30 miles southwest of Washington, might be worth a try. If successful, it might demonstrate the superiority of Union arms. It might even lead to the capture of the Confederate capital at Richmond, 100 miles to the south. If Richmond fell, secession would be thoroughly discredited, and the Union could be restored without damage to the economic and social system of the South. Raw Yankee recruits swaggered out of Washington toward __ on July 21, 1861, as if they were headed for a sporting event. Congressmen and spectators trailed along with their lunch baskets to witness the fun. At first the battle went well for the Yankees, but "Stonewall" Jackson's warriors stood like a stone wall. Then Confederate reinforcements arrived unexpectedly. Union troops fled in shameful confusion, and Confederate troops, too exhausted or disorganized to pursue, feasted on captured lunches. A reluctant McClellan at last decided upon a waterborne approach to Richmond, which lies at the western base of a narrow peninsula formed by the James and New York Rivers - hence the name given to this historic encounter: ____. McClellan warily inched toward the Confederate capital in the Spring of 1862 with about 100,000 men. After taking a month to capture historic Yorktown, which bristled with imitation wooden cannon, he finally came within sight of the spires of Richmond. At this crucial juncture, Lincoln diverted McClellan's anticipated reinforcements to chase "Stonewall" Jackson, whose lightning feints in the Shenandoah Valley seemed to put DC in jeopardy. Stalled in front of Richmond, McClellan was further frustrated when "Jeb" Stuart's Confederate cavalry rode completely around his army on reconnaissance. Then General Robert E. Lee launched a devastating counterattack - the Seven Days' Battles - June 26-July 2, 1862. The Confederates slowly drove McClellan back to the sea. The Union forces abandoned the Campaign as a costly failure, and Lincoln temporarily abandoned McClellan as commander of the Army of the Potomac - though Lee's army had suffered some 20,000 causalities to McClellan's 10,000. The most alarming Confederate threat to the blockade came in 1862. Resourceful Southerners raised and reconditioned a former wooden US warship, the ___, and plated its sides with old iron railroad rails. Renamed the "Virginia," this clumsy but powerful monster easily destroyed two wooden ships of the Union navy in the Virginia waters of Chesapeake Bay; it also threatened catastrophe to the entire Yankee blockading fleet. A tiny Union ironclad, the ____, built in about 100 days, arrived on the scene in the nick of time. For 4 hrs., on March 9, 1862, the little "Yankee cheesebox on a a raft" fought the wheezy ____ to a standstill. A few months into the historic battle, the Confederates destroyed the ___ to keep it from the grasp of advancing Union troops. ADD Emboldened by his victory in the 2nd Battle of Bull Run, Lee daringly thrust into Maryland. He hoped to strike a blow that would not only encourage foreign intervention but also seduce the still-wavering Border State and its sisters from the Union. But the Marylanders did not respond to the siren song. Events finally converged toward a critical battle at ___ Creek, Maryland. Lincoln, yielding to popular pressure, hastily restored "Little Mac" to active command of the main Northern army. Fortune shone upon McClellan when two Union soldiers found a copy of Lee's battle plans wrapped around a packet of three cigars dropped by a careless Confederate officer. With this crucial piece of intelligence in hand, McClellan succeeded in halting Lee at __ on Sept. 17, 1862, in one of the bitterest and bloodiest days of the war. __ was more or less a draw militarily. But Lee, finding his thrust parried, retired across the Potomac. McClellan, from whom much more had been hoped, was removed from his field command for the second and final time. His numerous critics, condemning him for not having boldly pursued the ever-dangerous Lee, finally got his scalp. ADD? As Lincoln moved to emancipate the slaves, he also took steps to enlist blacks in armed forces. Although some African Americans had served in the Revolution and War of 1812, the regular army contained no blacks at the war's outset, and the War Department refused to accept those free Northern blacks who tried to volunteer. (The Union navy enrolled many blacks, mainly as cooks, stewards, and firemen.) But as manpower ran low and emancipation was proclaimed, black enlistees were accepted. Service in the war gave the blacks a chance to prove their manhood and to strengthen their claim to full citizenship at war's end. Many, when captured, were put to death as slaves in revolt, for not until 1864 did the South recognize them as prisoners of war. For reasons of pride, prejudice, and principle, the Confederacy could not bring itself to enlist slaves until a month before the war ended, and then it was too late. Meanwhile, tens of thousands were forced into labor battalions, the building of fortifications, the supplying of armies, and other war-connected activities. Involuntarily labor did not imply slave support in the Confederacy. In many ways the actions of Southern slaves crippled the Confederate war effort and subverted the institution of slavery. ADD After Antietam, Lincoln replaced McClellan as commander of the Army of the Potomac with General A. E. ___, whose ornate side-whiskers came to be known as "burnsides" or "sideburns." Protesting his unfitness for the responsibility, he proved it when he launched a rash frontal attack on Lee's strong position at Fredericksburg, Virginia, on December 13, 1862. More than 10,000 Northern soldiers were killed or wounded in "___'s Slaughter Pen." A new slaughter pen was prepared when General B yielded his command to "Fighting Joe" ___, an aggressive officer but a headstrong subordinate. At Chancellorsville, Virginia, on May 2-4, 1863, Lee daringly divided his numerically inferior force and sent "Stonewall" Jackson to attack the Union flank. The strategy worked. __, temporarily dazed by a near hit from a cannonball, was badly beaten but not crushed. This victory was probably Lee's most brilliant, but it was dearly bought. Events in the western theater of war at last provided Lincoln with an able general who did not have to be shelved after every reverse. ____ had been a mediocre student at West Point, distinguished himself only in horsemanship, although he did fairly well at mathematics. After fighting creditably in the Mexican War, he was stationed at isolated frontier posts, where boredom and loneliness drove him to drink. Resigning from the army to avoid a court-martial for drunkenness, he failed at various business ventures, and when war came, he was working in his father's leather store in Illinois for $50 a month. He managed with some difficulty to secure a colonelcy in the volunteer. From then on, his military experience - combined with his boldness, resourcefulness, and tenacity - catapulted him on a meteoric rise. ADD? After Gettysburg, Grant was brought from West over Meade, who was blamed for failing to pursue the defeated but always dangerous Lee. Lincoln needed a general who, employing the superior resources of the North, would have the stamina to drive ever forward, regardless of casualties. His overall basic strategy was to assail the enemy's armies simultaneously, so that they could not assist one another and hence could be destroyed piece by piece. He engaged Lee in a serious of furious battles in the Wilderness of Virginia, during May and June of 1864. In this _______, Grant suffered about 50,000 casualties, or nearly as many men as Lee commanded at the start. But Lee lost about as heavily in proportion. ADD? The issue of the divided Union came to a head over the matter of federal forts in the South. When Lincoln took office, only two significant forts in the South were still part of the Union (the rest had been seized by the seceding states). One of these was ___, in Charleston harbor, with fewer than a hundred men. The fort only had enough provisions to last a few weeks, and if no supplies were sent then the fort would have to surrender without firing a shot. But if Lincoln sent reinforcements, the South Carolinians would undoubtedly fight back; they could not tolerate a federal fort blocking the mouth of their most important Atlantic seaport. Lincoln notified SC that an expedition would be sent to provision the garrison, though not to reinforce it. He promised "no effort to throw in men, arms, and ammunition." But to Southern eyes "provision" still spelled "reinforcement." On April 12, 1861, the cannon of the Carolinians opened fire on the fort. After a thirty-four-hour bombardment, which took no lives, the garrison surrendered. The shelling of the fort electrified the North, which at once responded with cries of "Remember Fort ___." The assault on the fort provoked the North to a fighting pitch: the fort was lost, but the Union was saved. B/c the South fired upon the Union, Lincoln issued a call to the states for 75 thousand militiamen (some were turned away however). On April 19 and 27, the president proclaimed a leaky blockade of Southern seaports. The South saw this move as Lincoln waging war against the Confederacy. Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee, who had all previously voted down secession, reluctantly joined the seceded states. The South could fight defensively behind interior lines. The North had to invade the vast territory of the Confederacy, conquer it, and drag it bodily back into the Union. The South did not have to win the war for its independence. If it merely fought the invaders to a draw and stood firm, Confederate independence would be won. Fighting on their own soil for self-determination and preservation of their way of life, Southerners at first enjoyed an advantage in morale as well. Militarily, the South from the opening volleys of the war had the most talented officers. Besides their brilliant leaders, ordinary Southerners were also bred to fight. Accustomed to managing horses and bearing arms from boyhood, they made excellent cavalrymen and foot soldiers. The South, as one immense farm, seemed to be handicapped by the scarcity of factories. Yet by seizing federal weapons, running Union blockades, and developing their own ironworks, Southerners managed to obtain sufficient weaponry. Emperor Napoleon III of France, taking advantage of America's preoccupation with its own internal problems, dispatched a French army to occupy Mexico City in 1863. The following year he installed on the ruins of a crushed republic his puppet, Austrian archduke Maximilian, as emperor of Mexico. Both sending an army and enthroning Maximilian were flagrant violations of the Monroe Doctrine. Napoleon was gambling that the Union would collapse and thus America would be to weak to enforce its "hands-off" policy in the Western Hemisphere. The North, as long as it was convulsed by war, pursued a walk-on-eggs policy toward France. But when the shooting stopped in 1865, Secretary of State Seward, speaking with the authority of nearly a million war-tempered bayonets, prepared to march South. Napoleon realized that his costly gamble was doomed. He reluctantly took "French leave" of his ill-starred puppet in 1867, and Maximilian soon crumpled ingloriously before a Mexican firing squad. The Civil War was a women's war, too. The protracted conflict opened new opportunities for women. When men departed in uniform, women often took their jobs. In Washington, DC, five hundred women clerks became government workers, with over one hundred in the Treasury Department alone. The booming military demand for shoes and clothing, combined with technological marvels like the sewing machine, likewise drew countless women into industrial employment. Before the war one industrial worker in four had been female; during the war the ration rose to one in three. Other women, on both sides, stepped up to the fighting front - or close behind it. Some posed as male soldiers, some took on dangerous spy missions, and some worked as nurses. By 1857 Kansas had enough people, chiefly free-soilers, to apply for statehood on a popular-sovereignty basis. The proslavery forces, then in the saddle, devised a tricky document known as the _____. The people were not allowed to vote for or against the constitution as a whole, but for the constitution either "with slavery" or "without slavery." If they voted against slavery, one of the remaining provisions of the constitution would protect the owners of slaves already in Kansas. So whatever the outcome, there would still be slavery in Kansas. Many free-soilers, infuriated by this ploy, boycotted the polls. Left to themselves, the proslaveryites approved the constitution with slavery late in 1857. The ___ decision handed down by the Supreme Court on May 6, 1857, abruptly ended the two-day presidential honeymoon of the unlucky bachelor, James Buchanan. Scott, a black slave, had lived with his master for five years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. Backed by interested abolitionists, he sued for freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil. The Court proceeded to twist a simple legal case into a complex political issue. It ruled that Scott was a black slave and not a citizen, and hence could not sue in federal courts. The tribunal could then have thrown out the case on these technical grounds alone. But a majority decided to go further, under the leadership of Chief Justice Taney from the slave state Maryland. A majority of the Court decreed that because a slave was private property, he or she could be taken into any territory and legally held there in slavery. The reasoning was that the Fifth Amendment clearly forbade Congress to deprive people of their property without due process of the law. They also stated that the Missouri Compromise (which had been repealed 3 years earlier but still was alive in spirit in the North) had been unconstitutional all along: Congress had no power to ban slavery from the territories, regardless even of what the territorial legislatures themselves might want. The Illinois senatorial election of 1858 now claimed the national spotlight. Senator Douglas's term was about to end, and the Republicans decided to run against him a rustic Springfield lawyer, one ____. The Republican candidate presented an awkward but arresting figure. He was no silver-spoon child of the elite. Born in 1809 in a Kentucky log cabin to impoverished parents, he attended a frontier school for not more than a year; being an avid reader, he was mainly self taught. His private and professional lives were not esp. noteworthy. He married "above himself" socially, into the influential Todd family of Kentucky, and the temperamental outbursts of his high-strung wife helped to school him in patience and forbearance. After reading a little law, he gradually emerged as one of the dozen or so better-known trial lawyers in Illinois, although still accustomed to carrying important papers in his stovepipe hat. After making his mark in Illinois legislature as a Whig politician of the logrolling variety, he served one undistinguished term in Congress. Until 1854 he had done nothing to establish a claim to statesmanship. But the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in that year lighted within him unexpected fires. After mounting the Republican bandwagon, he emerged as one of the foremost politicians and orators of the Northwest. At the Philadelphia convention of 1856, where Fremont was nominated, he actually received 110 votes for the vice-presidential nomination. ___ of bleeding Kansas infamy now appeared again in an even more terrible way. His scheme was to invade the South secretly with a handful of followers, call upon the slaves to rise, furnish them with arms, and establish a kind of black free state as a sanctuary. He secured several thousand dollars for firearms from northern abolitionists and finally arrived in hilly western Virginia with some twenty men, including several blacks. At scenic ___, he seized the federal arsenal in October 1859, incidentally killing seven innocent people and injuring ten or so more. But the slaves, largely ignorant of his strike, failed to rise, and the wounded Brown and remnants of his tiny band were quickly captured by US Marines under the command of Lt. Col. ______. Ironically, within two years ___ became the preeminent general in the Confederate army. "Old Brown" was was convicted of murder and treason after a hasty but legal trial. He presumed insanity was supported by affidavits from 17 friends and relatives. But Brown was given every opportunity to pose and enjoy martyrdom. He was clever enough to see that he was worth much more to the abolitionist movement dangling from a rope than in any other way. The effects of ___ were calamitous. In the eyes of the South, Brown was a wholesale murderer and an apostle of treason. Abolitionists and free-soilers were infuriated by Brown's execution. They were outraged because the Virginians had hanged so earnest a reformer who was working for a righteous cause. Elated Republicans, scenting victory in the breeze as their opponents split hopelessly, gathered in Chicago. William H. Seward was by far the best known of the contenders. But his radical utterances, including his "irresponsible conflict" speech at Rochester in 1858, had ruined his prospects. ___, the favorite son of Illinois, was definitely a "Mr. Second Best," but he was a stronger candidate because he had made fewer enemies. Overtaking Seward on the third ballot, he was nominated amid scenes of the wildest excitement. The Republican platform had appeal for just about every nonsouthern group: for the free-soilers, nonextension of slavery; for the northern manufacturers, a protective tariff; for the immigrants, no abridgment of rights; for the Northwest, a Pacific railroad; for the West, internal improvements at federal expense; and for the farmers, free homesteads from the public domain. Four Candidates/Parties: Lincoln Republicans, Douglass Democrats (North), Breckinridge Democrats (South), and Bell from the Constitutional Union party. Southern secessionists promptly served notice that the election of the "baboon" Lincoln would split the Union. Lincoln won as a minority president with 180 electoral votes (every vote of the free states except for 3 of New Jersey's 7 votes). Douglas receive 12 electoral votes (only Missouri and 3 of New Jersey's 7 votes), Breckinridge received 72 (all the cotton states), and Bell received 39 (Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee). The territories of Washington, Utah, New Mexico, Nebraska, Kansas, and the unorganized territories (between Nebraska and Minnesota, and below Kansas) did not cast any votes. MAPS PAGE 426-27. ADD FROM PAGE 427 The action of withdrawing formally from membership of a federation or body, esp. a political state. When Lincoln became president, South Carolina had reason to rejoice: they had an excuse to secede. In winning the North, the "rail-splitter" had split off the South. A tragic chain reaction of secession now begun to erupt. Four days after the election of Lincoln, South Carolina's legislature voted unanimously to call a special convention. Meeting in Charleston in December 1860, the convention unanimously voted to secede. During the next six weeks, six other states of the lower South, though somewhat less united, followed the leader over the precipice: Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. Four more were to join them later, bringing the total to eleven. Impending bloodshed spurred final and frantic attempts at compromise - in the American tradition. The most promising of these efforts was sponsored by Senator James Henry ___ of Kentucky, on whose shoulders had fallen the mantle of a fellow Kentuckian, Henry Clay. The proposed ___ amendments to the Constitution were designed to appease the South. Slavery in the territories was to be prohibited north of 36° 30' line, but south of that line it was to be given federal protection in all the territories existing or "hereafter to be acquired" (such as Cuba). Future states, north or south of the 36° 30', could come into the Union with or without slavery, as they should choose. In short, slavery supporters were to be guaranteed full rights in the southern territories, as long as they were territories, regardless of the wishes of the majority under pop. sov. Federal protection of in a territory south of the line might conceivably, though improbably, turn the entire area permanently to slavery. Lincoln flatly rejected the scheme, which offered some slight prospect of success, and all hope of compromise evaporated. He had been elected on a platform against the extension of slavery, and he felt that as matter of principle, he could not afford to yield, even though gains for slavery in territories might only be temporary. Taylor would have been spared much turmoil if he could have continued to sit on the slavery lid. But the discovery of __ on the American River near ___, California, early in 1848, blew the cover off. A horde of adventurers poured into the valley of California. They began tearing frantically at the yellow-graveled streams and hills. The luckless many, who netted blisters instead of nuggets, probably would have been money well ahead if they had stayed home unaffected by "gold fever," which was often followed by more deadly fevers. A high portion of the newcomers were lawless men, accompanied by virtueless women. An outburst of crime inevitably resulted from the presence of so many miscreants and outcasts. A majority of Californians, as decent and law-abiding citizens needing protection, grappled earnestly with the problem erecting an adequate state government. Privately encouraged by President Taylor, they drafted a constitution in 1849 that excluded slavery and then boldly applied to Congress for admission. Senator ____, the "Great Nullifier," then 68 and dying of tuberculosis, championed the South in his last formal speech. Although approving the purpose of Clay's proposed concessions, he rejected them as not providing adequate safeguards for southern rights. His impassioned plea was to leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, give the South its rights as a minority, and restore the political balance. He had in view an utterly unworkable scheme of electing two presidents, one from the North and one from the South, each wielding a veto. He died in 1850, before the debate was over. At 68 years old, ____ next took the Senate spotlight to uphold Clay's compromise measures in his last great speech. He urged all reasonable concessions to the South, including the fugitive-slave law with teeth. He concluded that compromise, concessions, and sweet reasonableness would provide the only solutions (to the slavery-Mexican Cession issue). Meeting in Baltimore, the Democratic nominating convention of 1852 startled the nation. Hopelessly deadlocked, it finally stampeded to the second "dark-horse" candidate in American history, and unrenowned lawyer-politician, ____, from the hills of New Hampshire. The Whigs tried to jeer him back into obscurity with the cry, "Who is ___?" Democrats replied, "The Young Hickory of the Granite Hills." He was enemy-less because he had been inconspicuous, and as a prosouthern northerner, he was acceptable to the slavery wing of the Democratic party. His platform revived the Democrat's commitment to territorial expansion as pursued by President Polk and emphatically endorsed the Compromise of 1850, Fugitive Slave Law and all. Beneath the slaveowners on the population pyramid was the great body of whites who owned no slaves at all. By 1860 their numbers swelled to three-quarters of all southern whites. They scratched a simple living from the thinner souls of the backcountry and mountain valleys. To them the riches of the Cotton Kingdom were a distant dream, and they often sneered at the lordly pretensions of the cotton "snobocracy." These red-necked farmers participated in the market economy scarcely at all. As subsistence farmers, they raised corn and hogs, not cotton, and often lived isolated lives, punctuated periodically by extended socializing and sermonizing at religious camp meetings. The least prosperous nonslaveholding whites were scorned even by slaves as "poor white trash." They were also known as "___," and were often described as listless, shiftless, and misshapen. Later investigations have revealed that many of them were not simply lazy but sick, suffering from malnutrition and parasites, esp. hookworm. All these whites w/o slaves had no direct stake in the preservation of slavery, yet they were among the stoutest defenders of the slave system. They hoped to buy a slave or two of their own and parlay their paltry holdings into riches. They were fiercely proud of their "racial superiority," which would be watered down if the slaves were freed. ADD/Change? Conditions varied from region to region, from large plantation to small farm, and from master to master. Everywhere, of course, slavery meant hard work, ignorance, and oppression. Slaves had no civil or political rights, other than minimal protection from arbitrary murder or unusually cruel punishment. Some states offered laws like the banishment of selling a child under the age of ten away from his or her mother, but they were hard to enforce since slaves couldn't testify in court. Floggings were common, for the whip was the substitute for the wage-incentive system and the most visible symbol of the planter's mastery. But savage beating made sullen laborers, and lash marks hurt resale values. Forced separations of spouses, parents, and children were evidently more common on smaller plantations and in the upper South. Slave marriage vows sometimes proclaimed, "Until death or distance do you part." With impressive resilience, blacks managed to sustain family life in slavery, and most slaves were raised in stable two-parent households. Continuity of family identity across generations was evidenced in the widespread practice of naming children for grandparents or adopting the surname not of the a current master, but of a forebear's master. African roots were also visible in the slaves' religious practices. Though heavily Christianized by the itinerant evangelists of the Second Great Awakening, blacks in slavery molded their own distinctive religious forms from a mixture of Christian and African elements. On January 13, 1846, Polk ordered four thousand men, under General ____, to march from the Nueces River to the Rio Grande, provocatively near Mexican forces. Polk told his cabinet that he was going to ask Congress to declare war on Mexico on the basis of unpaid claims and Slidell's rejection. Two cabinet members said they would feel better if Mexican troops fired first. That evening, news of bloodshed arrived. On April 25, 1846, Mexican troops had crossed the Rio Grande and attacked General __'s command, with a loss of 16 Americans killed or wounded. Polk told Congress that despite "all our efforts" to avoid a clash, hostilities had been forced upon the country by the shedding of "American blood on American soil." A patriotic Congress voted for war. (Polk had bended truth - American blood shed on soil that the Mexicans had good reason to regard as their own) Polk was anxious to end the shooting as soon as he could secure his territorial grounds. Accordingly, he sent along with Scott's invading army the chief clerk of the State Department, Nicholas P. Trist, who among other weaknesses was afflicted with an overfluid pen. Trist and Scott arranged for an armistice with Santa Anna, at the cost of $10,000. The wily dictator pocketed the bribe and then used the time to bolster his defenses. Polk, disgusted with his blundering envoy, abruptly recalled Trist. The wordy diplomat then dashed off a 65 page letter explaining why he was not coming home. The president was furious, but Trist, grasping a fleeting opportunity to negotiate, signed the _____ on February 2, 1848, and forwarded it to Washington. The terms of the treaty confirmed the American title to Texas and yielded he enormous area stretching westward to Oregon and the ocean and embracing coveted California. This total expanse was about one-half of Mexico. The US agreed to pay $15 million for the land and to assume the claims of its citizens against Mexico in the amount f $3,250,000. A boiling reaction against the growing liberalism in religion set in about 1800. A fresh wave of roaring revivals, beginning on the southern frontier but soon rolling even into the cities of the Northeast, sent the ______ surging across the land. It was one of the most momentous episodes in the history of American religion. It left in its wake countless converted souls, many shattered and reorganized churches, and numerous new sects. It also encouraged an effervescent evangelicalism that bubbled up into innumerable areas of American life - including prison reform, the temperance clause, the women's movement, and the crusade to abolish slavery. Methodists and Baptists reaped the most abundant harvest of souls from the fields of fertilized by revivalism. Both sects stressed personal conversion (contrary to predestination), a relatively democratic control of church affairs, and a rousing emotionalism. Peter Cartwright was the best known of the Methodist "circuit riders," or traveling frontier preachers. Revivals also furthered the fragmentation of religious faiths. Millerites, or Adventists, rose from the superheated soil of the Burned-Over District (NY) in the 1830s. Named after the eloquent and commanding William Miller, they interpreted the Bible to mean that Christ would return on October 22, 1844. The failure of Jesus to descend on schedule dampened but did not destroy the movement. The Second Great Awakening tended to widen the lines between classes and regions. The more prosperous and conservative denominations in the East were little touched by revivalism, and Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Unitarians continued to rise mostly from wealthier, better-educated levels of society. Methodists, Baptists, and the members of other emerging sects spawned by the swelling evangelistic fervor tended to come from less prosperous, less "learned" communities in the rural South and West. Religious diversity further reflected social cleavages when the churches faced up to the slavery issue. By 1844-1845 both the southern Baptists and the souther Methodists had split with their northern brethren over slavery. The secession of the southern churches foreshadowed the secession of the southern states. First the churches split, then the political parties split, and then the Union split. Tax-supported primary schools were scarce in the early years of the Republic. They had an odor of pauperism about them, since they existed chiefly to educate the children of the poor. Advocates for "free" education met stiff opposition. Well-to-do, conservative Americans gradually saw the light. If they did not pay to educate other peoples "brats," the "brats" might grow up into a dangerous, ignorant rabble - armed with the vote. Taxation for education was an insurance premium that the wealthy paid for stability and democracy. Tax-supported public education, though miserably lagging in the slavery-cursed South, triumphed between 1825 and 1850. Hard-toiling laborers wielded increased influence and demanded instruction for their children. Early free schools stayed open only a few months of the year. Schoolteachers, most of them men in this era, were too often ill-trained, ill-tempered, and ill-paid. They usually only taught the "three R's" - "readin', 'ritin', and 'rithmetic." Schoolteachers in early free schools usually only taught reading, writing, and arithmetic. Reform was urgently needed. Into the breach stepped ____, a brilliant and idealistic graduate of Brown University. As secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he campaigned effectively for more and better schoolhouses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum. His influence radiated out to other states, and impressive movements were chalked up. Yet education remained an expensive luxury for many communities. As late as 1860, the nation counted only about 100 public secondary schools - and nearly a million white adult illiterates. Black slaves in the South were legally forbidden to receive instruction in reading or writing, and even free blacks, in the North as well as the South, were usually excluded from schools. Bolstered by the ____ spirit of the age (a state in which everything is perfect), various reformers, ranging from the high-minded to the "lunatic fringe," set up more than forty communities of cooperative, communistic, or "communitarian" nature. _____ in Massachusetts, comprising two hundred acres of grudging soil, was started in 1841 with the brotherly and sisterly cooperation of about twenty intellectuals committed to the philosophy of transcendentalism. They prospered reasonably well until 1846, when they lost by fire a large new communal building shortly before its completion. A more radical experiment was the ___ Community, founded in New York in 1848. It practiced free love ("complex marriage"), birth control (through "male continence"), and the eugenic selection of parents to produce superior offspring. This curious enterprise flourished for more than thirty years, largely because its artisans made superior steel traps and ___ Community (silver) Plate. Among the largest-lived sects were the _____. Led by Mother Ann Lee, they began in the 1770s to set up the first of a score or so of religious communities. They attained a membership of about six thousand in 1840, but since their monastic customs prohibited both marriage and sexual relations, they were virtually extinct by 1940. He was the first American novelist, as Washington Irving was the first general writer, to gain world fame and to make New World themes respectable. Marrying into a wealthy family, he settled down on the frontier of New York. Reading one day to his wife from an insipid English novel, Cooper remarked in disgust that he could write a better book himself. His wife challenged him to do so - and he did. He launched out upon an illustrious career in 1821 with his second novel, "The Spy" - an absorbing tale of the American Revolution. His stories of the sea were meritorious and popular, but his fame rests most enduringly on the "Leatherstocking Tales." His novels had a wide sale among Europeans, some of whom came to think of all American people as born with tomahawk in hand. Actually Cooper was exploring the viability and destiny of America's republican experiment, by contrasting the undefiled values of "natural men," children of the wooded wilderness, with the artificiality of modern civilization. This movement of the 1830s resulted in part from a liberalizing of the straightjacket Puritan theology. It also owed much to foreign influences, including the German romantic philosophers and the religions of Asia. The ____ rejected the prevailing theory, derived from John Locke, that all knowledge comes to the mind through the senses. Truth, rather, "transcends" the senses: it cannot be found by observation alone. Every person possesses an inner light that can illuminate the highest truth and put him or her in the direct touch with God, or the "Oversoul." These mystical doctrines of ____ defied precise definition, but they underlay concrete beliefs. Foremost was a stiff-backed individualism in matters religious as well as social. Closely associated was a commitment to self-reliance, self-culture, and self-discipline. These traits naturally bend hostility to authority and to formal institutions of any kind, as well as to conventional wisdom. Finally came exaltation of the dignity of the individual, whether black or white - the mainspring of a whole array of humanitarian reforms. Best known of the transcendentalists was Boston-born ____. Trained as a Unitarian minister, he early forsook his pulpit and ultimately reached a wider audience by pen and platform. He was a never-failing favorite as a lyceum lecturer and for twenty years took a western tour every winter. Perhaps his most thrilling public effort was a Phi Beta Kappa address, "The American Scholar," derived at Harvard College in 1837. This brilliant appeal was an intellectual declaration of independence, for it urged American writers to throw off European traditions and delve into the riches of their own backyards. Catching the individualistic mood of the Republic, he stressed self-reliance, self-improvement, self-confidence, optimism, and freedom. By the 1850s he was an outspoken critic of slavery, and he ardently supported the Union cause in the Civil War. He was Emerson's close associate - a poet, a mystic, a transcendentalist, and a nonconformist. Condemning a government that supported slavery, he refused to pay his Massachusetts poll tax and was jailed for a night. He is also well known for "____: Or Life in the Woods." The book is a record of his two years of simple existence in a hut that he built on the edge of ___ Pond, near Concord, Mass. He believed that he should reduce his bodily wants so as to gain time for a pursuit of truth through study and meditation. His essay "On the Duty of ____" and "____" exercised a strong influence in furthering idealistic thought, both in America and abroad. His writing later encouraged Mahatma Gandhi to resist British rule in India, and, still later, inspired the development of American civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr.'s thinking about nonviolence. Bold, brassy, and swaggering was the open-collared figure of Brooklyn's _____. In his famous collection of poems, "_______," he gave free rein to his gushing genius with what he called "barbaric yawp." Highly romantic, emotional, and unconventional, he dispensed with titles, stanzas, rhymes, and at times even regular meter. He handled sex with shocking frankness, although he laundered his verses in later editions, and his book was banned in Boston." ____ "was at first a financial failure. But in time the once-withered "____," revived and honored, won for him an enormous following in both America and Europe. The book also gained him the informal title "Poet Laureate of Democracy." He spent much of his youth in Virginia and was an eccentric genius. Orphaned at an early age, cursed with ill health, and married to a child-wife of thirteen who fell fatally ill of tuberculosis, he suffered hunger, cold, poverty, and debt. Failing at suicide, he took refuge in the bottle and dissipated his talent early. He was gifted lyric poet, as "The Raven" attests. He also excelled in short story, esp. the horror type, in which he shared his alcoholic nightmares with fascinated readers. If he did not invent the modern detective novel, he at least set new high standards in tales like "The Gold Bug." He was fascinated with ghostly and ghastly, as in "The Fall of the House of Usher" and other stories. He reflected a morbid sensibility distinctly at odds with the usually optimistic tone of American culture. Partly for this reason, he has perhaps been even more prized by Europeans than by Americans. His brilliant career was cut short when he was found drunk in a Baltimore gutter and shortly thereafter died. He was an orphaned and ill-educated New Yorker. He went to sea as youth and served eighteen adventuresome months on a whaler. Jumping ship in the South Seas, he lived among cannibals, from whom he providently escaped uneaten. His fresh and charming tales of the South Seas were immediately popular, but his masterpiece, "_______," was not. This epic novel is a complex allegory of good and evil, told in terms of the conflict between a whaling captain, Ahab, and a giant white whale, ____. The captain, having lost a leg to the marine monster, lives only for revenge. His pursuit finally ends when ___ rams and sinks Ahab's ship, leaving only one survivor. The whale's exact identity and Ahab's motives remain obscure. In the end the sea, the terrifyingly impersonal and unknowable universe of ____'s imagination, simply rolls on. The book was widely ignored at the time of its publication; people were accustomed to more straightforward and upbeat prose. His brooding masterpiece about the mysterious white whale had to wait until the more jaded twentieth century for readers and for proper recognition. The rise of Andrew Jackson, the first president from beyond the Appalachian Mountains, exemplified the inexorable westward march of the American people. As Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote in 1844,"Europe stretches to the Alleghenies; America lies beyond." By 1840, the "demographic center" of the American population map had crossed the Alleghenies. By the eve of the Civil War, it had marched across the Ohio River. Life was grim for the pioneer families were poorly fed, ill-clad, and housed hastily erected shanties. They were prone to disease, depression, and premature death. Breakdowns and madness were all to frequently the "opportunities" for secluded pioneer women. Pioneering Americans were often ill-informed, superstitious, provincial, and fiercely individualistic. Pioneers in a hurry often exhausted the land in the tobacco regions and then pushed on, leaving behind barren and rain-gutted fields. They discovered that if they burned cane fields, European blue grass grew well. "Kentucky bluegrass," as it was inaccurately called, made ideal pasture for livestock - and lured thousands more American homesteaders to Kentucky. During the 1840s and 1850s over a million and a half ___ immigrants, and nearly as many Germans, swarmed to America. They came partly because Europe seemed to be running out of room. The population of the Old World had more than doubled in the 19th century, and Europe began to generate a seething pool of apparently "surplus" people. America beckoned most strongly to the struggling masses of Europe, and the majority of migrants headed for the "land of freedom and opportunities." Also, a terrible rot attacked the potato crop, on which the people had become dangerously dependent (about 2 million people died). The people fled the Land of Famine for the Land of Plenty, flocked to America in the "Black Forties." They were too poor to move west and buy the necessary land, livestock, and equipment, so the swarmed into the larger seaboard cities (Boston and NY mostly). Forced to live in squalor, they were rudely crammed into the already-vile slums. Scorned by older American people, especially Protestant Bostonians. They did the hard, "back-breaking" labor. The Irish were hated by native workers. "No Irish Need Apply" (NINA) was a sign commonly posted at factory gates. ADD? Frustrated in his earlier attempts to monopolized the cotton gin, Whitney turned to the mass production of muskets for the U.S. Army. Up to this time, each part of a firearm had been hand-tooled, and if the trigger of one broke, the trigger of another might not fit. Whitney seized upon the idea of having machines make each part, so that all triggers, for example, would be as much alike as the successive imprints of a copperplate engraving. The principle of ____ was widely adopted by 1850, and it ultimately became the basis of modern mass-production, assembly line methods. By perfecting the cotton gin, Whitney gave slavery a new lease on life, and perhaps made the Civil War more likely. At the same time, by popularizing the principle of ____, Whitney helped factories to flourish in the North, giving the Union a decided advantage when the showdown came. Clearly the early factory system did not shower its benefits evenly on all. While many owners grew plump, working-people often wasted away at their workbenches. Hours were long, wages were low, and meals were skimpy and hastily gulped. Workers were forced to toil in unsanitary buildings that were poorly ventilated, lighted, and heated. They were forbidden by law to form labor unions to raise wages, for such cooperative activity regarded as criminal conspiracy. In 1820 a significant portion of the nation's industrial toilers were children under ten years of age. Victims of factory labor, many children were mentally blighted, emotionally starved, physically stunted, and even brutally whipped. Dozens of strikes erupted in the 1830s and 1840s, most of them for higher wages, some for the ten-hour day, and a few for unusual goals as the right to smoke on the job. The workers usually lost more strikes than they won, for the employer could resort to such tactics as the importing of strikebreakers. It was fast, reliable, cheaper than canals to construct, and not frozen over winter. Able to go anywhere, even through the Allegheny barrier, it defied terrain and weather. The first ___ appeared in the US in 1828. By 1860, the US boasted thirty thousand miles of track, three-fourths of it in the rapidly industrializing North. Railroad pioneers had to overcome obstacles like feeble brakes, conjectural arrivals and departures, and numerous differences in gauge meant frequent changes of trains for passengers. But gauges gradually became standardized, better brakes did brake, safety devices were adopted, and the _____ (has bunk beds so you can lay down) was introduced in 1859. The last of the old-style elections was marked by the ____ of 1824. Four presidential candidates towered above the others: John Quincy Adams (Massachusetts), William H. Crawford (Georgia), Andrew Jackson (Tennessee), and Henry Clay (Kentucky). All four confessed to be "Republicans," but there was no real political parties yet. Jackson won more popular votes than his rivals, but no one won the majority vote in the electoral college. In this deadlock, the House of Representatives was directed by the 12th Amendment to choose the top 3 candidates. Clay was thus eliminated, yet as Speaker of the House, he presided over the very chamber that had to pick a winner. Crawford suffered a stroke and was out of the picture. This left Adams and Jackson, who Clay hated. Clay told everyone to vote for Adams, who in exchange made Clay his Secretary of State. John C. Calhoun was VP. In 1832, the Bank War broke out when Daniel Webster and Henry Clay presented Congress with a bill to renew the Bank of the US's charter. The charter was not set to expire until 1836, but Clay pushed for renewal four years early to make it an election issue in 1832. Clay looked upon the bank issue as a surefire winner. Clay's recharter bill was sent through Congress to the White House, where if Jackson did not sign it, he would alienate himself from his western followers. If he vetoed it, he would presumably lose the presidency in the forthcoming election by alienating the wealthy and influential groups in the East. But the "best people" were now only a minority, and most feared Jackson anyhow. Jackson vetoed it, and declared the monopolistic bank unconstitutional. Of course, the Supreme Court had earlier declared it constitutional in the case of McCulloch v. Maryland, but Jackson acted as though he regarded the executive branch as superior to the judicial branch. His veto message not only squashed the bank bill, but amplified the power of the presidency. Jackson's opponents, angered at his exercise of presidential power, began to coalesce as the _____ - a name deliberately chosen to recollect 18th century British and Revolutionary American opposition to the monarchy. It contained so many diverse elements that it was mocked as first as "an organized incompatibility." Hatred for Jackson and his "executive usurpation" was its only apparent cement in its formative days. The ___ first emerged in the Senate, where Clay, Webster, and Calhoun joined forces in 1834 to pass a motion censuring Jackson for his single-handed removal of federal deposits from the Bank of the US. The party attracted group alienated by Jackson: supporters of Clay's American System, southern states' righters offended by Jackson's stand on nullification, the larger northern industrialists and merchants, and eventually many of the evangelical Protestants associated with Anti-masonic party. They called for international improvements such as canals, railroads, and telegraph lines; the institution of prisons, asylums, and public schools. Man for man and ship for ship, the American navy did much better than the army. In comparison to British ships, American craft on the whole were more skillfully handled, had better gunners, and were manned by non-press-gang crews who were burning to avenge numerous indignities. Similarly, American frigates, like the ______, had thicker sides, heavier firepower, and larger crews, of which one sailor in six was a free black. In 1814, 10,000 British troops prepared for a crushing blow into New York along the Lake Champlain water way. A weaker American fleet, commanded by ____, challenged the British. The ensuing battle was desperately fought near Plattsburgh on September 11, 1814, on floating slaughterhouses. The American flagship at one point was in grave trouble. But ____, unexpectedly turning his ship about with cables, confronted the enemy with a fresh broadside and snatched victory from the fangs of defeat. The results of this battle caused the British army to retreat, and thus saved at least upper New York from conquest, New England from further disaffection, and the Union from possible dissolution. Also profoundly affected was the concurrent negotiations of the Anglo-American peace treaty in Europe. This was the third British blow of 1814 aimed at New Orleans and menaced the entire Mississippi Valley. _____, who had just finished crushing southwest Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, was placed in command. He lead a force consisting 7,000 sailors, regulars, pirates, Frenchmen, as well as militiamen from Louisiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Among the defenders were two Louisiana regiments of free black volunteers, numbering about four hundred men. The over confident British, numbering 80,000 men, blundered badly. They made the mistake of launching a frontal assault on January 8, 1815, on the entrenched American riflemen and cannoneers. The attackers suffered the most devastating defeat of the entire war, losing over two thousand, killed and wounded, in a half an hour, as compared with some seventy for the Americans. _____ became a national hero. The war had ended two weeks before this battle, but word of the peace treaty had not yet reached them. In 1819, a paralyzing economic panic descended. It brought deflation, depression, bankruptcies, bank failures, unemployment, soup kitchens, and overcrowded pest houses known as debtor's prisons. It was the first national financial panic since George Washington took office. It was mainly caused by the over speculation of frontier lands. It lasted in some degree for a couple of years, giving a rude setback to the nationalistic arbor. In the West, The Bank of the US forced wildcat western banks to wall and foreclose mortgages on countless farms. The poorer classes were severely strapped, and in their troubles was sown the seed of Jacksonian democracy. At the Battle of Trafalgar, Britain secured its supremacy over the sea (beat French and Spanish fleets off the coast of Spain), while at the Battle of Austerlitz (in Austria) France secured its supremacy over the land (beating the Austrians and Russians). Since the two powers could not directly hurt each other, they had to strike indirect blows that fell upon America. In 1806, Parliament issued a series of Orders in Council that closed the European ports under French control to foreign shipping, including American, unless the vessels first stopped at a British port. Napoleon struck back by ordering all merchant ships to be seized, including American, that entered British ports. There was no way to trade with either nation without facing the other's guns. American vessels were, quite literally, caught between the Devil and the deep blue sea. In 1789, the French Revolution began, and it would take 26 years for Europe to return to peace. The French Revolution was peaceful in its early stages, successfully putting constitutional shackles on Louis XVI. Americans cheered on the French Revolution as a second chapter to their own revolution. By 1792, the France declared war on Austria, pushed back the invaders, and declared themselves a republic in 1793. The French Revolution caused Americans to rename thoroughfares: King Street became Liberty Street and Royal Exchange Alley became Equality Lane. However, in 1793, the King was beheaded, the church was attacked, and the Reign of Terror had begun. This caused aristocratic Federalists to fear the Jeffersonian masses who believed that a few thousand aristocratic heads were a cheap price to pay for human Freedom. The Franco-American alliance of 1778, which bound the U.S. to help the French defend their West Indies (which were sure to be attacked by the British), was supposed to last forever. Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans favored honoring the alliance, eager to enter the conflict against Britain. America owed France its freedom, they argued, and now was the time to pay the debt of gratitude. However, Washington, backed by Hamilton, believed that war had to be avoided at all costs. The nation in 1793 was militarily feeble, economically wobbly, and politically disunited. Washington wisely reasoned that if America could avoid the broils of Europe for a generation or so, it would then be populous enough and powerful enough to assert its maritime rights with strength and success. Hamilton and Jefferson (who usually disagreed) agreed with Washington on delaying. In 1793, Washington issued ______, shortly after the outbreak of war between Britain and France. It proclaimed Americans neutrality in the arising conflict and warned American citizens to be impartial towards both armed camps. The Democratic-Republicans hated it, while the Federalists loved it. The ____ showed that the true cement of alliances was self-interest. The French were angered by Jay's Treaty, so they seized defenseless American merchant vessels and the Paris regime refused to receive America's newly appointed envoy even threatening him with arrest. Trying to avoid war, Adams appointed three men as part of a diplomatic commission. Reaching Paris in 1797, they hoped to meet Talleyrand, a French foreign minister, but instead they were met by three go-betweens later known as X, Y, and Z, who demand a loan of 32 million florins and a bribe of $250,000 just to talk to Talleyrand. Negotiations quickly broke down, and John Marshall, on reaching New York in 1798, was hailed as a conquering hero for his steadfastness. Jefferson focused on the middle class and the underprivileged, having sympathy for the common people, especially the downtrodden, the oppressed, and the persecuted. He did not approve of central power, wanting the bulk of the power to be with the states. There, the people could keep and eye on their public servants. Otherwise a dictatorship might develop. Central authority should be kept at a minimum through strict interpretation of the Constitution. He wanted to pay off the national debt which he saw as a curse to later generations. He thought that agriculture was the favored branch of economy and formed the foundation of his political thought, "those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God." He favored government for the people, but not by all the people - only by those white men who were literate enough to inform themselves and wear the mantle of American citizenship worthily. Universal education would have to precede universal suffrage. He also reconciled slaveholding because if their were not slaves poor white farmers would have to provide cheap labor and they would never acquire land. Jefferson wanted to protect and strengthen democracy at home, especially in the frontier regions beyond the Appalachian, rather than flex America's muscle abroad. It is highly significant that in the United States, economic democracy, broadly speaking, preceded political democracy. A sharp stimulus was given to manufacturing by the prewar nonimportation agreements and later by the war itself. Goods that were previously imported from Britain were mostly cut off, and the ingenious Yankees were forced to make their own. Economically speaking, independence had drawbacks. American shippers were now barred from British and British West Indies harbors. However, Americans could now trade freely with foreign nations, subject to local restrictions. War had spawned demoralizing extravagance, speculation, and profiteering, with profits for some as indecently high as 300 percent. States governments had borrowed more from the war than they could ever hope to repay. Runaway inflation had been ruinous to many citizens, and Congress had failed in its feeble attempts to curb economic laws. Shortly before declaring independence in 1776, Congress appointed a committee to draft a written constitution for the new nation, the _____. Adopted by Congress in 1777, it wasn't ratified by all thirteen states until 1781, less than eight months before the victory at Yorktown. It provided for a loose confederation or "firm league of friendship." There was a unicameral legislature, no authority for Congress to impose taxes, one vote in Congress for each state, no national court system, no provision for a uniform national currency, no chief executive, a requirement that nine of the thirteen states approve passage of certain legislation, unanimity for amendment of the AOC, and no authority for Congress to regulate either interstate or foreign commerce. Because of the new Constitution, the ____, who opposed the stronger federal government, were arrayed against the federalists, who obviously favored it. A motley crew of gathered in the ___ camp. Its leaders included prominent revolutionaries like Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee. They cried with much truth that it had been drawn up by the aristocratic elements and hence was antidemocratic. They charged that the sovereignty of the states was being submerged and that the freedoms of the individual were jeopardized by the absence of a bill of rights. They decried the dropping of annual elections for congressional representatives, the erecting of a federal stronghold ten miles square (DC), the creation of a standing army, the omission of any reference to God, and the highly questionably procedure of ratifying with only two-thirds of the states. Shaken by colonial commotion (the tar and feathers), the machinery for collecting the tax broke down. On that day in 1765 when the new act was to go into effect, the stamp agents had all been forced to resign, and there was no one to sell the stamps. The law was openly and flagrantly defied - or, rather, nullified. Merchants, manufacturers, and shippers suffered from the colonial nonimportation agreements, and hundreds of laborers were thrown out of work. Loud demands converged on Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act. But many members could not understand why 7.5 million Britons had to pay heavy taxes to protect the colonies, whereas some 2 million colonists refused to pay for only one-third of the cost of their own defense. After a stormy debate, Parliament in 1766 grudgingly repealed the Stamp Act. Blacks also fought in the American revolution. Although originally barred from the militia, 5,000 blacks ended up serving in the war. They fought at Trenton, Brandywine, Saratoga, and other important battles. Prince Whipple became a military hero. Others served as cooks, spies, drivers, and road builders. They also served with the British. Lord Dunmore, royal governor of Virginia, promised freedom for any slave who joined the British army. Within one month 3,000 slaves enlisted in the British Army. Agriculture was the leading industry (90%), Tobacco was the staple crop in Maryland and Virginia and wheat cultivation spread through the Chesapeake. The fertile middle colonies produced large quantities of grain. Fishing ranked below agriculture, but harvesting the sea was still a major industry in New England. This also stimulated shipbuilding along the northern coast. Trading, both coastwise and overseas, enriched all the colonies, especially the New England group, New York, and Pennsylvania. Manufacturing in the colonies was of only secondary importance, but there was a surprising variety of small enterprises, including rum being distilled in Rhode Island and Massachusetts, smoking iron forges (like in Pennsylvania), and lumbering (at first in New England and then elsewhere). Congregationalists/Puritans (New England: MA, CT, NH), Anglicans/Church of England (NY and South: MD, VA, NC, SC, GA), Presbyterians (Frontier), German Churches - Lutheran (PA), Dutch Reformed (NY and NJ), Quakers (PA, NJ, DE), Baptists (RI, PA, NJ, DE), Roman Catholics (MD and PA), Methodists (scattered), and Jews (NY and RI).