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COMD2500 Ch 1
Terms in this set (90)
socially shared code that uses a conventional system of arbitrary symbols to represent ideas about the world that are meaningful to others who know the same code
What are 4 characteristics of language?
1) socially shared 2) arbitrary symbols 3)code is conventional 4) representational tool
group of people who use a common language, emerge due to sociological reasons, geographic circumstances, and economic reasons
smallest units of language that carry meaning
pre school s = 3 morphemes
the aspect of the world to which a word refers
cognitive science theory about how the human mind is organized within the brain structures. Does the human brain contain a set of highly specific modules, or it the brain a generalized module in which all parts work together to process information?
specialized problem-solving device in the brain that responds to information of a restricted type
modules are considered this because they can only process specific types of information
persons may omit grammatical markers and speak with a telegraphic quality often due to damage occuring to the left frontal lobe during a stroke
the neuromuscular process by which humans turn language into a sound signal
sensory system that allows speech to enter into and be processed by the human brain
process of sharing information among individuals
speech involves the precise activation of muscles in what 4 systems?
respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation
a breath of air is expired into and then expired from the lungs, travels up through the trachea, or windpipe
air travels over the vocal cords
air travels into the oral and nasal cavities
air is manipulated by the tongue, teeth, and jaw to come out as a series of speech sounds
way to represent an unknown event on the basis of the best current evidence
What are the 3 stages of speech production according to the model?
perceptual target-abstract representation /m/ /a/ /m/ /a/
motor schema-neurological brain systems produce rough plan of the abstract representation, fed forward in syllable chunks to muscles /ma/ /ma/
speech output-air pressure is modulated as respiratroy flow is sent forward, articulators and oral cavity manipulated to produce /mama/
feedback-monitors flow of speech and sends info back to perceptual target and motor schema
smallest unit of sound that can signal a difference in meaning
hearing, the perception of sound, includes general auditory perception and speech perception
the study of sound
What 4 acoustic events are involved in the transmission and reception of speech?
1) creation of a sound source, creates a disturbance
2) vibration of air particles
3) reception by the ear, air particle vibrations travel through outer chamber, middle chamber, and inner chamber which contains the cochlea. Info travels from cochlea up the auditory nerve to auditory regions of brain
4) comprehension by brain, auditory centers located in left hemisphere translate auditory information
how the brain processes speech and language, involves specialized processors that have evolved to respond to human speech and language
how the brain processes any type of auditory information
overlapping or smearing of phonemes in spoken language
What are the 4 basic processes of communication?
1) formulation 2) transmission 3) reception 4)comprehension
formulates and transmits info he or she would like to convey
takes in and comprehends info
the process of pulling together your thoughts or ideas for sharing
process of conveying ideas to another person
process of receiving info from another person
process of making sense of the message
(referential communication) occurs when an individual communicates about a specific entity and the relationship between the entity and its referent is arbitrary ex: baby says "bottle" to request something to drink (knows no limitation of space or time)
constrained to a particular space and time, people assume the relationship between a communicative behavior and its referent ex: purring cat or crying baby, the goal of the communication must be inferred
(iconic communication) relationship between the communicative behavior and its referent is not arbitrary, the relationship is transparent or iconic
ex: infant points to a bottle or chimp gestures to a banana
combination of speaking and listening
speaking or vocalizing (mm-hmm) feedback
nonlinguistic or extralinguistic feedback
refers to the use of eye contact, facial expression, posture, and proximity
refers to the use of pitch, loudness, and pausing; superimposed over linguistic feedback
problems that occur when receivers do not provide appropriate types or amounts of feedback or when senders do not attend to the feedback
when a communication breakdown occurs and teh sender or receiver adjusts the exchange to mend the breakdown, requires the receiver to provide ongoing feedback and the sender to monitor the receiver's feedback closely
What are the 7 purposes of communication?
1) instrumental: ask for something
2) regulatory: give directions
3) interactional: interact socially
4) personal: express state of mind or feelings
5) heuristic: find out info, inquire
6) imaginative: tell stories and role-play
7) informative: provide organized description
What are the 3 major domains of language? (in the 3 component system)
content, form, and use
Content (domain of language)
the meaning of language, the words used and the meaning behind them, conveyed through our vocabulary or lexicon
language that focuses on the immediate context, content is usually concrete and supported by cues within the environment
share language with little reliance on the context for conveying content
Form (domain of language)
how words, sentences, and sounds are organized and arranged to convey content. consider structure, clause and phrase usage, parts of speech, verb and noun structures, prefixes and suffixes
Use (domain of language)
pertains to how people draw on language functionally to meet personal and social needs, ask about the intentions behind the utterances and how well the utterances achieve the intentions
What are the 5 components of language?
semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, pragmatics
semantics is synonymous with
pragmatics is synonymous with
What are 3 components of form?
syntax, morphology, phonology
refers to the rules of language governing the meaning of individual words and word combinations
refers to the rules of language governing the internal organization of sentences, provides the structure to utterances
Colorless green ideas sleep furiously.
Is this sentence correct semantically? Syntactically?
pertains to the rules of language governing the internal organization of words, words are manipulated in a variety of ways to change their meaning, vocabulary is expanded exponentially from a small set of core words into a larger pool of word families
refers to the rules of language governing the sounds used to make syllables and words, every language has a relatively small number of meaningful sounds
How many phonemes does General or Standard American English use?
39, give or take a few, depending on the dialect, relies on 15 vowels and 24 consonants to create about 100,000 words
subtle variations of phonemes that occur as a result of contextual influences on how phonemes are produced in different words ex: pop, the initial p is aspirated and the final p is unaspirated.
how sounds are organized in words
pertains to the rules of language governing how language is used for social purposes, comprise a set of rules that govern three important aspects of the social use of language 1) using language for different functions (communication intentions) 2) organizing language for discourse (conversation) 3) knowing what to say and when and how to say it (social conventions)
what is auditory overshadowing?
young children show a preference for auditory vs. visual info
What are 5 remarkable features of language?
acquisition rate, universality, species specificity, semanticity, productivity
how fast language is learned, at one year of age children can understand and use several words, by two years of age children have a vocab of several hundred words and speak in short sentences
critical sensitive period
the first 5 to 7 years of life when language develops most rapidly and with the greatest ease
concept suggests that all persons around the world apply the same cognitive infrastructure to the task of learning language, the points at which milestones in language development are reached are fairly invariant among global language communities
language is strictly a human capacity, the communication abilities of other animals are wholly iconic and do not allow the combination of ideas into larger propositions
language allows people to represent events that are decontextualized (removed from the present) to share what happened before or what may happen after, this aspect of language allows people to represent the world, no other species has this capacity
describes the principal of combination of a small number of units into seemingly infinite creations, with a small set of rules governing language, humans can produce an endless number of ideas and constructions, the units of nonhuman communication systems cannot be recombined to make new meanings
describes the variability among language users, two children of the same age will likely show a range of differences, those who live in culturally and linguistically diverse communities show variability in their language
natural variations of a language that evolve within specific cultural or geographic boundaries, variations affect form, content, and use
What are common dialects in the United States?
Appalachian English, African American Vernacular English, Spanish-Influenced English, General American English
learn a single language
acquire two or more languages
phenomenon present when children are raised bilingually, interchanges between the syntax and vocabulary of the two languages they are learning
significant difficulties with language development, ratio of 2 or 3 boys to 1 girl
girls have an advantage over boys in langugae development, girls begin talking earlier and develop their vocabularies at a faster rate in the second year of life, experts point to biological and environmental influences
method researchers use to estimate the contribution of genetics to language development, as well as the heritability of language disorders; researchers compare language abilities of identical and fraternal twins, allow researchers to identify exact contributions of genetic and environmental influences to language development
What environmental aspects figure most prominently in a child's language development?
quality, quantity, caregiver responsiveness
quality (language-learning environment)
the characteristics of language spoken in the child's caregiving environment, the types of words, construction of sentences, intention of sentences, and the organization and specificity of stories
quantity (language-learning environment)
the sheer amount of language a child experiences, the volume of words children hear in their homes is shown to map directly to the size of the children's vocabularies
refers to the promptness, contingency, and appropriateness of caregiver responses to children's bids for communication through words or other means; higher degrees of responsiveness are associated with accelerated rates of language development
heritable (specific) language impairment
exhibit depressed language abilities, typically with no other impairment of intellect; specific to the functioning of language, affects about 7-10% of children, most common type of communication impairment affecting children, evidence suggests it is a heritable condition
often co-occurs with certain developmental disabilities such as intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder, the language impairment is considered a secondary disorder because it results secondary to a primary cause
acquired brain injuries
brain injuries that occur after birth, leading cause of death and disabilty among children, often causes language impairment
traumatic brain injury
brain damage resulting from physical trauma, particularly blunt trauma to the head, causes include abuse, intentional harm, accidental poisioning with toxic substances, car accidents, and falling
diffuse brain injury
affects large areas of the brain
focal brain injury
affects one specific brain region
What part of the brain houses the centers for language functions?
The frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, also house centers for most executive functions (reasoning, planning, hypothesizing). Often damaged in head injuries.
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