Pozen Biology Unit 1B Cell, Transport 14-15

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prokaryote
a single-celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles; includes bacteria
eukaryote
organism made up of cells that have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane; includes protists, animals, plants, and fungi
organelle
one of the small structures found in the cytoplasm of a cell and that perform a specific function
nucleus
a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and controls its functions
plasma membrane
a phospholipid bilayer that covers a cell's surface and acts as a barrier
ribosome
organelle that is the site of protein synthesis
cytoplasm
the fluid between the cell membrane and the nucleus, and the organelles it holds
mitochondria
organelle is the site of cellular respiration which produces ATP
chloroplasts
organelles found in plants and algae where photosynthesis occurs
selective permeability
property of a membrane that allows some materials to pass through while keeping others out
diffusion
the movement of particles from regions of higher to lower concentrations
osmosis
the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
isotonic
solution where the concentration of dissolved materials inside and outside the cell is equal; causes no change in cell size
hypotonic
a solution where the concentration of dissolved material inside the cell is higher than outside, causing the cell to swell
hypertonic
a solution where the concentration of dissolved material outside the cell is higher than inside, causing the cell to shrink