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41 terms

Chapter 2 Terms

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Functional Foods
foods that provide health benefits beyond those supplied by the traditional nutrients the contain
A example of a Functional Food
a tomato contains the phytochemical lycopene
Nutrient Density
the ratio derived by dividing a food's nutrient content by its calorie content. -- When the food's contribution to our nutrient need for that nutrient exceeds its contribution to our calorie need, the food is considered to have a favorable _____ _____.
Energy Density
a comparison of the calorie (kcal) content of a food with the weight of the food. An _______-_______ food is high in calories but weighs very little (e.g., potato chips), whereas a food low in _______ _______ has few calories but weighs a lot, such as an orange.
Nutritional State
the nutritional health of a person as determined by anthropometric measurements (height, weight, circumferences, and so on), biochemical measurements of nutrients or their by-products in blood and urine, a clinical (physical) examination, a dietary analysis, and economic evaluation
Nutritional status is another name for
nutritional state
Malnutrition
falling health that results from long-standing dietary practices that do not coincidewith nutritional needs
Overnutrition
a state in which nutritional intake greatly exceeds the body's needs
Undernutrition
failing health that results from a long-standing dietary intake that is not enough to meet nutritional needs
Symptom
a change in health status noted by the person with the problem, such as stomach pain
Subclinical
stage of a disease or disorder not severe enough to produce symptoms that can be detected or diagnosed.
Anthropometric Assessment
measurement of body weight and the lengths, circumferences, and thicknesses of parts of the body
Biochemical Assessment
measurement of biochemical functions (e.g., concentrations of nutrient by-products or enzyme activities in the blood or urine) related to a nutrient's function
Clinical Assessment
examination of general appearance of skin, eyes, and tongue; evidence of rapid hair loss; sense of touch; and ability to cough and walk
Dietary Assessment
estimation of typical food choices relying mostly on the recounting of one's usual intake or a record of one's previous days' intake
Environmental Assessment
includes details about living conditions, education level, and the ability of the person to purchase, transport, and cook food. The person's weekly budget for food purchases is also a key factor to consider.
Heart Attack
rapid fall in heart function caused by reduced blood flow thorugh the heart's blood vessels. Often part of the heart dies in the process.
A Heart Attack is "technically" called a ...
myocardial infarction
Discretionary Calories
the calories allowed in a diet after the person has met overall nutrition needs. this generally small amount of calories gives individuals the flexibility to consume some foods and beverages that may contain alcohol (e.g., beer and wine), added sugars (e.g., soft drinks, candy, and desserts), or added fats that are part of moderate- or high-fat foods (e.g., many snack foods).
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
general goals for nutrient intakes and diet composition set by the USDA and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
term used to encompass nutrient recommendations made by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences. - These include RDAs, EARs, AIs, EERs, and ULs.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
nutrient intake amount sufficiant to meet the needs of 97% to 98% of the individuals in a specific life stage
Adequate Intake (AI)
nutrient intake amount set for any nutrient for which insufficient research is available to establish an RDA. These are based on estimates of intakes that appear to maintain a defined nutritional state in a specific life stage.
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
estimate of the energy (kcal) intake needed to match the energy use of an average person in a specific life stage
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
maximum chronic daily intake level of a nutrient that is unlikely to cause adverse health effects in almost all people in a specific life stage
Hypotheses
tentative explanation by a scientist to explain a phenomenon
Scurvy
the deficiency disease that results after a few weeks to months of consuming a diet that lacks vitamin C; pinpoint sites of bleeding on the skin are an early sign
Epidemiology
the study of how disease rates vary among different population groups
Theory
an explanation for a phenomenon that has numerous lines of evidence to support it
Control Group
participants in an experiment who are not given the treatment being tested
Placebo
generally a fake medicine or treatment used to disguise the treatments given tot he participants in an experiment
Animal Model
use of animals to study disease to understand more about human disease
Case-Control Study
a study in which individuals who have a disease or condition, such as lung cancer, are compared with individuals who do not have the condition.
Ulcer
erosion of the tissue lining, usually in the stomach, or the upper small intestine.
Stomach Ulcer ... aka ...
gastic ulcer
Upper Small Intestince Ulcer ... aka ...
duodenal ulcer
Peptic Ulcer
is the term generally referring to, as a group, the gastic ulcer & duodenal ulcer.
Microorganism
bacteria, virus, or other organism invisible to the naked eye, some of which cause diseases.
Microbes
another name for a microorganism.
Double-Blind Study
an experimental design inw hich neither the participants nor the researchers are aware of each participant's assignment (test or placebo) or the outcome of the study until it is completed. An independent third party holds the code and the data until the study has been completed.
The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid
"A contemporary approach to delicious, healthy eating" -- emphasizes the health benefits that plant foods provide by grouping these delicious and healthy foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, legumes, seeds, olives and olive oil) together. Herbs and spices were also added for reasons of both health and taste. The Pyramid also emphasizes the health benefits of eating fish and shellfish at least two times per week.