64 terms

Chapter 3

STUDY
PLAY
Prokaryote complex features
DNA as the hereditary material and complex gene control
Complex biochemical patterns of growth and energy conservation
Complex response to stimuli
Reproduction
Adaptation
Complex organization
Homeostasis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
Multicellular Development
cells cooperate with each other as seen in biofilms
Quorum sensing
coordinated chemical signaling between cells
Schleiden and Schwann
developed part of cell theory
Cell Theory
all organisms are composed of one or more cells making the cell the fundamental unit of life.
Nucleic Acids
DNA and RNA
DNA
carry genetic code in all cells
RNA
decodes sequence of amino acids to produce proteins
Nitrogenous base of DNA
Purine and Pyrimdine
Purine is
Adenine and guanine
Pyrimidine is
Thymine and cytosine
how are Nucleotides joined
covalent bond
hydrogen bonds betwen nitrogen bases
how are strands of DNA joined
RNA different than DNA
Thymine is replaced by uracil
deoxribose is replaced by ribose
RNA is shorter
RNA is single stranded
the ER and Golgi apparatus
how is Protein/Lipid transport carried out in Eukaryotes
Cellular Respiration in Eukaryotes performed by
Mitochondria
Cellular Respiration in Prokaryote performed by
cytoplasm and cell membrane
yes
can eukaryotes and prokaryotes perform photosynthesis
Lipids
act as gatekeeer to the cell
insoluble in water
Simple Lipids
contain only Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
"fats"
Compound Lipids
contain fatty acids, glycerol and others
Phospholipid
made up of a phosphate and two fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule
Hydrophillic
water loving
hydrophobic
Water Fearing
metabolism
all the chemical reactions occurring in an organism or cell
cytoplasm
Where does metablosm occur
Protein Synthesis
the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
all amino acids have
a carboxyl group
an amino group
a central carbon
a side chain
amino acids are joined by
peptide bonds
peptide bond
formed between the interaction of the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the following amino acid
proteins have 4 structures
Primary
secondary
tertiary
quaternary
Primary structure of Protein
sequence of amino acid that determines other protein features
Secondary structure of Protein
primary structure folds into new configuration and is weak from bonds formed between amino acids
Tertiary structure of Protein
3d structure with 2 major shapes, globular and fibrous
Protein Denaturation
proteins have to keep their shape to function and environmet can alter that
Quaternary Protein
A protein consisting of more than one amino acid chain.
Prokaryote and Eukaryote Structural Distinctions
Eukaryote - membrane enclosed subcellular compartments called organelles
Prokaryote - subcellular compartments, but are not membrane enclosed
Eukaryote organelles
Nucleus
ER
Golgi Apparatus
Lysosome and peroxisomes
Mitochondria and chloroplast
Nucleus
Contains DNA, area of DNA replication
Mitosis
asexual replication
Meiosis
Sexual replication
Rough ER
embedded with ribosomes
site of protein synthesis
Smooth ER
lipid synthesis and degradation
calcium storage
Golgi Apparatus
consists of a series of membrance bound flattened sacs where proteins and lipid coming rom the ER are processed sorted and packed for transport
Lysosomes
derived from the Golgi and contain degradative enzymes
Peroxisomes
organelles in which oxygen is used to oxidize substances
Mitochondria
thsite of energy production
chloroplast
found only in plant and algae, uses photosynthesis for energy production
cytoskeleton
gives the cell structure and transports materials within cell
flagella
whiplike tails found in one-celled organisms to aid in movement
Cilia
shorter than flagella that help move cells
Cell wall
rigid, surronds membrane and determines shape
Taxonomy
classification involving arranging related organisms into logical categories
Carolus Linnaeus
published Systema Naturae, uniform system of naming organisms
Nomenclature
gives scientific names to organisms
Ernst H Haeckel
coined term protist
Robert H Whittaker and Lynn Margulis
developed 5 kingdom system
Carl Woese
3 domain system, Bacteria, Eukarya and Archaea
common unit for measuring length is
micrometer
micrometer
10-6 of a meter
importanat factors in light microscopy are
Magnification
Resolution
Contrast
Resolution
ability to resolve 2 objects that are very close together
Contrast
reflects the number of visible shades in a specimen