GR 7 Science: Tiner History of Medicine
Cumulative review of people and terms
Terms in this set (126)
a code of proper conduct for doctors
blood, black bile, yellow bile, phlegm
an attempt to balance the four humors
study of the human body, 'to cut'
On the Fabric of the Human Body
landmark book written by Vesalius, 663 pages, 300 drawings
one who works with his hands
On the Motion of the Blood
written by David Fabricius, discussed a circular system of blood movement
blood vessels that comprise the circulatory system
single small, powerful magnifying lens
one celled animals, discovered by Leeuwenhoek
bubonic plague, spread by rats and fleas
common disease that was often fatal/milder disease common to cattle
treatment against common disease using a weakened version of the illness/latin word for cow
flammable gas that was used for sedating patients, but results were unpredictable
acquired by contact
the change of sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide
air drying to kill harmful micro-organisms
belief that microscopic organisms come into existence out of non living matter
theory of evolution
created by Charles Darwin
fracture where the bone pokes through the skin
disinfectant used during surgery that did not damage human skin
frightful disease that killed livestock as well as people, develop spores to survive
exposure to weakened bacteria that gives the body immunity to the disease
human disease spread by bite of a mad dog or animal, fatal once symptoms develop, caused by virus, vaccine developed by Louis Pasteur
a bit of living crystal smaller than bacteria, that causes disease, can only be seen with powerful electron microscopes
'scaly skin', disease caused by vitamin C deficiency (both what it means and what it is) -
thiamine deficiency disease
Latin word meaning "life"
element discovered by Bernard Courtois, found in seawater
a beam of electrons emitted from the cathode of a high-vacuum tube.
CRT/Cathode Ray Tube
a high-vacuum tube in which cathode rays produce a luminous image on a fluorescent screen, used chiefly in televisions and computer terminals.
electromagnetic radiation, can pass through most objects
2nd Scientific Revolution (1895)
experiments in radiation, thermodynamics, birth of modern physics
discovered to be radioactive by Martin Klaproth; primary ore of uranium
giving off radiation
white blood cells
used by the body to fight infection
created by Dr Gerhard Domagk, not found in nature, strictly synthetic
Penicillium (bread mold)
a type of bread mold, related to mildew and mushrooms, releases a chemical that kills germs
antibiotic created from penicillium
4 different types: O, A, B, and AB
double helix molecule that contains genetic code
Egyptian, first known physician
Father of Medicine
Most important physician during Roman Empire, believed disease resulted from an imbalance of vital fluids (humors)
taught medical students by reading from a book while an assistant carried out a dissection
learned human anatomy by looking at humans, not just animals. Hired an artist to create detailed drawings of his findings so others could also learn
Jan Stephen van Calcar
artist who drew anatomy models for Vesalius
known as the "Father of Modern Surgery"; used silk thread to repair injuries in place of burning hot oil and hot pokers.
proved that blood circulates in a closed path and is caused by the beating of the heart.
Famous science teacher at Padua
Successor to Vesalius, lectured on surgery and anatomy, pointed out valves in veins
discovered capillaries, tiny blood vessels that connected arteries to veins
invented the printing press in 1450
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
greatest maker and user of simple lens microscopes, viewed micro-organisms and glimpsed bacteria
famous maker of lenses, member of the Royal Society who did not initially support Leeuwenhoek's findings
Summed up Leeuwehoek's discoveries in a famous poem
his cowpox serum saved many lives and almost eliminated the disease of smallpox.
had the idea that cowpox might protect people from smallpox
Dr. Daniel Ludlow
instructed Edward Jenner in medicine
Mrs. John Phipps
mother who asked Dr Jenner to protect her son from smallpox
first patient inoculated/vaccinated against smallpox
milkmaid from whom the first smallpox vaccine was made
chemist who discovered laughing gas (nitrous oxide)
Dr. Thomas Beddoes
hired Humphry Davy to investigate medical properties of various gases
James Young Simpson
discovered chloroform could be used as an anesthetic.
appointed James Young Simpson as her personal physician
William T. G. Morton
Began as a dentist, patented the use of ether in surgery, died of a stroke
Dr. Charles Jackson
William Thomas Green Morton's instructor, claimed to have invented the ether inhaler, went insane with jealousy
apothecary who sold pure diethyl ether
patient on whom the ether inhaler was tested Sept 1846
Dr. John Warren
head of Massachusetts General Hospital
patient on whom the ether inhaler was publicly tested by Dr Morton Oct 1846
Crawford W. Long
Georgia doctor who used ether in surgery in 1842
Oliver Wendell Holmes
American author and physician, invented the term 'anesthetic'
Ignaz Philipp Semmelweiss
proved that doctors were carrying disease from corpses to patients and cleanliness could prevent childbed fever.
Director of the Vienna Maternity Hospital, Semmelweiss's boss, objected to investigation of hospital conditions
friend of Semmelweiss, died of childbirth fever after an autopsy
took much more care in cleanliness than doctors and medical students
his germ theory that microbes spread disease was the single most important medical discovery of all time, also discovered pasteurization and the rabies vaccine
Jean Baptiste Biot
well known chemist who supported Pasteur's tartrate discovery
distiller who needed help keeping his wine from going sour
creator of the theory of evolution
Italian Catholic priest, biologist and physiologist who paved the way for microbe research
Professor Jerome Balard
Friend of Pasteur
founder of antiseptic surgery, became the first white robed doctor, discovered that carbolic acid prevented infection on compound fractures
Professor Thomas Anderson
chemist and friend of Lister
patient on whom Lister tested carbolic acid as a disinfectant
Dr. Joseph Lawrence
developed an disinfectant for surgery that was not too harsh on human skin
discovered that anthrax was caused by bacteria.
Professor Ferdinand Cohn
allowed Dr Koch to present his findings at the University of Breslau
Louis Pasteur's wife
Famous veterinarian who demanded a field test of Pasteur's anthrax vaccine
patient on whom the rabies vaccine was tested, first human to escape the certain death of rabies
famous French navigator
Dr. James Lind
found the cure for scurvy
Captain James Cook
kept his crew healthy by following Dr Lind's advice
discovered how to treat beriberi, won Nobel Prize in medicine
discovered the element iodine
found that a mineral called iodine could cure goiter.
invented safety glasses and discovered cathode rays, created cathode ray tubes, now used in computers and televisions
learned how to make glass globes for light bulbs from Crook's experiments
invented the x-ray machine using the Crook's tube, won the Nobel Prize in Physics
wife of Wilhelm
Albrecht von Koffiker
well known and elderly doctor on whom Wilheim Roentgen demonstrated his x ray
created a barium milkshake to view soft tissue structures in the body
discovered that pitchblade was radioactive, worked with Marie and Pierre Curie
discovered radium and other radioactive elements.
discovered radium and other radioactive elements.
discovered sulfa drugs.
recovered from a bacterial infection after a dose of sulfa drugs (Prontosil)
Dr. Perrin H. Long
experimented with sulfa drugs in the US
Franklin Roosevelt Jr.
treated with sulfa drugs for a throat infection by Dr Long
Karl von Ossietzky
Winner of a Nobel Peace Prize, but was thrown into a concentration camp for opposing Hitler
found penicillium mold growing in a petri dish. From it came penicillin and other drugs that could kill bacteria without harming human cells.
Dr. Howard Walter Florey
Isolated the chemical in penicillin mold and found that it could be mass produced, making it more affordable.
Brilliant assistant to Dr Florey
Dr. Charles Richard Drew
established the use of transfusions and blood banks.
Ronald & Richard Herrick
identical twins who underwent the first kidney transplant in 1954
Dr. Christiaan Barnard
performed the first heart transplant
Dr. Willem Kolff
developed an artificial kidney machine.
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