The temperature and pressure at which a substance can exist in equilibrium in the liquid, solid, and gaseous states. 32.01°F.
Which planets are gaseous? What is earth?
Venus and Mercury. Liquid.
The ability to do work and make things happen.
Examples of energy
Changes in shape, volume, chemical composition, pressure, temperature, density, and phase.
1st Law of Thermodynamics
The change in internal energy of a system equals the heat added to the system minus the work done by the system.
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
In all transformations of energy, some of the energy is lost as heat, and cannot be used to do work.
Solid to gas.
A measure of the hotness of an object, related to the average kinetic energy per molecule.
The lowest possible temperature; the temperature at which all particles have their minimum kinetic energy.
Thermal (Internal) Energy
The total energy (kinetic + potential) of the particles that make up a substance.
The thermal energy that flows from an object at higher temperature to one at a lower temperature, measured in calories or joules.
A unit of thermal energy, or heat. One calorie is the thermal energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 Celsius degree.
Specific Heat Capacity
The quantity of heat per unit of mass required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree Celsius.
Formation of a Hydrogen Molecule
1. Two Hydrogen Molecules collide. An electron has a negative 1 charge and a neutron has a positive 1 charge. 2. They share their electrons with a oxygen atom. 3. Form a water molecule held together by covalent bonds. 4. Acts as if it has positive and negative ends.
Bond Angle for water? ice?
Water: 104 Ice: 109
Describe the process of Hydrogren Bonding in Liquid Water
In liquid water, the hydrogen in a water molecule bonds to the oxygen of another water molecule.
What is the boiling point of water?
100 degrees Celsius
What happens to the molecular weight of water as temperature increases?
It stays the same.
Amount of dissolved solids plus dissolved gases in 1000 grams of seawater.
A liquid that has one or more substances dissolved in it.
Average Salinity Values
Distilled Water: 0 Lake Erie: 2-3 Ocean: 35 Great Salt Lake: 45 Dead Sea: 250
What elements make up the salt in the ocean?
55% chloride 30% sodium The rest are sulfate, magnesium, etc.
1. Positively charged. Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ 2. Come from the weathering of the rocks of Earth's crust 3. Silicates (e.g. hydrolysis of feldspar) 4. Non-silicates (e.g. dissolution of limestone)
1. Negatively charged. Cl-, SO42-, HCO3- 2. Come from the outgassing of the mantle, by volcanism 3. Major volcanic gases: HCl, SO2, SO3, CO2 4. Each is highly soluble in H2O, and upon dissolution in water, each forms H+ ions, and the above anions
Where is salinity on a map more present?
Along the ridges
Which has a higher pH, salt water or distilled water?
What is the importance of pH?
1. Marine organisms that have shells made of calcium carbonate that would dissolve if seawater were acidic 2. A basic pH is necessary for the formation of many complex organic compounds. 3. Buffering: the process of maintaining the pH, minimizing sudden changes in pH.
What is the heat added in calories per gram from ice to water?
What is the heat added in calories per gram from water to vapor?
Does the calories per gram increase or decrease when warming subfreezing ice?
Latent heat of melting
Calories absorbed melting 0 degrees ice.
The warmer a liquid (water) becomes, the higher the heat input.
Why does the air over dry ground become hotter over dry ground vs. wet ground?
Because evaporation uses some of the sun's energy.
True or False: Water has lower heat capacity than most minerals?
Why does water not fluctuate in temperature as much as air does?
Because water has a higher heat capacity.
The total amount of solar radiation energy received on a given surface area of Earth during a given time.
Solar Energy Spectrum
UVC, UVB, UVA, Visible light, Infrared light
What is the amount of solar energy absorbed by the earth determined by?
Latitude and season
At low latitude, how much solar radiation is absorbed and reflected by water?
95% absorbed, 5% reflected
At high latitude, how much solar radiation is absorbed and reflected by water?
67% absorbed, 33% reflected
What would happen if the earth stopped rotating?
Surface area would decrease, thus increasing solar radiation.
What is the order of absorption of incoming solar radiation?
1. Surface 2. Reflected to space 3. Atmosphere
What is the net result of global atmospheric temperature?
Heat is carried from the tropics (Mexico) and delivered to temperate regions (VA), and polar air also comes down, thus creating mixing zones, which create extreme temperatures.
Which season has more insolation?
What is the order of solar radiation absorbed from highest to lowest?
1. Arriving at top of atmosphere 2. Absorbed by Earth's surface 3. Reflected by clouds 4. Reflected by Earth's surface
What type of air is low pressure associated with? High pressure?
Rising air. Descending air.
What are external forces? What are internal forces?
External forces are plate tectonics, the Sun's strength, the Earth's orbit. Internal forces are atmosphere, ice, vegetation, ocean, and land surfaces.
What are fast responses in Climate System Components?
1. Daily heating and cooling 2. Gradual buildup of heat wave 3. Daily heating of upper ground surface 4. Midwinter heating freezing and thawing 5. Warmest beach temperatures late in summer 6. Sudden leaf kill by frost 7. Slow growth of trees to maturity 8. Late winter maximum extent
What are slow responses in Climate System Components?
1. Widespread glacier retreat 2. Advance/retreat of ice sheet margins 3. Advance/retreat of entire ice sheet
Throughout the Paleozoic, intense evaporation occurred in some restricted basins. What did this lead to?
Accumulation of thicc evaporite sequences.
Why does oceanic circulation get restricted in the basins? What does this lead to?
Because of reefs. Increased evaporation.
What direction do Trade Winds go? Westerlies?
Trade winds go towards the equator. Westerlies go towards the poles.
What are some influences on Oceanic Gyre Formation?
1. Solar Heating 2. Wind Patterns 3. Gravity
What direction does water move in the northern and southern hemispheres?
Eastward in the northern hemisphere, westward in the southern hemisphere.
El Nino vs El Nina
El Nino is several months around Christmas that causes warm, heavy flooding and poor fishing. El Nina is cooler waters.
An oscillation in the surface air pressure between the southeastern tropical Pacific and the Australian-Indonesian regions.
What happens when ocean water becomes abnormally warm?
1. Trade winds in the Pacific Ocean weaken, and may even change direction 2. Sea surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific typically are up to 8°C warmer than normal 3. Dry, high pressure air masses that typically occur in the eastern Pacific are replaced by humid, low pressure air masses that are usually located over the western Pacific 4. As a result, normally dry coastal areas along the eastern Pacific receive more precipitation than normal, and normally rainy areas of the western Pacific experience drier than normal conditions