Biology Honors Evolution
Terms in this set (68)
What are the 5 mechanisms of evolution?
population, mating, mutation, gene flow/ movement, and adaption
What is the term for a group of organisms that can reproduce and have fertile off spring?
As explained in the theory of evolution by natural selection, organisms with adaptations are more likely to survive and __?
The Galapagos tortoises with short necks and legs lived in areas of low vegetation while the tortoises with long necks and legs lived in the areas with tall plants. Neck length is an example of......
the wings of butterflies and fins of a whale are examples of __________________ structures
For natural selection to occur, there must be _________ between organisms in a population
Structures that develop from the same embryonic tissues but have different mature forms are ___________
The separation of two populations by barriers such as rivers or mountains results in ______________ isolation
All of the genes in a population make up the _________ of the population
The idea that each living species has descended with changes over time from other species is called _________ with ________
descent with modification
Natural selection acts on _________
________ is the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in a specific environment
A small sample of a population breaking off and forming a new population
A situation in which allele frequencies change as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population is known as the _________
_________ occurs when the allele frequencies in a population remain constant
List two of the 3 sources of genetic variation
mutation and gene flow
The idea that all species living and extinct were derived from common ancestors linked by a single "tree of life" = ?
In a small population a random change in allele frequency is called ___________
Identify one key difference between natural selection and artificial selection
________ is formation of a new species
Molecular evidence for evolution include DNA and similarities in ______ ______ sequences
The difference in the physical traits between organisms in a population
A feature that allows an organism to better survive in its environment
A tortoise population lives in an are with tall grass these tortoises have longer necks than tortoises that live in other areas
One fish in a population has slightly darker scales than its relatives
Producing many offspring some of which may not survive
Heritable differences that makes an individual unique
An advantageous trait one well-suited for the environment.
A heritable, advantageous trait becoming more common in a population
descent with modification
In biology an organism is said to have high fitness if......
it survives and reproduces
Name the factors/mechanisms that can lead to evolution
Small population size (genetic drift), non-random mating (sexual reproduction), Mutations, Immigration and emigration, natural selection (adaptations)
Different organisms share similar structures that have very different functions, or have remnants of structures/organs that had a function in the past
In DNA sequencing, the more closely related two organisms are the more similar their DNA
Fossil organisms found in bottom layers are more primitive than those in the upper layer
During the early stages of life embryos of very different organisms appear to be very similar. As they continue to develop, they become increasingly different
Different habitats favor different traits and can establish separate populations that have a common ancestor
Some structures perform similar functions however they are not evidence of a common ancestor. These are called _________ structures
In genetic terms, what indicates that evolution is occurring in a population?
a change in allele frequency over time
Explain how mutations are important in the process of biological evolution
Some mutations can give an organism an advantage, of this occurs the individual will be more successful at surviving
Define the genetic drift. What are the types?
A random change in allele frequency. The bottleneck effect or the Founder Effect
How can the founder effect lead to changes in a gene pool
because the gene pool is based on original founders
How can a new species form?
two groups of the same species must be reproductively isolated, this may be attributed to a geographical barrier
Any variation that can help an organism survive in its environment is called an _________
In evolution which driving factor most consistently requires a small population as a precondition for its occurrence
What is the founder effect?
When a few individuals become isolated from a larger population, and their gene pool differs from that source population
What is true of natural selection?
Mutations occur at random; natural selection can preserve and distribute beneficial mutations
Share common function but not structure
Inherited from ancestors but have lost original function
Selective breeding of plants and animals to promote the occurrence of desirable traits
Heritable characteristic that increases an organisms ability to survive and reproduce in an environment
How well an organism can survive and reproduce
Where organisms that are most suited to their environment thrive
Study of past and present distribution of organisms
Structures that are similar in different species of common ancestry
All the genes including all the different alleles for each gene that are present in a population at one time
Number of times an allele occurs in a gene pool compared with the number of alleles in that pool for the same gene
Random change in allele frequency caused by chance occurrences that cause alleles to become more or less common in a population
A change in allele frequency following a dramatic reduction in the size of a population
Change in allele frequencies as a result of the migration of a population
States that an allele frequencies in a population remain constant unless one or more factors cause them to change
hardy Weinberg principle
Formation of a new species
Separation of a species or population so that they are no longer interbreed and evolve into 2 separate species
Form of reproductive isolation in which 2 populations develop differences in courtship rituals or other behaviors that prevent them from breeding
Reproduction where 2 populations separated by geographic barriers leading to the formation of 2 separate species
Reproduction isolation in which 2 or more species reproduces at different times
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