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bio test 3
Terms in this set (50)
Cancer of epithelial cells (like skin cells)
cancer of bone and soft tissues
Cancer of blood-forming tissue (bone marrow)
carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia
types of cancer
substance that can lead to development of cancer
study of cancer also, oncogene
what is cancer
cancer is the loss of regulation of cell reproduction within a multicellular organism
unregulated cell division
lack of programmed cell death(apoptosis)
escape of bad cells from the body's immune system
important cell milestones
photosynthesis released oxygen
complex membranes (with sterols) allowed development of eukaryotes (hypotheses but not theories yet on how)
eukaryotes gave rise to three major multicellular organisms. Animals, plants, and fungi
cancer is relevant to multicellularity
multicellularity arose just after eukaryotes
multicellularity requires cells to behave in the interest of the organism, not necessarily in their own self interest.
programmed cell death
the uncontrolled division of cells
the five principal components to the eukaryotic cell
the plasma membrane.
life cycles animals
primarily diploid organisms
life cycles fungi
primarily haploid and dikaryon, diploid state very short.
life cycles plants
alternation of generations, evolution from primarily haploid to primarily diploid
life cycles protists
(mostly single celled) mostly haploid, a diploid cell is made for sexual reproduction
life cycles and the role of mitosis
mitosis is cellular reproduction without a change in policy.
it does not generate much variability
it can happen in haploid cells, diploid cells tetraploid cells etc.
homologous chromosomes never come together, it is as if the chromosomes were not in pairs
the cell cycle is divided into a mitotic phase and interphase
the mitotic phase is divided into mitosis and cytokinesis
interphase is divided into G2, S and G2.
During S phase the chromosomes are duplicated (sister chromatids)
there are checkpoints in the cell cycle to make sure everything is OK before proceeding.
Apoptosis- when cells commit suicide
One of the ways the body prevents cancer is to send a signal for cancerous cells to commit suicide
this signal can be stimulated by a protein called p53. cancer nearly always involves loss of function of p53.
among other things, apoptosis signals result in release of cytochrome c from mitochondria.
hypersensitive response in plants.
a number of developmental processes in humans depend on apoptosis.
P53 regulates the cell cycle, including apoptosis
P53 is normally made all the time. when DNA is damaged or other stress is present, p53 breakdown stops so p53 accumulates.
Do all cell have one and only one nucleus
if a cell undergoes mitosis but not cytokinesis it can become multinucleate.(human liver, plants, and insects)
if two cells fuse their outer membranes they can have two nuclei or more in one cell.(muscle fibers, osteoblasts needed for bone repair, fungi)
some cells are made and then function after losing their nucleus(human red blood cells, phloem sieve cells of plants(sugar transporting cells))
regeneration depends on complexity
the more complex the organism, the less able it is to regenerate lost body parts
we have a closed circulation system.
blood consists of plasma (the liquid part), white blood cells, red blood cells, nutrients, and hormones
animals and multicellularity
animals have developed the most complex body plans of the various kingdoms of life.
important steps include:
tissues and organs (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm)
chordate universal characters
symmetry around a central point
no planes of symmetry
symmetry across the sagittal plane
inner cells with flagella create currents
the currents cause water to flow into pores and out the osculum at top
animals are divided among 9 phyla
sponges-simplest body plan, one tissue type.
Cnidaria-jellyfish, two life stages (both 2n)
platyhelminths-flatworms(some are parasites)
annelida-segmented worms, earthworms, coelom
molluscs-snails, oysters, squid et alia
nematodes - roundworms (trichinosis)
arthropods - insects/arachnids/lobsters, exoskeleton.
echinoderms - sea stars, lost bilateral symmetry.
chordata - us
simplest body plan, one tissue type
jellyfish, two life stages
flatworms(some are parasites)
segmented worms, earthworms, coelom
snails, oysters, squid et alia
sea stars, lost bilateral symmetry
not all chordates are vertebrates-important steps in evolution of mammals
sharks do not have bones and so cannot have a backbone,
bony fish is an important step in evolution
the innovations in multicellular development requires a genetic program to cause cells to divide and differentiate
cells can divide unevenly so that one of the daughter cells can differentiate while the other remains undifferentiated
the cell that stays undifferentiated is called a stem cell.
in animals some cells are partly differentiated
animal cells specialize for development.
the more complex the animal, the more difficult it is to regenerate organs,
plants are much less complex but more of their cells have the ability to dedifferentiate.
the zygote can develop into any cell in the body, Totipotent
cells begin to specialize, Endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm, blood cells.
cells change and may be able to develop into certain cell types. Myeloid progenitor cells can develop into red or white blood cells. Lymphoblasts can develop into lymphocytes.
if development fails, blast cells accumulate
blastula stage (many go on to make a gastrula)
mobile(at least for part of their life cycle)
cells without cell walls.
a cell whose primary complement of DNA is contained within a membrane-lined nucleus. Eukaryotic cells have several other organelles in addition to the nucleus. All organisms except bacteria and archaea either are single eukaryotic cells or are composed of eukaryotic cells.
A cell whose DNA is not located in the membrane-bound organelle known as a nucleus. Prokaryotes are microscopic forms of life, and all are either bacteria or archaea.
a membrane-lined compartment that encloses the primary complement of DNA IN EUKARYOTIC CELLS
A highly organized structure within a cell that carries out specific cellular functions. Almost all organelles (meaning "tiny organs") are bound by membranes. The lone exception is the ribosome, which has no membrane and is the single organelle possessed by prokaryole cells (bacteria and archaea) organelles in eukaryotic cells include the cell nucleus, mitochondria, lysosomes, chloroplasts, and ribosomes.
the protein-rich, jelly-like fluid in which a cell's organelles that are outside the nucleus are immersed.
a membrane forming the outer boundary of many cells, composed of a phospholipid bilayer interspersed with proteins and cholesterol molecules and coated, on its exterior face, with short carbohydrate chains associated with proteins and lipids.
the region of a cell inside the plasma membrane and outside the nucleus usually, this region is filled with the jelly-like cytosol containing the cell's extranuclear organelles.
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