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Chapter 6 Integumentary System Study Guide Questions

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The location of the hypodermis is best described as
Deep to the dermis.
The part of the hair enclosed in the follicle is known as the
Hair Root
Functions of the skin include the following:
Thermoregulation, sensory reception, and vitamin D synthesis
Place the three kinds of hair in the order in which they grow over the course of our lives. The top of your list should contain the type of hair that appears first in a fetus.
1. lanugo
2. vellus
3. terminal hair
The skin is composed of the:
epidermis and dermis only
Hairs called _________ shield the eyes from windblown debris with a quick blink.
Eyelashes
Identify the components of the integumentary system.
Epidermis, hair, dermis, and cutaneous glands.
Dark brown to black pigmentation of the skin results from:
Deposition of melanin by melanocytes.
The hair of the ________ enhance facial expression and to keep sweat out of the eyes.
Eyebrow
The skin is essential in sensing:
External stimuli
The __________ system consists of the skin and its accessory organs.
Integumentary
Hair cells are nourished by a _______.
Dermal papilla
Match the hair-type with the cross-sectional shape of the hair.
1. wavy hair ---> oval
2. straigh hair ----> round
3. tightly curly hair ----> flat
List components of the dermis.
Glands, nerve fibers, blood vessels, and fibers.
One of the important functions of the skin is to:
Sense changes in the environment.
List the tissue types found in the dermis.
Connective tissue, muscular tissue, epithelial tissue, and nervous tissue.
The integumentary layer indicated in the figure is the
dermis
_______ glands secrete a substance that combines with sebum to keep the eardrum protected and prevent foreign particles from entering the canal.
ceruminous
Name the type of hair type that is the predominant form of hair found on the scalp.
Terminal
________ is a protein produced in the cells of the epidermis that improves its durability and resistance to infection.
Keratin
Accessory organs or appendages of skin include:
hair, nails, and cutaneous glands
The structures that guard the nostrils and ear canals, preventing foreign particles from entering these areas are also called guard hairs or ____________.
vibrissae
List areas of the body where hair does not grow.
Palms of hands and soles of feet.
A core of loosely arranged cells and air spaces prominent in thick hair is called the:
medulla
List the epidermal layers that contain Langerhans (dendritic) cells.
stratum spinosum, and stratum granulosum
Describe the composition of sweat.
Acidic solution containing urea, potassium, sodium chloride and ammonia.
Name the common types of hemangioma
Capillary, cavernous, and port-wine
Hair grows in diagonal tubes called hair __________.
Follicles
The structure indicated in the figure is a(n) _________ ________.
piloerector muscle.
The arrow on the left of the figure is pointing to the integumentary layer called the ____________.
Epidermis.
The portion of a fingernail or toenail that is attached to the tip of the digit (finger) is called the _______.
Nail body
______ cells are skin cells with a sensory role.
Tactile
True or false: Melanin is the component of skin that is the primary determinant of skin color.
True.
Hair follicles and nail roots are embedded in:
Dermis
List conditions that commonly lead to the contraction of the piloerector muscles.
Cold, fear, and touch.
The layers of the epidermis are arranged in zones based upon the _____ of the keratinocytes.
Age.
List the features of skin that minimizes bacteria and fungi growth during an infection.
The acid mantle inhibits microbial growth. The cells of the skin shed frequently.
The dryness of the skin inhibits microbial growth.
The structures indicated in the figure are _______ glands.
Sweat.
The skin functions as a _________ to many potential harmful chemicals.
barrier or shield
Identify the cells that produce a pigment found in the skin.
Melanocytes.
Mechanical stress from manual labor accelerates keratinocyte multiplication. This results in formation of _______ or corns on the hands or feet.
callus
The term _______ describes the condition in which sweat is produced, causing noticeably wet skin during circulatory shock or exercise.
Diaphoresis
The mode of secretion for apocrine and merocrine glands is:
Exocytosis
Describe the stratum basale
Simple cuboidal stem cells and melanocytes resting on a basement membrane.
Identify the structure indicated in the figure.
Lamellar corpuscle
Name the skin type that covers the palms, soles, and surfaces of the fingers and toes.
Thick skin
A _______, or bruise, is a mass of clotted blood showing through the skin.
Hematoma
_________ glands are flask-shaped, with short ducts that usually open into a hair follicle and directly onto to skin.
Sebaceous
Unlike sweat glands and ceruminous glands, mammary glands:
Are usually active only in pregnant and lactating females.
The dermis consists of two zones: the _______ layer and the ________ layer.
papillary; reticular
A condition called _________ is a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes resulting from high levels of bilirubin in the blood
Jaundice
Sensing changes in the environment:
Is a major function of the skin.
The layer indicated in the figure is the
hypodermis
Name the flat melanized patches found on the skin that vary with heredity and exposure to the sun.
Freckles
Describe the composition of perspiration.
About 99% water and has a pH of 4-6
Cells in the epidermis are nourished by blood vessels located in the:
Dermis.
The hair types called _______ constitutes about two-thirds of the hair in women and one-tenth of the hair in men.
Vellus
Describe the hair matrix
The region of actively mitotic cells above the papilla
______ is blueness of the skin resulting from a deficiency of oxygen in the circulating blood.
cyanosis
The dermis consists of connective tissue, with ______ as the most common fiber type within the layer.
collagen
Active cell division in the _____ allows the skin to regenerate quickly.
Epidermis
The deepest layer of the dermis is called the ______ layer.
Reticular
The ________ _______ is the protective film that gives skin its slight acidity.
Acid mantle
Name the oily component of the secretion of the sebaceous glands.
Sebum
An individual hair is also known as a(n):
Pilus
Describe the function of the subcutaneous layer.
An energy reservoir and thermal insulation
______ glands are holocrine glands that are associated with hair follicles.
Sebaceous
Name the area of epidermis that covers the nail bed.
Hyponychium
The bumps indicated by the arrows are called dermal _______.
Papilla
In the process of thermoregulation, cutaneous nerve endings monitor the _______ of the body surface.
temperature
The skin plays an important role in the synthesis of:
Vitamin D
The structure indicated by the arrow is a(n) __________.
hair shaft
Thinning of the hair, or baldness, is also called ________.
Alopecia
The majority of cells found in the epidermis are:
keratinocytes
Exposure to sunlight leads to:
Increased melanin production and darkening of the skin.
Oxygen and nutrients needed by the epidermal cells undergoing mitosis are acquired from blood vessels in the _______.
Dermis
Within a hair follicle, the _______ root sheath is an extension of the epidermis, and lies adjacent to the hair root.
epithelial
Name the connective tissue layer that lies between the skin and the deeper muscle or other tissue.
Hypodermis