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BC Science 9 Chapter 4
Terms in this set (60)
All living things are composed of cells, the cell is the fundamental unit of life, and all living things come from pre-existing cells.
the cytoplasm and the nucleus
the gel-like fluid (cytosol) and organelles found outside the nucleus but within the cell membrane
small, specialized structures found within the cell which perform specialized tasks
a thin double layer of lipids that separate the inside of the cell from the outside. it regulates what comes into and leaves the cell.
have cell walls, have chloroplasts, 1 or 2 very large vacuoles, no lysosomes, no centrioles
no cell walls, no chloroplasts, many small vacuoles, have lysosomes, have centrioles
outer "wall" of the plant cell. made of the carbohydrate cellulose which helps support and give shape to the plant.
cell's control centre. composed of DNA which carries the genetic blueprint for manufacturing proteins which determines the characteristics of the body's cell and their metabolic functioning.
What is DNA made of?
4 nitrogen bases (a, t, c, g) forming one of 2 strands which combine to form a double helix molecule
double membrane that separates the chromosomes from the rest of the cell. it has nuclear pores which allow proteins into the nucleus and ribosomal subunits out.
made of DNA and protein (chromatin) that are segmented into genes that are codes which make various proteins in our body
How many chromosomes does the human body have?
46 (23 pairs)
small, dark stained sphere within the nucleus. it is thought to be involved in making ribosomes.
includes NE, ER, GA, and vesicles. it compartmentalizes the cell so that enzymatic reactions can be restricted to certain areas. the structures are all joined to one another or indirectly through the vesicles.
endoplasmic reticulum ER
has two types
rough endoplasmic reticulum RER
studded with ribosomes which produce various proteins
smooth endoplasmic reticulum SER
produces phospholipids and testosterone. also in the liver it detoxifies drugs
golgi apparatus GA
packaging site for products produced by the RER and SER. the packaged end products which are produced are called vesicles
large vesicle which stores waste products produced by the cell. also stores nutrients and H2O required by the cell
CO2 + H2O + light energy = C6H, 2O6 + O2
O2 + 2O6, C6H = light energy + H2O + CO2
produces energy for the plant by having chlorophyll pigments which convert sunlight to glucose = photosynthesis
releases the stored chemical energy from the food we eat in order to carry out the body's functions
network of interconnected filaments and tubules which are continuously being assembled and disassembled and function much like the bones and muscles of an animal.
a pair of short cylinders that are found at right angles to one another. they are responsible for producing the spindle fibers during mitosis and melosis (only found in animal cells)
cilia and flagella
hair-like projections that provide movement for single celled organisms. upper respiratory airways are lined with cilia and constantly beat in rhythmic waves to remove debris inhaled into the lungs. sperm cells have flagella to help them reach the egg
no nucleus, no complex organelles (except ribosomes), looped DNA ex: bacteria
has nucleus, has complex organelles, stranded DNA
ex: animal or plant cell
how proteins are produced
1. nucleus gets signal to make protein
2. gene is activated to make messenger RNA (mRNA)
3. mRNA leaves through nuclear pore
4. mRNA delivered to RER ribosomes which make protein
5. protein moves through RER to the ends where it is pinched off into a vesicle
6. vesicle carries protein to Ga for processing and is repackaged for transport out of the cell
7. vesicle fuses with cell membrane and the protein contents are released out of the cell
agents that cause cancer and can disrupt the key sequences of DNA which suppress tumor growth. if it affects an adult it will harm a localized area but if a gamate is mutated, all the cells of the offspring will carry/exhibit the mutation.
ex: radiation which can be x-rays or sunlight (UV rays)
ex: cigarette smoke, PCB's, pesticides
ex: viruses (HPV)
treatment for cancer
combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation
a nucleotide is removes
deletion, addition, substitution
a nucleotide is added
a nucleotide is replaced with another nucleotide
effects of gene mutations
negative, neutral, positive
disastrous or fatal consequences for the organism
ex: adult = cancer, offspring = nocturnal predator that has a white coat or a fly with small wings
will not harm or benefit the organism. these are the most common type of mutations, remembering that 90% of human DNA is junk so it doesn't make a difference if it harmed
does not usually benefit the adult but will help the offspring
ex: nocturnal predator that has a mutation that allows it to see better in the dark
gene therapy (replacing mutated genes with healthy copies)
found in nucleus, carries genetic instructions/information to make proteins, 1 copy/cell, double helix, fundamental unit = nucleotide
phosphate + sugar + nitrogenous bases
A, T, C, G
how many nitrogenous bases are in each codon?
what is a gene?
a segment of the DNA
DNA + protein
if strand 1 is AAG TCG ATG GCC what is strand 2?
TTC AGC TAC CGG
what is a codon?
codes for amino acids
ex: 4 codons = 4 amino acids = 1 protein
a bunch of nucleotides
what is the relationship between a nucleotide and a molecule of nucleic acid?
A bunch of nucleotides equals one molecule of nucleic acid
of what substances are the uprights of the DNA ladder composed?
what are the rungs composed of?
what are hydrogen bonds?
a force that links a hydrogen atom of one nitrogen base to an oxygen or nitrogen atom of the other base.
what is the importance of hydrogen bonds in a model representation of DNA?
It links the A to the T and the C to the G
Why must the quality and quantity of DNA in cells remain the same from generation to generation?
So that bad mutations don't occur
what is a scientific model and in what ways is it useful?
an enlarged replica of something used to either further examine or to help show/teach students what they are learning about by giving them a visual
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