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Terms in this set (37)
The kinetic-molecular theory of matter can be used to explain the properties of gases, liquads, and solids.
a hypothetical gas whose molecules occupy negligible space and have no interactions, and that consequently obeys the gas laws exactly.
A perfectly elastic collision is defined as one in which there is no loss of kinetic energy in the collision. An inelastic collision is one in which part of the kinetic energy is changed to some other form of energy in the collision.
the intermingling of substances by the natural movement of their particles
In medical terminology, an effusion refers to accumulation of fluid in an anatomic space, usually without loculation. Specific examples include subdural, mastoid, pericardial and pleural effusions
A real gas is a gas that does not behave as an ideal gas due to interactions between gas molecules. Also Known As: nonideal gas
A fluid is any substance that flows or deforms under an applied shear stress. Fluids comprise a subset of the states of matter and include liquids, gases, and plasma.
the tension of the surface film of a liquid caused by the attraction of the particles in the surface layer by the bulk of the liquid, which tends to minimize surface area.
Capillary action can be defined as the ascension of liquids through slim tube, cylinder or permeable substance due to adhesive and cohesive forces interacting between the liquid and the surface
Vaporization (or vapourisation) of an element or compound is a phase transition from the liquid phase to vapor. There are two types of vaporization: evaporation and boiling.
Evaporation is the process of a substance in a liquid state changing to a gaseous state due to an increase in temperature and/or pressure. Evaporation is a fundamental part of the water cycle and is constantly occurring throughout nature
Freezing, or solidification, is a phase transition in which a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point. For most substances, the melting and freezing points are the same temperature; however, certain substances possess differing solid-liquid transition temperatures.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions. ... Examples of amorphous solids include glass, wax, and many plastics.
Based on the microscopic arrangement of atoms inside it, called the crystal structure. A crystal is a solid where the atoms form a periodic arrangement.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal. In some older books, the term has been used synonymously with glass
The temperature at which a given material changes from a solid to a liquid, or melts; the same temperature as freezing point.
Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid. This occurs when the internal energy of the solid increases, typically by the application of heat or pressure, which increases the substance's temperature to the melting point.
Supercooling, also known as undercooling, is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material
A unit cell is the most basic and least volume consuming repeating structure of any solid. It is used to visually simplify the crystalline patterns solids arrange themselves in. When the unit cell repeats itself, the network is called a lattice
. In chemistry and physics, a phase is a physically distinctive form of matter, such as a solid, liquid, gas or plasma. A phase of matter is characterized by having relatively uniform chemical and physical properties. Phases are different from states of matter.
Condensation is the process of a substance in a gaseous state transforming into a liquid state. This change is caused by a change in pressure and temperature of the substance
In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time.
equilibrium vapor pressure
pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system. The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate.
Volatility describes how easily a substance will vaporize (turn into a gas or vapor). A volatile substance can be defined as (1) a substance that evaporates readily at normal temperatures and/or (2) one that has a measurable vapor pressure. The term volatile usually applies to liquids.
the temperature at which a liquid boils and turns to vapor.
temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the pressure of the atmosphere on the liquid, equal to 212°F (100°C) for water at sea level. Abbreviation: b.p. 2. the point beyond which one becomes angry, outraged, or agitated.
molar enthalpy of vaporization
Molar enthalpy of vaporization is the amount of energy needed to change one mole of a substance from the liquid phase to the gas phase at constant temperature and pressure.
the temperature at which a liquid turns into a solid when cooled.
molar enthalpy of fusion
Molar enthalpy of fusion is the amount of energy needed to change one mole of a substance from the solid phase to the liquid phase at constant temperature and pressure.
Sublimation is the phase transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase
The direct solidification of a vapor by cooling; the reverse of sublimation.
A phase diagram in physical chemistry, engineering, mineralogy, and materials science is a type of chart used to show conditions at which thermodynamically distinct phases occur and coexist at equilibrium
the temperature and pressure at which the solid, liquid, and vapor phases of a pure substance can coexist in equilibrium.
a point on a phase diagram at which both the liquid and gas phases of a substance have the same density, and are therefore indistinguishable.
the pressure of a gas or vapor in its critical state.
the temperature of a gas or vapor in its critical state. Above this temperature, a gas cannot be liquefied by pressure alone.
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