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Principles of Biology

1st exam over Ch. 1-3
STUDY
PLAY
Biology
is the study of living organisms
Scientific Method
making observations of the world, proposing ideas about how something works, testing those ideas, and discarding (or modifying) our ideas in response to the results of a test
Hypotheses
how things work; tentative explanation for an observation that requires testing to validate
observations
measurement of nature
testable
it must be possible to evaluate a hypothesis through observations of the measurable universe
supernatural
it is not constrained by any laws of nature, and its behavior cannot be predicted using our current understanding of the natural world
falsifiable
an observation or set observations could potentially prove it false
scientific theory
an explanation of a set of related observations based on well-supported hypotheses from several different, independent lines of research
Germ theory
further supported by the observation that antibiotic treatment that targets particular microorganisms can cure certain illnesses
theory
synonymous with untested hypothesis based on little information
inductive reasoning
combining a series of specific observations to discern a general principle
deductive reasoning
using a general principle to predict an expected observation; formed in if/then statements
prediction
concerns the outcome of an action, test, or investigation
Experiments
sets of actions or observations designed to test specific hypotheses
What do both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have?
plasma membrane, DNA chromosomes, ribosomes, cytosol /cytoplasm
Eukaryotic Cells
"True" Nucleus, Cytoplasm, larger cells, slower metabolism, and slower cell division rate.
What does "True" Nucleus mean?
nucleated/ nucleus, linear shaped chromosome, DNA segregated from the rest of the cell
Prokaryotic Cells
"before" Nucleus, Cytoplasm, smaller cells, higher metabolism, and higher cell division rate
What does "Before" nucleus mean?
A nuclear-nucleoid region, circular shaped chromosome, DNA is not segregated from the rest of the cell, Plasmids
Cell Theory
a unifying concept of biology and a biological universal
List 3 tenets of the cell theory
All living things are composed of cells, the cell is the smallest unit that exhibits life, cells can only come from preexisting cells (except the first one)
Explain how the cell theory illustrates a repeating them in biology
( Hierarchal arrangement) Large complex structures or systems are built from small simple components
What are the 3 basic components of a cell?
Plasma membrane, DNA, and cytoplasm/ cytosol
What are the 4 functions of the cell?
metabolism, responsiveness (irritability). homeostasis, reproduction
Why do cells remain small?
the cell is more efficient in meeting the demands of the cell and sustaining life
reactive group or functional group
groups of atoms covalently bonded to a carbon backbone
Hydroxyl group
oxygen, and hydrogen
Carbonyl group
carbon connected by a double bond to oxygen
carboxyl group
carbon double bonded with oxygen, and single bonded to oxygen and hydrogen
Amino Group
Nitrogen connected to two hydrogens
Sulfhydryl group
Sulfur and hydrogen
organic molecules
always contain carbon, hydrogen, and usually oxygen, usually involves covalent bonding, large number of atoms, associated with living material
Alkalosis
pH of blood increases, causes tetany
Acidosis
pH of blood decreases due to Carbon dioxide accumulation in blood
What is the role of a buffer in a living organism?
the pH of body fluids
Buffers
Any substance that tends to minimize the changes in pH that might otherwise occur when an acid or base is added to a solution
Acids and bases neutralize each other. True or False
True
How do you know something is a base?
solutions feel slippery, are corrosive, have a bitter taste and can conduct electricity.
Bases
Any substance that donates OH- ions to a water solution. high concentrate of OH- ions and low concentrate of H+ ions
How do you know something is an acid?
sour tasting, corrosive and can conduct electricity.
Acids
Any substance that donates H+ ions to a water solution. high H+ ions and low concentration of OH ions
What is the pH of pure water
7 or neutral
What is the pH of Acidic
pH lower than 7
What is the pH of basic
pH greater than 7
pH scale
measure of the relative amounts of acids and bases in a solution
What are water solutions classified as?
Acidic, basic, or neutral
What 3 key properties of water that make water essential to life?
water is polar, water absorbs and holds hear, water molecules have adhesion and cohesion
Hydrogen bonding
very weak bond between H with a slight charge and oxygen or nitrogen with a slight charge on another molecule
Compare polar vs. nonpolar covalent bonds and molecules
Polar molecules have a slight charge at each end of the molecule due to an unequal sharing of electrons
Covalent Bonding
sharing of a polar of electrons between two atoms
Chemical bonding
attractive forces between atoms causing them to associate or bond with each other
what chemicals are the human body made of?
oxygen 65%, carbon 18%, hydrogen 10%, nitrogen 3%, and other 4%
Chemistry
the study of the composition of matter, its interactions and the laws that govern them
What 2 observations did Darwin try to explain with his theory?
Probably all of the organic beings which have ever lived on earth have descended from some one primordial from
Biological universal
common chemicals of life, cells, DNA, common metabolic pathways, energy production (ATP), lipid bilayer cellular membrane
sexual
variation of genes from two different places
Asexual
making a thing on the outside of the body and reproduce a colon of itself
What is a major difference between saturated and unsaturated fats
unsaturated fats contain carbon- to-carbon double bonds, but saturated fats don't
What are the monomers building blocks that make up proteins?
amino acids
Imagine a newly discovered biological molecule that ism mostly hydrophobic in its structure. This new molecule will most likely be classified as a ____.
nucleic acid
Because the electrons in the water molecule are shared unequally between hydrogen and oxygen water is said to be ____.
polar
Each of the following is a feature of all known living things except
genes made from proteins
NASA uses Netwonian laws of motion in planning space shuttle missions to mars etc. Even though some modifications have been made to these laws. This illustrates that aspect that science?
gives knowledge that is durable
A statically significant result is one that ______.
is unlikely due to chance
Correlations are less convincing than controlled experimental results because correlations ___.
do not eliminate as many alternative hypotheses as experimental results
A _____ is a factor in an experiment that can be manipulated
variable
A scientific hypothesis has all the following features except that is ____.
able to be proven true
The reaction outlined in the figure below is referred to as? glucose + glucose= malcrose + water
dehydration synthesis
A glucose molecule is to starch as ____.
a nucleotide is to a nucleic acid
A fatty acid is unsaturated if it ________.
contains double bonds between carbon atoms
Which of the following is an organic molecule?
Lipids
Which of the following is not an organic molecule
sodium
water has special solvent characteristics because
it is polar
_____. is the state in which the internal environment is being maintained in spite of environmental changes or influences
Homeostasis
A control group is _____.
a standard against which experimental groups are compared. And identical to experimental groups except for one variable
The ability of water molecules to cling together and "flow" when moving is called ___.
cohesion
some living things may not be comprised of cells or even a single cell. True or False
False
The scientific methodology, a way of knowing is characterized by...
hypothesis testing , and deductive and inductive reasoning
What are the six shared characteristics of living things?
constructed of the same kinds of atoms/ molecules, according to laws of energy, consist of one or more cell, use energy and raw materials from the environment to survive and reproduce.
observation
information or record secured by such an act
explain the 'ex post facto' research of second hand cigarette smoke
you take examples and make an observation experimental is more exact and has evidence. correlation is only observations that can be interputted
key methods of science
observing, inferring, proposing ideas, testing the experiment, discarding those ideas that fail
inference
reason based on previous experience
experiments
sets of actions or observations designed to test specific hypothesis
data
the information collected by scientists during hypothesis testing
variables
any factor that can change in value under different conditions
independent variables
one whose value can be freely changed
dependent variable
may or may not be influenced by changes in the independent variable, but it cannot be systematically changed by the researchers
explain what happens to the fishes and the toads
biology of all the sciences, has the greatest potential for making major advance in aid of the humanity at the same time, most problems facing society today are either biological or have large biological components. Increase in Farming, the increase in population of toads feminization
Goal #1 for Biology
Attaining scientific literacy means that a person has the ability to describe, explain, and predict natural phenomena
Goal #2 for Biology
Attaining Scientific literacy entails being able to read with understanding articles about science in the popular press and to engage in social conversation about the validity of the conclusions
Goal #3 for Biology
Attaining scientific literacy implies that a person can identify scientific issues underlying national and local decisions and express positions that are scientifically and technologically informed
Goal #4 for Biology
attaining scientific literacy enables the citizen to evaluate the quality of scientific information on the basis of its source and the methods used to generate it.
science
body of knowledge, is an activity or process the underlying aim of which is to further our own understanding of why things happen the way they do in the natural or created world
Scientific literacy requires
knowing yourself, knowing your world, and knowing your God
Law
generalizations related to the way some aspect of the natural world behaves under certain conditions
control
a subject who is similar to an experimental subject expect that the control is not exposed to the experimental treatment
control groups
designed to eliminate as many alternative hypotheses as possible for the result of experiment
What are organisms?
The same kinds of atoms/molecules, according to the same laws of energy, consists of one or more cells
Cell theory
all living things are composed of cells the cell is the structural and functional unit of life
Biogenesis
living things can only come from living things or cells can only come from pre-existing cells
Metabolism
All chemical and physical processes involved in the transforming of energy and matter so that life can be maintained
How do organisms reproduce?
asexual means, sexual means, reproduction transmits DNA, perpetuales species or kinds
Homeostasis
maintaining a constant internal environment to continue the process of life. Regulate internal environment changes
Adapations
Specific structures, behaviors and abilities that suit life forms to their environment and their survival as an individual and as a species
Biological Universals
common chemicals of life, cells, DNA, common metabolic pathways, energy production, lipid bilayer cellular membrane
C HOPKINS CaFe
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous,K(Potassium), Iodine, Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Ca (Calcium), Fe(Iron)
Why do atoms react with each other to form molecules?
Atoms interact with each other in order to become chemical bonds
"Truth" in science
What we know and understand based on all currently available information
deductive reasoning
using a general principle to predict an expected observations
scientific theory
an explanation of a set of related observations based on well-supported hypotheses from several different independent lines of research
inductive reasoning
combining a series of specific observation to discern a general principle
falsifable
an observation or set of observations could potentially prove it false
testable
it must be possible to evaluate a hypothesis through observations of the measurable universe
scientific method
making observations of the world, proposing ideas about how something works, testing those ideas, and discarding or modifying our ideas in response to the results of a test
Anecdotal evidence
non-scientific observations or studies, which do not provide proof but may assist research efforts
What is a worldview?
A way of seeing or interpreting the world, a vision for a way of life, A way to answer life's major questions
What is a presupposition?
To suppose or assume before hand, take for granted inadvance. world views are usually built from a person's granted in advance
supernatural
not constrained by any laws of nature, and it behavior cannot be predicted using our current understanding of the natural world
Biology
study of living organisms
What are the 5 pillars of science?
Science is characterized by its demand for empirical evidence for its conditions, characterized by its demand for logical reasoning, has an epistemological framework and includes a set of presuppositions, human activity has limits, takes place within the value and norms of the culture
What are some limitations of science?
Limited to physical explanation of observable events, cannot make value judgments, cannot address ultimate questions of purpose, gives contingent or tentative knowledge
Correlations
the measure of the degree of the relationship between two variables.