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Psyc: History & Systems Exam 2 Ch. 5-8 UCA Scoles
Terms in this set (307)
Subjects in Titchener's laboratory were asked to ____.
-swallow a stomach tube
-record their sensations and feelings during urination and defecation
-make notes of their sensations and feelings during sexual intercourse
-attach measuring devices to their bodies to record their physiological responses during sexual intercourse
The school of structuralism includes the work and/or systems of which of the following?
Wundt's focus was on ____, whereas Titchener's was on ____.
synthesis of elements; analysis of elements
Titchener discarded aspects of Wundt's system, including ____.
Titchener spent most of his career at ____.
Titchener's manner with his students during lectures was one of ____.
Titchener's relationship with Wundt and his family was one of ____.
When Titchener returned to Oxford with his doctorate from Wundt, his colleagues ____.
were skeptical of the use of scientific approaches to philosophical questions
As more and more students became drawn to Titchener's lectures at Cornell, he ____.
became less actively engaged in laboratory research.
One of the main reasons that Titchener's thought was believed to closely parallel that of Wundt was that Titchener ____.
translated Wundt's books from German into English
One of Titchener's most profound influences on the development of experimentation in psychology was his publication ____.
Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice (1901-1905)
For many of his early years at Cornell, Titchener was known as "the professor in charge of ____ ."
Provided that students and colleagues were properly respectful, Titchener was ____ to them
kind and helpful
Titchener excluded women from the meetings of the Titchener Experimentalists because women:
were too pure to smoke.
Who scolded Titchener for still practicing "a very old fashioned standpoint" in excluding women from psychology meetings?
____ was the first American woman to receive a Ph.D. degree in psychology.
Margaret Floy Washburn
Of the 56 doctoral degrees Titchener conferred, what percentage were given to women?
more than a third
Who was Titchener's first doctoral student?
Who was the first female psychologist elected to the National Academy of Sciences?
Titchener's definition of the appropriate subject matter of psychology is ____.
Titchener argued that psychology is unique among the sciences because ____.
psychology alone is dependent on experiencing persons
Who defined the subject matter of psychology as being a conscious experience as that experience is dependent on the person who is actually experiencing it?
In the Original Source Material from A Textbook of Psychology, Titchener described the difference between ____.
independent and dependent experience
Titchener vigorously cautioned experimental psychologists about the stimulus error, that is, about ____.
describing the observed object rather than the experience of it
To confuse the mental process under study with the stimulus or object being observed was to commit ____.
If you described the test you are now taking as being on paper, you would not be giving a true introspective report of your conscious experience according to Titchener. In introspection, to use everyday words such as "paper" is to ____.
commit the stimulus error
Titchener opposed the development of areas such as child psychology and animal psychology because ____.
these areas did not focus on discovering the structures of mind
The sum of our experiences as they exist at a particular moment is Titchener's definition of ____.
The sum of our experiences accumulated over a lifetime is Titchener's definition of ____.
Who said psychology was NOT in the business of curing sick minds?
Titchener's introspection method was most like ____ method.
While Wundt emphasized ____ and ____ reports during introspection, Titchener used ____ and ____ introspective reports.
objective, quantitative; subjective, qualitative
Titchener's opinion about how introspection should be used probably became formed ____.
before he went to Leipzig
The influence of mechanism on Titchener is exemplified in his ____.
use of the chemistry term reagents instead of observers
In his introspection experiments, Titchener wanted his subjects (observers) to ____.
be passive recorders of the experiences registering on the conscious mind
Titchener's research identified three elements of consciousness: sensations, affective states, and ____.
By 1896, Titchener had identified approximately how many elements of sensation?
more than 44,000
For Titchener, distinct sensations combined with others to form ____.
perceptions and ideas
Which of Titchener's basic elements of consciousness does not possess clearness?
Feelings or emotions lack clearness because ____.
if we focus on them to determine clearness, the feeling or emotion disappears.
Titchener's research led him to conclude that affective states had only ____ dimension(s); namely ____.
Toward the end of Titchener's career, he came to favor the ____ method instead of the ____ method.
By the 1920s the term used by Titchener for his system of psychology was ____.
In their evaluation of Titchener's theoretical viewpoint toward the end of his career, Schultz and Schultz conclude that he was ____.
as flexible and open to change as scientists are supposed to be
When Titchener died, the era of structuralism ____.
The criticisms directed at the method of introspection are more relevant to the kind of introspection practiced by ____ than by ____.
Titchener and Külpe; Wundt
A century before Titchener's work the philosopher ____ wrote that the act of introspection itself altered the conscious experience being studied.
Who argued that the mind may observe all phenomena but its own?
The English physician ____ wrote "due to the extent of the pathology of mind, self-report is hardly to be trusted."
Substantial doubts about and attacks on introspection ____.
existed long before Titchener used the method
In terms of describing the method of introspection, Titchener ____.
had difficulty defining exactly what he meant
If one of Titchener's introspectionists reported seeing a table, this report would not be accepted because ____.
this would be a stimulus error and involve using a meaning word
Titchener's graduate student observers were instructed to ignore certain classes of words called ____ words.
Ordinary words such as "table" were not to be used by Titchener's introspectionists. Therefore, it became a goal to ____.
develop a working vocabulary free of meaning
The idea of developing an introspective language was ____.
Because some time elapsed between the experience and the reporting of it, critics charged that introspection was really a form of ____.
In his treatment of women, Titchener ____.
demonstrated both support of and obstruction of women in psychology
In addition to introspection, another criticism of Titchener's system was its ____.
artificiality and sterility
Titchener's view of the field of psychology was ____.
too limited to embrace new work and dimensions
The two most important contributions of Titchener's system to modern psychology are ____.
his experimental method and a strong position to protest
According to the textbook, a significant contribution of structuralism was ____.
its service as a target for criticism
With Titchener's structuralism as an idea to oppose, psychology ____.
moved far beyond his initial boundaries
The ____ ask, "What's the mind made of?" whereas the ____ demand, "What does it do?"
Functionalism was an intentional protest of the limitations of ____.
Wundt's experimentalism and Titchener's structuralism
The most important consequence of functionalism was ____.
the development of applied psychology
Which of the following works were most influential in the development of functionalism?
The work of Darwin and Galton and comparative research
____, a predecessor of Darwin, speculated that all mammals had evolved from a single filament and given movement by God.
____ argued that our bodies adapt to the environment and those adaptations will be heritable.
____ was an early evolutionary theorist who argued that acquired characteristics could be inherited.
____ was a confidant of Darwin who introduced the concept of evolution into geological theory.
Why, after many centuries of accepting biblical stories, did scholars question the one about Noah's ark?
There were too many identified species to fit two of each into a boat.
What event(s) led common people to question whether humans were really unique creatures, totally unlike other species?
Displays of orangutans and chimpanzees became common in zoos, as well as fossil comparisons of gorilla and human skeletons.
Darwin's ideas of evolution were not new. What was new about Darwin's work was his ____.
hard data to support such a theory
When in England, Darwin displayed a wide variety of physical symptoms. These symptoms were probably ____.
psychosomatic-neurotic in origin
How many years did Darwin wait to present his theory publicly?
A theory of evolution based on natural selection was developed independently by ____.
Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace
The essential difference between Wallace's theory of evolution and Darwin's was that the work of the former ____.
did not have empirical data to support it
____ is the preeminent book of Darwin's theory of evolution, which details the evolution of humans from lower forms of life.
On the Origin of Species
The most fundamental point of Darwin's theses was the ____.
fact of variation among members of the species
Who predicted that humans in the future will live on the edge of starvation because the population of humans increases geometrically while the supply of food increases arithmetically?
Darwin's position on Lamarck's idea that changes due to experiences can be inherited was the ____ of Lamarck's ____.
Who could be described as the driving force of England's scientific establishment?
Today, scientists are sometimes portrayed as offering science as a new religion or as being enemies of religion. This stance could be traced to ____.
In a public debate on evolution, ____ refuted the points made against evolution by ____.
In his book ____, Darwin emphasized the similarity between human and animal mental processes.
The Descent of Man
In his book ____, Darwin explained human emotional gestures, postures, and other aspects of body language that convey emotion as remnants of adaptive movements by animals.
The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals
One of the early sources of modern child psychology was an article in 1877 by ____.
In the study of finches' beaks, the biologists Peter and Rosemary Grant found that ____.
-Darwin had underestimated the power of natural selection
-under drought conditions, more thick-than thin-beaked birds survived and reproduced
-in only one generation, natural selection produced a better-adapted species
-when heavy rains became common, birds with slender beaks flourished
In his journal Mind, Darwin describes ____.
the developmental stages of his son in relation to human evolution
The influence of Darwin's work can be seen most directly in ____.
A consequence of Darwin's work for psychology was ____.
-the legitimization of nonexperimental descriptive methods
-a focus on individual differences
In the Original Source Material from his autobiography, Charles Darwin described himself as ____.
-having "no great quickness of apprehension or wit"
-"a poor critic"
-possessing a "love of natural science [which] has been steady and ardent"
Today, our acceptance that the study of individual differences is appropriate subject matter for psychology is due to whose work?
Who wrote a 16th-century book on individual differences and argued that children's education should be individualized to recognize such differences?
Who wrote Hereditary Genius?
Galton's Hereditary Genius was mainly concerned with ____.
a statistical analysis of the concept of eminent men producing eminent offspring
When Galton founded the science of eugenics, he ____.
invented the term "eugenics"
The early 20th-century American government policy of sterilizing mentally retarded females is an example of ____.
Galton argued that what proportion of eminence could be reliably attributed to environmental influences?
Who first highlighted the importance of central tendency?
Who was the first to show that biological and social data were normally distributed?
Who arrived at the concept of the "average man" to describe findings from a large group of subjects?
The idea of measures clustering around the of center or average of a distribution should be attributed to ____.
Who was the first to show that human mental characteristics followed a normal distribution?
Galton proposed that measurement of human traits could be defined and summarized by two numbers, which are ____.
the mean and the standard deviation
The formula currently used for calculating the correlation coefficient was developed by ____.
The term mental tests was coined by ____, but ____ originated this concept.
Mental tests were originated by ____.
Galton's measures of intellectual functioning assumed correlation between intelligence and ____.
acuteness of the senses
What had the greatest impact upon Galton's view on the measurement of intelligence?
Locke's theory that all knowledge comes through the senses
The aim of the research at the Anthropometric Laboratory was to assess ____.
the collective mental resources of the British people
What additional interest(s) did Galton research?
-Arithmetic by smell
-The power of prayer
Galton found that a substantial proportion of word associations were evidence of ____.
the effects of childhood experiences on the adult
The first experimental attempt to study word associations was by ____.
To study mental imagery, Galton used which self-report method?
Galton studied paranoid disorders by ____.
imaging that every person or thing he saw was spying on him
In comparing evolutionary theory to theology, Galton's concluded that ____.
there was insufficient evidence to support religious beliefs
According to ____, animals have no soul and thus are automata.
The notion that there is a continuity of consciousness and cognitive processes between animals and humans was suggested and/or demonstrated by ____.
According to Darwin, human emotional expressions reflect ____.
the inheritance of animal responses that may not be adaptive for humans
Wundt's early position on animal intelligence was that ____.
any sensory capacity at all allowed for judgment and drawing of conscious inferences
The first systematic study of animal intelligence was by ____.
The work of Romanes was especially flawed because of his ____.
use of the anecdotal method
Whenever we think we "know what's on someone's mind," we are using which technique?
introspection by analogy
Despite Romanes's deficiencies in methodology, he is respected by scientists for his ____.
stimulation of the development of comparative psychology
The intent of Lloyd Morgan's canon was to ____.
make comparative psychology more scientific
The first person(s) to engage in large studies of experimental comparative psychology was/were ____.
Who did Darwin call "our philosopher"?
Perhaps the most important factor that enabled functionalist psychology to flourish in the United States was the ____.
American temperament as a whole
Spencer's philosophy was ____.
Who coined the phrase "survival of the fittest"?
Who originated the idea of social Darwinism?
According to Spencer, the universe operates in accord with ____.
the principle of the survival of the fittest
The most appealing aspect of Spencer's philosophy for Americans was the notion of ____.
survival of the fittest
Spencer developed synthetic philosophy, which was an attempt to ____.
use evolutionary theory as a way to understand any process that undergoes change and development
Synthetic as used in the name "synthetic philosophy" refers to ____.
combining or synthesizing
Who was the earliest to argue that the mind exists in its present form because of past and present efforts to adapt to various environments?
Spencer's (1855) The Principles of Psychology was based on ____.
his synthetic philosophy
The first person who applied evolution to machines was ____.
Who pioneered an innovative method of information processing?
The fear in the 1960s that we would all be reduced to punched cards may not have happened without the work of ____.
Who had an interest in mystical events or what we call parapsychology?
The major antecedent of functionalism in the United States was the work of ____.
James was vocally criticized by other early psychologists because he ____.
studied psychic phenomena and moved away from scientific psychology
"That nasty little science" was James's label for ____.
"An elaboration of the obvious" was James's description of ____.
This person was born into a wealthy American family. He eventually received a medical degree and taught psychology at Harvard University.
James became familiar with the work of Wundt ____.
in the late 1860s, before Wundt founded the Leipzig psychology laboratory
While today people might suffer from chronic fatigue syndrome, in James's day a very fashionable disorder to suffer from was ____.
James's term for his debilitating disorder was ____.
James believed that his bout of depression was relieved when he ____.
chose to believe in free will
James's experiments with mind-altering chemicals interested him because they ____.
fascinated him because of the way bodily changes influenced consciousness
The lecturer in James's first course in psychology was ____.
Although it took twelve years to complete, ____'s great book on psychology represented a commitment to evolutionary principles and a rejection of Wundt's approach to psychology.
James described the manuscript of his book, The Principles of Psychology, as testimony to the fact that ____.
a "science of psychology" did not exist
____ is often called America's greatest philosopher.
Educational psychology as a discipline began with the work of ____.
"The study of living people as they adapt to their environment" is the central tenet of ____.
William James ____.
established an environment favorable for functionalism with his Principles of Psychology
For James, what was most essential to human evolution?
For James, the "conditions" of mental life are the influences of ____.
The idea of "objective experience" would be ____.
contrary to James's position
The notion of analysis of consciousness is, in James's view, the ____.
William James used the term "stream of consciousness" to indicate ____.
that the changing nature of consciousness prevents its analysis into mental elements
For James, one's stream of consciousness ____.
is distorted when analyzed into distinct elements
In the Original Source Material on Consciousness from Psychology (Briefer Course) (1892) James said, "Consciousness is in constant ____."
For James, choice and habit are different in that ____.
habit is nonconscious
James's position on Wundt's methodology was to ____.
accept both introspection and experimentation
James's position on psychophysics was to ____.
accept it as a component of psychology to be studied by experimentation
James recommended the ____ method to supplement introspection and experimentation.
The basic tenet of ____ is that the validity of an idea or conception must be tested by its practical consequences.
Peirce's role in American psychology was to ____.
introduce the new psychology of Fechner and Wundt to U.S. scholars
According to James, the value or worth of beliefs can be evaluated in terms of ____.
whether it works or not
James's description of habit indicates that it is ____.
a repetitive action
For James, ____ "is what keeps us all within the bounds of ordinance."
James argued that habitual actions would ____ the plasticity of ____.
increase; neural matter
Whose Ph.D. work was described as the "most brilliant examination for the PhD that we have ever had at Harvard"?
In contemporary measures of memory, a common task is to assess one's learning of paired associates. This technique was developed by ____.
The "myth of male intellectual superiority" is derived from which of Darwin's ideas?
The idea that men show a wider range of variations in physical and mental development than women and that the abilities of women are more clustered about the average is a definition of the ____.
Early 20th-century research on the effects of child labor was conducted by ____.
Woolley's research on sex differences and alleged male superiority was ____.
the first experimental test of the variability hypothesis of male superiority
Consistent with contemporary research on sex differences, Woolley found that ____.
there were no sex differences in mental intelligence
A unique aspect of Woolley's dissertation research was the ____.
attribution of sex differences to social and environmental factors
The results of Woolley's sex differences research were attributed by some to ____.
the fact that she was a woman and therefore biased in interpreting her results
The notion of a "motherhood instinct" was ____.
refuted by Hollingworth's research
Hollingworth's research refuted ____.
the variability hypothesis
The term gifted children was coined by ____.
The first American Ph.D. in psychology was earned by ____.
What is often considered to be the first psychology laboratory in the United States was established by ____.
Hall may be the best representative of the earliest roots of modern psychology in that his education included ____.
Who said, "I think I must have been hypnotized by the word 'evolution,' which was music to my ear?"
Hall's interest in the new science of psychology was aroused when he ____.
read Wundt's Physiological Psychology
Who was one of the most outspoken critics of Woolley and Hollingworth?
____ was one major area that G.S. Hall was interested in, as evidenced by his research in his doctoral dissertation.
Hall referred to his laboratory as a ____.
laboratory of psychophysiology
Hall's Pedagogical Seminary reflected his early interest in ____.
Hall had an interest in ____.
____ has been described as "difficult, untrustworthy, unscrupulous, devious, and aggressively self-promoting."
Hall was one of the first American psychologists to become interested in ____.
Who arranged for Freud and Jung to visit and lecture in America?
Who was the founder and first president of the American Psychological Association?
The introduction of psychoanalysis to the American public was accomplished by ____.
The force behind Howard University's becoming a leading institution for the education of African American psychologists was ____.
The first African American to earn a Ph.D. in psychology was ____.
Hall's framework for human development was ____.
A method long attributed to Hall, albeit erroneously, is ____.
the use of questionnaires
The child study movement was based on the work of ____.
Important books on adolescence and old age were written by ____.
The notion that children's development reflects the history of the human race is the ____.
The theory that the psychological development of children repeats the history of the human race is known as the ____ theory, proposed by ____.
Lifespan developmental psychology is reflected in whose work?
Hall's writings on Adolescence were criticized for ____.
placing too much emphasis on sex
The first large-scale study of aging from a psychological point of view was ____.
Functionalism is said to have been indirectly founded by ____.
The first American psychology textbook was published by ____.
Who established a "laboratory school" to study innovations in educational practices?
Dewey's analysis of ____ was the work that most keenly protested structuralism.
The reflex arc
John Dewey is credited with initiating the early development of functional psychology in his paper entitled, "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology." What was the major point that Dewey made in this paper?
Behavior cannot be properly understood or analyzed into simple stimulus-response units. Behavior must be understood in terms of its result and the adaptive significance of the behavior to the organism.
The study of the total organism as it functions in its environment was the focus of the system posited by ____.
Dewey's position was that ____.`
structure and function cannot be meaningfully separated
The functionalist advocate ____ never completed a Ph.D. in psychology, yet went on to greatly influence the Chicago school.
According to ____, the goal of psychology is to study how the mind enables and facilitates the adaptation of the organism to its environment.
Who guided functionalism into becoming a formal school by giving it the focus and stature to earn respect in the scientific community?
Angell described functional psychology as the psychology of ____.
For Angell, functionalism was to study the adaptive utility of ____.
For Angell, the fact that consciousness exists demonstrates that it is ____.
adaptive and essential for an organism's survival
Carr's contribution to psychology was ____.
the extension and elaboration of Angell's system
____ maintained that functional psychology was the American psychology.
Who stated that the subject matter of psychology was mental activity?
Who succeeded Angell as head of the University of Chicago's department of psychology, under which functionalism at Chicago reached its peak?
____ at Columbia University believed that introspection was a useful tool for psychology.
Although the primary development and founding of the functionalist school of thought occurred at the University of Chicago, another approach was shaped at ____.
Who disliked the constraints imposed by membership in any school of thought?
Woodworth decided to become a psychologist after hearing ____ and reading ____.
G. Stanley Hall; William James
In contrast to Dewey, Woodworth was ____.
a good teacher
According to Woodworth, psychological knowledge must begin with ____.
the stimulus and response
In Woodworth's view, what occurs inside the organism ____.
can be known only through introspection
Woodworth's system of psychology, concerned with causal factors and motivations in feelings and behavior, was known as ____.
The hallmark of Woodworth's psychology was his ____.
focus on motivation
Woodworth's psychology was distinct from the Chicago school in his ____
emphasis on the physiological correlates of behavior
Functionalism was most loudly criticized by the ____.
Why did the FDA take Coca Cola to court in 1911?
Because one of Coke's ingredients was caffeine.
Who was hired by Coca Cola to perform research in their 1911 court case?
The main reason Wundt's and Titchener's systems did not survive in the United States was that they ____.
were not pragmatic
According to Cattell, by 1895 psychology was ____.
a required subject for an undergraduate degree
In 1900, the American public's response to the new science of psychology was ____.
to embrace it
At the end of the 19th century, the field of ____ demanded the application of psychological principles to practical problems with rise in private school education.
What persuaded psychologists to apply their expertise to problems in education?
An increase in public school enrollment
Cattell's work was novel in its focus on ____.
Cattell's interest in psychology was provoked by ____.
his own use of drugs
Cattell wrote that he found himself "making brilliant discoveries in science and philosophy" when ____.
Cattell's Ph.D. was earned with ____.
Wundt at Leipzig
Cattell's interest in mental tests probably was aroused most by ____.
his meeting with Galton while at Cambridge University
Galton's influence on Cattell led to ____.
the study of large groups rather than single subjects
Cattell was a strong proponent of ____.
Who argued for the sterilization of mental defectives and delinquents and cash incentives for the best and the brightest to marry and have children?
Which early psychologist "rescued" the journal Science?
Unlike Titchener, Cattell believed graduate students should ____.
study whatever they liked
The original purpose for the founding of The Psychological Corporation was to ____.
deliver applied psychological services
The largest "family" of second-generation psychologists was fostered by ____.
The first effective tests of mental faculties were developed by ____.
Binet and Simon's test differed from those of Galton and Cattell in its ____.
emphasis on the relationship of higher cognitive processes to intelligence
Binet based his conclusion about appropriate measure of intelligence based on research conducted with ____.
If a 10-year-old can perform the same tasks as the average 15-year-old, then the child's ____ is 15 and ____ is 150.
mental age; IQ score
Who translated and introduced the Binet intelligence test to American psychologists?
Who revised the Binet intelligence test into what is known as the Stanford-Binet test?
The construct called "IQ" was developed by ____.
The fundamental difference between the Binet tests and the army Alpha and Beta tests was that ____.
Binet's tests were individually administered; the army tests were for groups
The results of testing by the Yerkes research group ____.
had no impact on recruitment and selection or the war effort as a whole
Woodworth's Personal Data Sheet was designed to ____.
separate the neurotic from the average recruit
The effect of World War I on the evolution of psychological testing was to ____.
establish a hospitable environment for such endeavors
One consequence of the adoption of the Stanford-Binet test in the United States is that ____.
public education has revolved around the IQ construct ever since
Unlike ____, who used sensorimotor tests, ____ assessed cognitive functions to measure intelligence.
Galton and Cattell; Binet
The intelligence test, first developed by ____, is the basis for those still used today.
The purpose of adopting metaphors from medical and engineering terminology was to ____.
liken psychology to the established sciences
____ used the Binet test at Ellis Island to restrict the entry of immigrants to the United States.
According to the intelligence testing of U.S. army recruits, which group scored higher on average?
With regard to racial differences in IQs, the work of African American ____ demonstrated the strong effects of environment.
With regard to racial differences in IQs, the work of ____ revealed that southern Whites test as less intelligent than northern Blacks.
Who developed the Draw-A-Man Test, a widely used nonverbal intelligence test for children?
Who extended the age range of the Stanford-Binet downward?
The assessment and treatment of abnormal behavior in children was established in American psychology by ____.
Witmer's "clinical psychology" is today known as ____.
Cattell agreed to employ Witmer at the University of Pennsylvania if he would ____.
earn his Ph.D. with Wundt at Leipzig
Witmer's methods of assessment and diagnosis ____.
were constructed as he needed them
To whom did Witmer turn for his diagnostic and treatment approaches?
Behavioral and cognitive disorders would be attributed most heavily to ____ by Witmer.
The team approach to the assessment and treatment of mental disorders was introduced by ____.
Who wrote Psychotherapy?
The first techniques of psychological therapy to be used in America were developed by ____.
The two most profound influences on the growth of clinical psychology as a specialty were ____.
World War II and the VA hospital system
The first to apply psychology to personnel selection was ____.
The first Ph.D. recipient to apply psychological principles to advertising was ____.
Who wrote The Theory and Practice of Advertising, the first book on the psychology of advertising?
Scott argued that the most effective advertisement consisted of ____.
a multiple-media approach
Scott argued that consumers ____.
are not rational beings
Scott's hypothesis that consumers will do what they are told is called the ____.
law of suggestibility
The technique of telling consumers to "Use Brand X!" is traceable to ____ law of ____.
Organizational psychology was initiated with ____.
Walter Scott's work
The first person to earn a PhD in industrial/organizational psychology was ____.
Münsterberg was best known ____.
through his publications in the popular press on applied psychology
Forensic psychology was established with the work of ____.
Which American psychologist is noteworthy for writing in industrial/organizational psychology, psychotherapy, and forensic psychology?
The use of physiological responses to assess a person's truthfulness was proposed by ____.
Who said, "There is no subconscious?"
Whose therapeutic technique might be described as "therapist-centered?"
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