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110 terms

Art Appreciation vocab

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relative size
the size of an object or figure in relation to others
implied motion
use of visual elements to create impression of passage of time
primary colors
red, yellow, blue
afterimage
colors seen when closing eyes
tertiary colors
colors made from mixing primary colors
implied time
passage of time suggested by depiction of events that occur in a work of art
warm colors
red, orange, yellow; appears to be moving towards viewer
biomorphic
taking shape of a living organism
actual line
path made by a moving point
actual mass
physical mass of an object
implied line
a line completed by the viewer
modeling
creating illusion of depth through the use of light and shade
linear perspective
system of organizing space in two dimensional media wherein lines that are in reality parallel and horizontal
volume
amount of space a 3-d work contains
texture
surface character of materials experienced by touch
secondary colors
orange, violet, green
light
segment of spectrum of electromagnetic energy, excites eye and produces visual sensation
negative shape
shapes created by the space of a work
figure/ground relationship
relationship between the part or parts of work seen as what artist intended to depict
visual elements
line, shape, light, value, color, texture, space, time, and motion (plastic elements)
organic shapes
shapes found in nature
geometric shapes
shapes not found in nature, generally hard to explain/measure
mass
painting: large area of one form or color, in 3D art: bulk of an object
amorphous
without clear shape or form
implied mass
apparent mass of an object determined by use of forms or color
subversive texture
texture that is chosen or created by artist to foil our ideas of the object they depict
chiaroscuro
creating illusion of rounded 3D forms (modeling)
illusion of motion
work of art that suggests motion is in the process of occuring
tint
lightness of a color as determined by extent of its mixture with white
value
lightness or darkness of a color
analogous colors
colors that lie next to each other on color wheel
contour lines
a perceived line that marks the edge of a figure as it curves back into space.
visible light
that segment of spectrum of electromagnetic energy that excites the eyes
isometric perspective
uses overlapping combined with parallel diagonal lines
positive shapes
objects of figures represented in works of art
value contrast
degrees of difference between shades of gray
shade
degrees of darkness of a color as determined by the extent of its mixture with black
hue
color
actual texture
texture of an object or picture as determined by sense of touch
outline
edge of a shape or figure depicted by actual line drawn or painted
complementary colors
colors across from each other on the color wheel
picture plan
front surface of a 2-d work
shapes
in a work of art, an area within a composition that has boundaries that separate it from its surroundings
atmospheric space
illusion of depth through various techniques ex: texture gradient, brightness gradient, color saturation, use of cool/warm colors
highlight
spot or spots on a work of art of the highest value, usually white
overlapping
illusion of space made by placing one figure behind another
impasto
application of media such as oils and acrylics so that an actual texture exists
cool colors
blue, green violet, recede spatially behind warm colors
neutrals
black, white, grey, do not contribute to the hue of other colors
visual texture
simulated texture in a work of art
figure/ground reversals
shifting of viewere perceptions such that what at one moment appears to be figure becomes ground, vice versa
ability
artist's creativity and ability to create art
process
any action resulting in a work of art
product
finished work of art
stippling
drawing or painting small dots in order to create shading or a dappled effect
position
another simple device to show depth
cross-hatching
shading and drawing through use of intersecting sets of parallel lines
hatching
drawing or engraving fine parallel lines to represent shading
contour hatching
directional changes in hatching that define the prominent textures of the images being drawn
variety
a change in form, shape, detail or appearance that makes an object different from others
extreme unity
a composition in which all elements are unified
visual unity
the unity in a work of art as created by use of visual elements
unity
oneness or wholeness of a work of art
distortion of scale
an artist will intentionally manipulate the scale of an object depicted
golden section
mathematical formula for determining the relationship of the parts of a work to the whole
golden mean
principle that a small part of a work should relate to a larger part as the larger part relates to the whole
scale
relative size of an object as compared to other objects, the setting, or people
emphasis
design principle that focuses the viewer's attention on one or more parts of a composition
proportion
relationship of the size of the parts to the whole
radial balance
a kind of balance in which the design elements radiate from a center point
bilateral symmetry
mirror-type similarity between the sides of a composition
symmetrical balance
type of balance in which imagery on one side of a composition is mirrored on the other side (can be pure or approximate)
conceptual unity
unity in a work that is achieved by means of the relationships between the meaning and functions of the images
golden rectangle
rectangle based on the Golden Mean and constructed so that its width is 1.618 times its height
asymmetrical balance
type of balance that is said to exist when the right and left sides of a composition bear visible different shapes, colors, textures or other elements, yet they are arranged or weighted in a way that the impression, in total, is one of balance
rhythm
orderly repetition or progression of the visual elements in a work of art
pictoral balance
distribution of the apparent or visual weight of elements in 2D art
balance
distribution of the weights, masses, or other elements of a work of art to achieve harmony
symmetry
similarity of form or arrangement on both sides of a dividing line
focal point
specific part of a work that seizes and holds viewer's interest
canon of proportions
set of rules governing the proportions of the human body as they are to be rendered by artists
actual balance
equality in amount of weight as in a sculpture
imbalance
characteristic of works of art in which areas of composition are unequal in actual weight or pictorial weight
hierarchical scaling
the use of relative size to indicate the relative importance of objects or people being depicted
emphasis
the design principle that focuses the viewer's attention on one or more parts of a composition
realism
style of art characterized by portraying subject matter accurately and truthfully, 19th century
abstract art
characterized by simplified or distorted rendering of an object that has the essential form of nature of that object
nonobjective abstract art
the forms make no reference to visible reality
composition
the organization of the visual elements in a work of art
non representational art
art that does not represent figures or objects
form
totality of whatever the viewer sees in a work of art
representational art
art that presents natural objects in recognizable form
figurative art
representing the likeness of human and other figures
expressionism
a modern school of art in which an emotional impact is achieved through agitated brushwork, intense coloration, and violent, hallucinatory imagery
iconography
conventional meanings attached to the images used by the artist and an artistic approach representing or illustrating by using the visual conventions and symbols of a culture
formalist criticism
approach to art criticism that concentrates on the elements of design of works of art
content
all that which is contained within a work of art, the visual elements
style
a characteristic manner or mode of artistic expression or design
binder
substance in a medium that causes particles of pigment to adhere to one another and to the support.
pigment
the coloring material of a medium
support
a surface on which a two-dimensional work of art is made; for example paper, wood or canvas.
dry media
includes the mediums of metalpoint/silverpoint, pencil, charcoal, chalk, crayon, and pastel.
silverpoint
drawing medium in which a silver-tipped instrument inscribes lines on a surface that has been coated with a ground or pigment.
pencil
rod-shaped drawing instrument with an inner shaft that is usually made of graphite
graphite
soft black form of carbon used as a drawing implement (from graphein, Greek for "to write")
charcoal
form of carbon produced by partially burning wood or other organic matter; it can be used as a drawing implement
chalk
form of soft limestone that is easily pulverized and can be used as drawing implement
pastel
drawing implement made by grinding coloring matter, mixing it with gum, and forming it into a crayon
crayon
small stick of colored way, chalk , or chalk, or other materials that has a fatty or greasy binder. They used for writings and drawing
conte crayon
commercial drawing stick in varying degrees of hardness and in a range of black, white, and red earth colors