64 terms

AP HUG Chapter 10 Vocab

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Agribusiness
commercial farming integrated into a large food production industry
Agriculture
the deliberate modification of the Earth's surface through the cultivation of plants and animals
Agricultural Hearths
originators of certain agricultural ideas and products
Animal Husbandry
an activity associated with the raising of domesticated animals Ex: cattle, goats, horses
Aquaculture
fish farming or the cultivation of the oceans
Biotechnology
a form of technology that uses living organisms to modify products
Capital-Intensive
Form of agriculture that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods-a process requiring very little human labor
Cereal Grain
any plant that yields edible grain Ex: Oats, Wheat, Rye, Barley
Chaff
dry scaly protective coverings on plants
Combine
a farming vehicle that performs the three tasks of reaping, threshing and cleaning in one operation
Commercial agriculture
found in MDC's is the production of food for competitive free market sale
Commercial gardening and fruit farming
regular gardening on a larger scale with things in bulk and different if its fruit trees, bushes, or vines
Commercial grain farming
enables farmers to cultivate grain on a large scale
Crop
any plant cultivated by people
Crop rotation
the practice of using different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid soil exhaustion
Dairy farming
the farming of cattle and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter
Desertification
the process which once arable land becomes unproductive and arid, almost as if it were a desert
Domestication
the conscious manipulation of plants and animals by humans to sustain themselves
Double Cropping
two harvests per year from one field, most seen in Asia
Extensive subsistence agriculture
combines pastoral nomadism and animal husbandry, animals provide food, shelter, clothing, and will vary between region.
Fallow
means nothing planted
Feedlots
Places where livestock are concentrated in very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing; often referred to factory farms
Genetic Modification
Foods that are mostly products of organisms that have had their genes altered in a laboratory for specific purposes, such as disease resistance, increased productivity, or nutritional value allowing growers greater control, predictability, and efficiency
Grain
the seed of cereal grass
Green Revolution
the development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe
Horticulture
is the terms for the growing of fruits vegetables and flowers
Hull
outer covering
Hunters and gatherers
nomads travelling in small groups collecting food daily
Intensive Subsistence agriculture
practiced in Asia on small plots and mostly by hand
Intertillage
field clearance
Labor-Intensive
places where work land more intensively to subsist
Livestock ranching
the extensive commercial grazing of livestock land in semi-arid or arid lands
Mediterranean agriculture
consists of diverse specialty crops such as grapes, olives, nuts, fruits, and vegetables mostly for human consumption
Milkshed
the area surrounding a city where milk can be transported without spoiling
Mixed Crop and livestock farming
practiced in much of US and Northern Europe, most crops are fed to animals
Neolithic Agricultural Revolution
when man learned to cultivate and domesticate plants and animals for sedentary food production
Paddy
flooded field
Pastoral Nomadism
form of subsistence agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animals
Pasture
grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing
Planned agricultural economies
used in communist countries where the government controls the supply and price of agricultural goods
Plantation
specializing only in crops that are usually destined for export to other countries
Prime Agricultural land
very productive farmland
Ranching
a form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area
Reaper
machine that cuts cereal grain standing in the field
Ridge Tiller
system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation
Sawah
a flooded field for growing rice
Second Agricultural Revolution
increase in farming technology preceded the Industrial Revolution
Seed Agriculture
reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization
Slash-and-burn agriculture
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation
Shifting cultivation
practiced in much of the world's tropical regions, farmers clear land for planting by slashing vegetation and burning the debris
Spring wheat
Dakotas, Montana, and Southern Saskatchewan where wheat is planted in the spring
Subsistence Agriculture
agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family.
Sustainable Agriculture
farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides
Swidden
a patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning
Third Agricultural Revolution
involved the usage of newer high yield seeds as well as fertilizers, during the 1970s and 1980s
Thresh
when seeds are generated from their heads by being beaten off the ground
Transhumance
seasonal movement of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
Truck farming
horticultural practice where one or more crops are grown on a large scale for export
Vegetative plantation
the production of plants by direct cloning from existing plants
Von Thunen Model
help explain the importance of proximity to market and the choice of crops
Wet Rice
rice planted on dry land in a nursery and then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth
Winnow
lighter chaff is blown away by the wind
Winter feed
a special when grazing or other feed is not available mostly used in winter
Winter Wheat
wheat planted in the autumn that can survive the winter, Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma