a) Problem-solving skills. ability to solve new and unusual, ill-defined organizational problems. They include being able to define the problem, gather information about it, formulate new understandings about it and generate prototype plan for the solutions.
b) The capacity to understand people and social systems: they enable leaders to work with others to solve problems and implement the solutions
- perspective taking: understanding the attitudes that others have toward a particular problem or solution
- social intelligence: knowledge about people, the social fabric of organizations and the interrelatedness of each of them.
- social perceptiveness: how employees will respond to any proposed change in the organization
- Behavioral flexibility: the capacity to change and adapt one's behavior in light on an understanding of others' perspective in the organization.
- Social performance: ability to communicate emplyees' own vision to others (persuasion and communication)
C) Knowledge: The accumulation of information and the mental structures used to organize that information. It is the application and implementation of problem-solving skills in organizations. It is knowledge and expertise that make it possible for people to think about complex system issues and identify possible strategies for appropriate change.
support people as they apply their leadership competencies
General cognitive ability: perceptual processing, information processing, general reasoning skills, creative and divergent thinking capacity and memory skills.
Crystallize cognitive ability: Intellectual ability that is learned or acquired over time (store of knowledge that we acquire through experience.)
Motivation: Leaders must be willing to tackle complex organizational problems, to express dominance (=to exert their influence) and to be committed to the social good of the organization.
Personality: any personality characteristic that helps people topics with complex organizational situation is related to leader performance.
Strongly influenced by the leader's competencies; they include:
the originality and the quality of expressed solutions to problems. Good solutions should be logical, effective, unique and going beyond given information.
Performance outcomes reflect how well the leader has done her or his job
Experiences acquired in the course of leaders' career influence their knowledge and skills to solve complex problems --> experience can positively affect the individual characteristics of leaders.
Factors that lie outside the leader's competencies, characteristics or experiences. they can be either:
Internal: Skill level and expertise of subordinates, technology, facilities and communication
External: economic, natural, political, and social issues.