87 terms



Terms in this set (...)

Main characteristics of leadership
1. Transformational process
2. Influence
3. Group
4. Common goal
Commons dilemma
The situation where many agents have the same opportunities to access a resource, so that everybody is worse off in the long run
Trait leadership
Theory that suggests that certain individuals have special innate or inborn characteristics or qualities that make them leaders and that it is these qualities that differentiate them from non-leaders
Process leadership
Theory that suggests that certain individuals have special innate or inborn characteristics or qualities that make them leaders and that it is these qualities that differentiate them from non-leaders
Positive communication behaviors that account for successful leader emergence
Being verbally involved
being informed
seeking others' opinions
Initiating new ideas
Being firm, but not rigid
Social identity theory
Leaders who are group-prototypical are trusted more, receive more leeway ('credits') and have more influence
The capacity or potential to influence. People have power when they affect others' beliefs, attitudes and courses of action.

Types of power:
Referent: comes from being trusted and respected.

Expert: knowledge power.

legitimate: Comes from having a certain position in a company. it is assigned to a person to have power over others.

Reward: Reward power is conveyed through rewarding individuals for compliance with one's wishes.

Coercive: To influence others to do something against their will and may include manipulating penalties and rewarding on their work environment. Use threats as form of power
Great man theories
Theories that focus on identifying the innate qualities and characteristics possessed by great social, political and military leaders.
Many studies concentrated on identifying the qualities of great persons.
Trait approach:
Leaders do possess qualities that set them apart from other people, but they are not enough to make leaders effective leaders.
Intelligence: Intellectual abilities that include verbal ability, perceptual ability and reasoning.
Intellectual abilities that include verbal ability, perceptual ability and reasoning.

Correlates with:
Perceived leader emergence
Perceived group performance
Perceived individual references
Objective effectiveness

Why do intelligent leaders fail: Stress is high, people fall back on experience.
Emotional intelligence
The ability to perceive and express emotions, to use emotions to facilitate thinking, to understand and reason with emotions and to effectively manage emotions within oneself and in relationships with others.
The intelligence that has to do with our emotions (affective domain) and thinking (cognitive domain), and the interplay between the two

Intelligence: Concerned with our ability to learn information and apply it to life tasks ≠ Emotional intelligence: Concerned with our ability to understand emotions and apply this understanding to the life's tasks. People who are more sensitive to their emotions and the impact of their emotions on others will be leaders who are more effective.
The ability to be certain about one's competencies and skills. Including self-esteem, self-assurance and the belief that one can make a difference. Since leadership involves influencing others, self-confidence and the belief that one can make a difference. Since leadership involves influencing others, self-confidence allows the leader to feel assured that his attempts to influence others are appropriate and right.
The quality of honesty and trustworthiness. People showed integrity when they adhere to a strong set of principles and take responsibility for their actions. Leaders with integrity inspire confidence to others because thy can be trusted to do what they say that they are going to do. They are loyal, dependable, believable and trustworthy.
The desire to get the job done. It includes initiative, persistence, dominance and drive.
The inclination to seek out pleasant social relationships.
Leaders who show sociability are friendly, outgoing, tactic, diplomatic and courteous. They are sensitive to others' needs and show concern for their well-being; they have good interpersonal skills and create cooperative relationships with their followers.
Stogdill - both personality and situational factors are determinants of leadership, thus these are the traits positively associated with leadership:
1. Drive for responsibility and task completion
2. Vigor and persistence in pursuit of goals
3. Risk taking and originality in problem solving
4. Drive to exercise initiative in social situations
5. Self-confidence and sense of personal identity
6. Willingness to accept consequences of decision and action
7. Readiness to absorb interpersonal stress
8. Willingness to tolerate frustration and delay
9. Ability to influence other people's behavior
10. Capacity to structure social interaction systems to purpose at hand
The big five dimensions
Neurocism: Poor emotional adjustment, depression, anguish (correlation with leadership: -)
Extraversion: Sociable, assertive, active (--> -)
Openness to experience: Nonconforming, unconventional, autonomous (--> +)
Agreeableness: Trusting, complain, caring and gentle (--> +)
Conscientiousness: Achievement and dependability --> =

Dimensions are Independent and cross-culturally stable.
An inflated self-view and at the same time preoccupied with having those self-views continuously reinforced

Narcissist leader
High perceived authority
High leader effectiveness

Reduced information exchange
Lower group performance
Strengths trait approach
Intuitively appealing theory; it is consistent with its perception.
It has a century of research to back it up.
It focuses only on leaders: deeper and intricate understanding of how the leader is related to leadership process.
The assessment of process can be used to offer information to supervisors and managers to improve their effectiveness
Weaknesses trait approach
It results in a highly subjective determination of the most important leadership traits.
The list of traits appears to be endless.
It has failed in taking situations and outcomes into account.
It is not a useful approach for training and development.
Style approach
Emphasizes the behavior of the leader: focuses on what leaders do and how they act.
1. Task behavior: It facilitates goals accomplishment, it helps group members to achieve their objectives
2. Relationship behavior: It helps subordinates to feel comfortable with themselves, with each other and with the situation in which they find themselves.

Central purpose: explain how leaders combie these two kinds of behaviors to influence subordinates in their efforts to reach a goal.
The style approach provides framework for assessing leadership in a brad way, as behavior with a task and relationship dimension.

Approach works: Not by telling leaders hwo to behave, but by describing the major components of their behavior.
+ Reminds leaders that their impact on others occurs through the tasks they perform as well as the relationships they create.
LBDQ: Leader behavior description questionnaire

Ohio state studies
Find the 2 clusters of behavior that are typical of leaders:

1. Initiating structure --> Task behaviors: giving structures to the work context, defining role responsibilities and scheduling work activities.
2. Consideration --> Relationship behavior: Building cameraderie, respect, trust and liking between leaders and followers.

Depending on context being high on one of the behaviors is most effective, however being high in both is the best form of leadership.
University of Michigan studies
Exploring leadership behavior, with a special attention to the impact of leaders' behaviors on the performance of small groups.

Production orientation: leadership behaviors that stress the technical and production aspects of the job --> initiating structure. From this orientation, workers are viewed as a means for getting work accomplished.

Employee orientation: The behavior of leaders who approach subordinates with a strong human relation emphasis --> consideration.

The study revealed that leaders who were oriented toward production were less oriented toward employees and vice versa.
Blake and Mouton's leadership grip:
X: Concern for people
Y: concern for production

Country club management 1,9:

Impoverished management 1,1

dampened pendulum 5,5

Task management 9,1

Team management 9, 9
Grid designed to explain how leaders help organizations to reach their purposes through two factors.

Production is incidental to lack of conflict and 'good fellowship'
Effective production is unobtainable because people are lazy, apathetic and indifferent. SOund and mature relationships are difficult to achive because (human nature being what it is) conflict is inevitable.
(middle of the road) Push for production but don't go 'all out' Give some but not all, 'be fair but firm'
Men are commodity just like machines. A manager's responsbility is to plan, direct and control the work of those subordinated to him.
Production is from integration of task and human requirements.
A leader that uses both 1,9 and 9,1 but does not integrate the two.
This is the 'benevolent dictator' who acts graciously but does so for the purpose of goal accomplishment: he makes most of the key decisions, reward loyalty and obedience and punishes noncompliance.
A leader that uses a combination of the 5 styles for the purpose of personal advancement. he will adapt and shift his leadership style to gain personal advantage, putting self-interest ahead of other priorities (both the performance and effort of the leader are to realize personal gain)
Contingency theory
It is a leader match theory: It tries to match leaders to appropriate situations
Contingency: it suggests that a leader's effectiveness depends on how well the leader's style fits the context. To understand the performance of leaders, it is essential to understand the situations in which they lead. Effective leadership is contingent on matching a leader's style to the right setting.
Contingency theory is concerned with the styles and situations: it provides a framework for effectively matching the leader and the situation.
Least Preferred Coworker questionnaire (LPC scale)
People who are relationship motivated (high LPC score) will be effective in moderately favorable situations, that is, in situation in which there is some degree of certainty and uncertainty.
People who are task motivated (low LPC score) will be effective in both very favorable and very unfavorable situations, that is, in situations where everything goes smoothly or out of control.

Lines of reasoning:
A leader whose LPC style does not match a particular situation experiences stress and anxienty;
Under stress the leader reverts to less mature ways of coping that were learned in early development;
The leader's less mature coping style results in poor decision making, which results in negative work outcomes.
Situational variables:
1. Leader-member relations

2. Task structure

3. Position power
The group atmosphere and the degree of loyalty, confidence and attraction that followers feel for their leader (high scores, good relations)
The degree to which the requirements of a task are clear and spelled out (tasks that are completely structured tend to give more control to the leader).
The amount of authority a leader has to reward or punish followers. It includes the legitimate power individuals acquire as a result of the position they hold in an organization.

All three factors together determine the favorableness of various situations in organizations: situations that are rated most favourable are those having good leader-member relations, defined tasks and strong leader-position power.

Very favorable situation --> need for task-oriented leader

Very unfavorable situation --> need for relationship-oriented leader

By measuring the LPC score and the 3 situational variables, one can predict whether the leader is going to be effective in a particular setting --> if a leader's style matches the appropriate category in the model. that leader will be effective.
Strengths of style approach
It expanded the focus on theory, including the followers and the leader#s impact of them.
It has validated that there are two dimensions of leader's behavior: task and relationship
It is heuristic: provides a broad conceptual map to assess leadership's actions
It is backed up with a wide range of studies
It is supported by empirical results
It suggests what type of leadership is most likely to be effective in certain contexts.
Weaknesses of style approach
It does not provide a relationship with performance outcomes.
It failed to find a universal style that works in every situation.
it assumes that the best style is the 9,9 but different situations require different styles.
The LPC has been questioned because it is not easy to complete and it does not correlate leadership standards.
It fails to explain what organizations should do when there is a mismatch between the leader and the situation in the workplace.
Skills approach
This theory takes a leaders-centered persepective on leaership, but we shift our thinking from a focus on personality characteristics to an emphasis on skills and abilities that can be learned and developed through education and experience. (Many people have potential for leadership)
Leaders effectiveness depends on leaders ability to solve complex organizational problems.
Descriptive approach: It provides a structure for understanding the nature of effective leadership. + it suggests that the importance of certain leadership skills varies depending on where leaders are in a management hierarchy.
1. technical skills

2. Human skills

3. Conceptual skills
1. Knowledge about and proficiency in a specific type of work or activity. They involve hands-on activities with a basic product or process within an organization (technical skills are essential in producing the actual products a company is designed to produce) They are most important at middle and low level of management.
2. Knowledge about and ability to work with people
Help leader to assist and work effectively with subordinates, peers and superiors to accomplish the organization's goals: Important on all three levels
3. The ability to work with ideas and concepts
The leader should be good at putting the company's goals into words and understand and express the economic principles that affect the company. Most important at top management levels.
Skills model
Examines the relationship between a leader's knowledge and skills and the leader's performance
5 components:
1) Competencies:
a) Problem-solving skills

Social judgements skills

C) Knowledge:

2) Individual attributes:

General cognitive ability:

Crystallize cognitive ability:



3) Leadership outcomes

a) Effective problem solving:

b) Performance:

3) Career experience:

5) Environmental influence:
a) Problem-solving skills. ability to solve new and unusual, ill-defined organizational problems. They include being able to define the problem, gather information about it, formulate new understandings about it and generate prototype plan for the solutions.
b) The capacity to understand people and social systems: they enable leaders to work with others to solve problems and implement the solutions
- perspective taking: understanding the attitudes that others have toward a particular problem or solution
- social intelligence: knowledge about people, the social fabric of organizations and the interrelatedness of each of them.
- social perceptiveness: how employees will respond to any proposed change in the organization
- Behavioral flexibility: the capacity to change and adapt one's behavior in light on an understanding of others' perspective in the organization.
- Social performance: ability to communicate emplyees' own vision to others (persuasion and communication)
C) Knowledge: The accumulation of information and the mental structures used to organize that information. It is the application and implementation of problem-solving skills in organizations. It is knowledge and expertise that make it possible for people to think about complex system issues and identify possible strategies for appropriate change.

support people as they apply their leadership competencies
General cognitive ability: perceptual processing, information processing, general reasoning skills, creative and divergent thinking capacity and memory skills.
Crystallize cognitive ability: Intellectual ability that is learned or acquired over time (store of knowledge that we acquire through experience.)
Motivation: Leaders must be willing to tackle complex organizational problems, to express dominance (=to exert their influence) and to be committed to the social good of the organization.
Personality: any personality characteristic that helps people topics with complex organizational situation is related to leader performance.

Strongly influenced by the leader's competencies; they include:
the originality and the quality of expressed solutions to problems. Good solutions should be logical, effective, unique and going beyond given information.
Performance outcomes reflect how well the leader has done her or his job

Experiences acquired in the course of leaders' career influence their knowledge and skills to solve complex problems --> experience can positively affect the individual characteristics of leaders.
Factors that lie outside the leader's competencies, characteristics or experiences. they can be either:
Internal: Skill level and expertise of subordinates, technology, facilities and communication
External: economic, natural, political, and social issues.
Strengths of skills approach
It is the first approach that conceptualizes and creates a structure of the process of leadership around skills
intuitively appealing and it makes leadership available to everyone
it provides a structure that is very consistent with curricula of most leadership educational programs
Weaknesses of skills approach
It is weak in predicting vlaue: it does not explain how variations in social judgement skills and problem-solving skills affect performance
The breadth of this approach seems to extend beyond the boundaries of leadership.
It might not be appropriate for contexts different from the military field.
It includes individual attributes that are trait-like.
Ethical leadership
the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement and decision-making.

The big five model can predict ethical leadership: leaders that score high in agreeableness and conscientiousness and low in neuroticism are more likely to engage in ethical leadership.
Ethical leadership influences followers with positive outcomes regarding employee's voice and behavior.
Abusive supevision
Subordinates' perceptions of the extent to which their supervisors engage in the sustained display of hostile verbal and non-verbal behaviors, excluding physical contact.
Leader-Member exchange theory (LMX)
A theory that conceptualizes leadership as a process that is centered on the interactions between leaders and followers.
Vertical dyad linkage (VDL) theory
Researchers focused on the nature of the vertical linkages leaders formed with each of their followers. A leader's relationship to the work unit as a whole was viewed as a whole was viewed as a series of vertical dyads.
those that were based on expanded and negotiated role responsibilities --> subordinates who are interested in negortiating with the leader what they are willing to do for the group can become a part of the in-group.
Those that were based the formal employment contract --> if subordinates are not interested in taking on new and different job responsibilities, then they become a part of the out-group.
Quality of leader-member exchange improves the organization through:
- Less employee turnover
- more positive performance evaluations
- higher frequency of promotions
- greater organizational commitment
- More desirable group assignments
- better job attitudes
- more attention and support from the leader
- greater participation
- faster career progress

--> EMPOWERMENT: empowerment and leader-member exchange quality have a slight synergistic effect on positive job outcomes
Researchers' attention is focused on the differences that might exist between the leader and each of the leader's followers
The theory describes leadership: working with in-groups allows the leader to accomplish more work in a more effective way.
The theory prescribes leadership: Leaders should create special relationships with all the subordinates so that the goals of the leaders, the followers and the organization are all advanced.
Consequences LMX.

In-Role performance

Organizational citizenship behavior
- Higher satisfaction with job and supervisor
- Stronger organizational commitment

Fulfilling responsibilities specified in description.

- Volunteering to do things for the work group.
- Helping coworkers and supervisors
- Speaking up to improve work processes
- Defending organization when it is criticized.
Leadership making
Prescriptive approach to leadership emphasizing that a leader should develop high-quality exchanges with all of the leader's subordinates rather than just a few.
Leadership making develops over 3 phases
Stranger phase

Acquaintance phase

Mature partnership phase
The leader-subordinate interactions are rule bound, relying heavily on contractual obligations. Leaders and subordinate relate to each other within prescribed organizational roles.

It begins with an offer by the leader or the subordinate for improved career-oriented social exchanges, which involve sharing more resources and personal/work-related information --> testing period for assessing whether the subordinate is interested in taking on more roles and responsibilities + whether the leader is willing to provide new challenges

People who have progressed to this stage show a greater degree of mutual trust, respect and obligation toward each other. They have tested their relationship and found that they can rely on each other --> leader and subordinates are tied together in productive ways that go well beyond a traditional hierarchically defined work relationship (it is a partnership).
Strengths of LMX
It is a strong descriptive theory, even intuitively
It is the only approach that makes the concept of the dyadic relationship the centerpiece of the leadership process.
It directs our attention to the importance of communication in leadership.
It warns leaders to avoid letting their conscious or unconscious biases influence who is invited into the in-group.
A large body of research substantiates how the practice of LMX theory is related to positive organizational outcomes.
Weaknesses of LMX
Appearance of discrimination against the out-groups.
No empirical studies have used dyadic measures to analyze the LMX process: no precise scale or level of analysis.
It does not address fairness issues, such as decision-making rules, communication of issues within the organization or pay increases/promotions.
Researchers have not adequately explained the contextual factors that may have an impact on LMX relationships.
The model prescribes trust, respect and obligation, but it does not suggest how to reach those factors (the theory is not fully developed).
Transformational leadership
The process whereby a person engages with others and creates a connection that raises the level of motivation and morality in both the leader and the follower.
Special personality characteristic that gives a person superhuman or exceptional powers and is reserved for a few and results in the person being treated as a leader.
Behavior types of charismatic leaders
- they are strong role models for the beliefs and values they want their followers to adopt + they show congruence between values
- they appear competent to followers
- they articulate ideological goals that have moral overtones
- they communicate high expectations to followers and exhibit confidence in followers' abilities to meet these expectations + ability to communicate in inspiring vision and display self-sacrifice.
- they arouse task-relevant motives in followers that may include affiliation, power or esteem.
Organizational Citizenship behavior
- Volunteering to do things for the work group
- Helping coworkers and supervisor
- speaking up to improve work processes and customer service
- defending the organization when it is criticized.
Pseudo transformational leader
Leaders who are self-consumed, exploitive and power oriented with warped moral values. This is a type of personalized leadership that focuses on the leader's own interests rather than on the interests of others.
Transactional leadership
It focuses on the role of supervision, organization and group performance; transactional leadership is a style of leadership in which the leader promotes compliance of this followers through both rewards and punishments.
Idealized influene
Leaders who act as strong role models for followers; followers identify with these leaders and want very much to emulate them.
Leaders are deeply respected by followers, who usually place a great deal of trust in them. They provide followers with a vision and a sense of mission. Two components:

Attributional component: the attributions of leaders made by followers based on perceptions that have of their leaders.
Behavioral component: followers' observations of leader behavior.
Inspirational motivation
Leaders who communciate high expectations to followers, inspiring them through motivation to become committed to and a part of the shared vision in the organization.
Intellectual stimulation
Leadership that stimulates followers to be creative and innovative and to challenge their own beliefs and values as well as those of the leader and the organization.
Individualized consideration
Leaders who provide a supportive climate in which they listen carefully to the individual needs of followers. Leaders act as coaches and advisers while trying to assist followers in becoming fully actualized.
Contingent reward
Exchange process between leader and followers in which effort by followers is exchanged for specified rewards.

The leader tries to obtain agreement from followers on what must be done and what the payoffs will be for the people doing it.
Leadership that involves corrective criticism, negative feedback and negative reinforcement. It takes 2 forms:
-Active: the leader watches followers closely for mistakes or rule violations and then takes corrective action
-passive: the leader intervenes only after standards have not been met or problems have arisen
The leader abdicates responsibility, delays decisions, gives no feedback and makes little effort to help followers satisfy their needs. There is no exchange with followers and no attempt to help them grow.
Bennis & Nanus
Common strategies used by leaders in transforming organizations:
1) Vision

2) Social architects:

3) Trust:

4) Creative deployment of self
When an organization has a clear vision, it is clearer for the people within the organization to learn how they fit in with the overall direction of the oragnization and the society in general.
2) Leaders communicate a direction that transforms the organization's values and norms; they are able to mobilize people to accept a new group identity.
3) Leaders give to the organization a new sense of integrity by making positions clearly known and then standing by them.
4) Leaders know their strengths and weaknesses and they emphasized their strengths rather than dwelling on their experiences.
Kouzes & Posner
Five practices enable leaders to get extraordinary things accomplished
- Model the way: Leaders need to find their won voice and express it to others
- Inspire a shared vision
- Challenge the process: Be willing to challenge the status quo
-enable others to act
- encourage the heart: rewarding others for their accomplishments
Strengths of transformational leadership
It has been researched from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives. It is supported by substantial evidence.
It has an intuitive appeal
It treats leadership as a process that occurs between followers and leaders
It provides a broader view of leadership that augments other leadership models
It places a strong emphasis on followers' needs, values and morals.
Weaknesses of transformational leadership
It lacks conceptual clarity: it covers such a wide range of activities that it is difficult to define all of its parameters. It is not clear how it can be measured
It is elitist and antidemocratic
It treats leadership as a personality trait rather than a behavior that can be learned
It is not clear whether transformational leaders can actually transform individuals and organizations.
It has the potential to be abused, since it is based on changing people's values toward a new vision.
'heroic leadership': it is the leader that moves individuals to do exceptional things (it failed in analyzing reciprocal influence).
A specific type of group composed of members who are interdependent, who share common goals and who must coordinate their activities to accomplish these goals.
Team leadership capacity
Distributed leadership that involves the sharing of influence by team members who step forward when situations warrant providing the leadership necessary and then stepping back to allow others to lead.
Leadership is provided by anyone who meets the needs of the team.
Team leadership model
Provides a mental road map to help the leader/ any team member diagnose team problems and take appropriate action to correct these problems and imporve team effectiveness.
Leadership behavior is seen as team-based problem solving, in which the leader attempts to achieve team goals by analyzing the internal and external situation and then selecting and implementing the appropriate behaviors to ensure team effectiveness.
Should i monitor or take action?
To develop accurate mental model of team functioning, leaders need to
- monitor both the internal and the external environments
- Gather information
- Reduce in equivocality
- Provide structure and overcome barriers
Should I intervene to meet task or relational needs?
The exact time of the intervention is as important as the specific type of intervention.

Task leadership functions: Getting the job done, making decisions and plans, solving problems, adapting to changes and achieving goals --> task- focused leadership --> team performance: it concerns the quality of the decision making, the ability to implement decisions, the outcomes of the teamwork in terms of problems solved and work completed and the quality of the insitutional leadership provided.
Maintenance functions: Developing a positive climate, solving interpersonal problems, satisfying members' needs and developing cohesion --> relation focused leadership --> team development: it concerns the cohesiveness of the team and the ability of group members to satisfy their own needs while working effectively with other team members.
Should I intervene internally or externally?
Determination of what level of the team process needs leadership attention

A) Internal relational actions, improve interpersonal relationships within the team:
- Coaching team members in interpersonal skills
- Collaborating and involving
- Managing conflict and power issues
- Building commitment and esprit de corps
- satisfying individual member needs
- modeling ethical and principled practices

B) Internal task actions, provide right support to the team and more focus on the goals:
- goal focusing
- structuring for results
- facilitating decision making
- training team members in task skills
- maintaining standards of excellence

C) external environmental actions, obtaining external support to the team:
- Networking and forming alliances in the environment
- advocating and representing team to environment
- negotiating upward to secure necessary resources, support and recognition for team
- buffering team members from environmental distractions
- assessing environmental indicators of team's effectiveness
- sharing relevant environmental information with the team
Eight characteristics associated with team excellence:
- Clear elevating goals

- Results-driven structure:

Competent team members

Unified commitment
Collaborative climate

Standards of excellence

External support and recognition

Principled leadership:
The goal must be involving and motivating so that the members believe it to be worthwhile and important.
choice of the right task design, team composition and core norms of conduct to meet needs while accomplishing goals
Look for the right number and mix of members to accomplish all the tasks of the group + training, information sharing, education and expertise.
Designation and development of the team
Need to create trusting relationships based on honesty, integrity, openness, consistency and respect.
So that members will feel the pressure to perform at their highest levels.
It includes material resources, rewards for excellent performance, an educational system to develop necessary team skills and an information system to provide data needed to accomplish task
Cognitively, the leader helps the team understand the problems confronting the team.
Motivationally, the leader helps the team become cohesive and capable by setting high performance standards and helping the group to achieve them.
Affectively, the leader helps the team dealing with stressful circumstances providing clear performance strategies.
Coordinately, the leader helps integrate the team's activities by matching member's skills to roles
Strengths of team leadership model
It focuses on the real life organizational work group and the leadership needed therein
It provides a cognitive guide to design and maintain effective teams
It can help in selection of team leaders
It takes into account the changing role of leaders and followers in organizations. The model focuses on the critical functions of leadership as diagnosis and action taking
Weaknesses of the team leadership model
It is time consuming to adjust every situation to the framework.
The framework does not provide on-the-spot answers for the leader to specific problems.
The model is often too complex.
it lists only some of the many skills that leadership might need to employ in making such decisions.
Authentic leadership
A pattern of leader behavior that draws upon and promotes both positive psychological capacitities and a positive ethical climate to foster greater self-awareness, an internalized moral perspective, balanced processing of information and relational transparency on the part of leaders working with followers, fostering positive self-development.
interpersonal perspective

interpersonal perspective

Developmental perspective
analysis of the leader and what goes on within the leader. Focus on the leader's experiences and their meaning to the leader
Leadership as relational, created by leaders and followers together (reciprocal influence)
A pattern of leader behavior that develops from and is grounded in the leader's positive psychological qualities and strong ethics (leadership as something that can be nurtured in a leader, rather than a fixed trait)
Theoretical approach

Internalized moral perspective

Balanced processing:

Relational transparency
reflecting on your core values, identity, emotions, motives and goals, and coming to grips with who you really are at the deepest level.
Self-regulatory process whereby individuals use their internal moral standards and values to guide their behavior rather than allow outside pressures to control them.
Individual's ability to analyzse information objectively and explore other people's opinions before making a decision
Being open and honest in presenting one's true self to others.
Positive psychological attributes that have an impact on leadership
confidence, hope, optimism and resilience (=the capacity to recover from and adjust to adverse situations).
+ moral reasoning: the capacity to make ethical decisions about issues of right or wrong
+ critical life events: leaders become more authentic by understanding their own life experience and making them stronger (life events shape people's lives, they are catalysts for change.)
Practical approaches
Robert Terry

How to do leadership

Authentic action wheel:

Locating the problem

Selecting the appropriate response to the issue

Bill George

Understand the purpose
Have strong values about the right thing to do
establish trusting relationships with others
Demonstrate self-discipline and act on right values
Be passionate about the organizational mission
leaders should strive to do what is right and the framework of the approach serves as a guide to these actions.
The challenge for leaders is to distinguish between authentic and inauthentic actions and then commit to the authentic ones.
Visual diagnostic tool to address underlying and solve problems in organizations. Steps toward authentic leadership
Assessment of employees and their organizational concerns on the action wheel
Find alternative explanations to the problem and select a response based on this information
Focus on the cahracterisitcs that must be developed in order to become authentic leaders:

The theoretical approach describes what authentic leadership is and what acounts for it ≠ the practical approaches provide prescriptions for how to be authentic and how to develop authentic leadership (authentic leadership works when leaders and followers come together to define their concerns and determine what is the right thing to do about them.)
Strenghts of authentic leadership
It fulfills an expressed need for trustworthy leadership in society.
It provides broad guidelines for individuals who want to become authentic leaders.
It has an explicit moral dimension:
Everyone can develop authenticity and learn to be more authentic.
It can be measured with the Authentic Leadership Questionaire
Weaknesses of authentic leadership
The practical approaches are not fully developed and clear.
It is not clear whether positive psychological capacities should be included as components of leadership.
The moral component is not fully explained.
It is not clear whether authentic leadership results in positive organizational outcomes.
Glass ceiling labyrinth
The invisible barrier preventing women from ascending into elite leadership positions (1960)
Modern metaphor describing the topic "women and leadership": a journey riddled with challenges all along the way, which can and has been successfully navigated by wmen
Explanations for the labyrinth
Human capital differences:

Gender differences

-women have less human capital investment in education, training and work experience than men (pipeline problem).
- Disproportionate responsibility women assume for child rearing and domestic duties (women are more likely than men to quit their jobs for family-related reasons)
- Women are less likely to receive encouragement, be included in key networks and receive formal job training than man.
- Women are disproportionately represented in business positions that are less visible, have less responsibility and do not lead to top leadership positions.

- both men and women show the same commitment to their marriage, job and family
- women are less likely to emerge as leaders, but they are more likely to serve as social facilitators than men
- women face gender biases and social disincentives when they self-promote: they are seen as less socially attractive and less hirable.

- stereotyped expectations: women take care and men take charge: Gender stereotypes are particularly damaging for women because agentic (≠ communal) tendencies are indispensable in leadership.
- stereotypes directly affect women too: female leaders experience significant pressure as their highly visible performance is scrutinized and perceived through stereotypes.
- cross-pressures: women as leaders should be masculine and though, but these features make women not "female enough"
Motives for removing the barriers

Factors that contributes to the increase of effective female leaders
1. doing so will fulfill the promise of equal opportunity by allowing everyone to take leadership roles.
2. promoting women into leadership roles will help make societal institutions, businesses and governments more representative + it can also contribute to more ethical, innovative, productive and financially successful organizations that demonstrate higher levels of collective intelligence.

1. Changes in organizations are beginning to make it easier for women to reach top positions (e.g. separation of work and family).
2. Many organizations are valuing flexible works and diversity in their top echelons.
3. More high-visibility positions and mentoring relationships for women.
Strengths of labyrinth
Understanding many components of the labyrinth will give us the tools necessary to combat this inequality from many perspectives
This research is productive in both dispelling myths about the gender gap and focusing on how to eliminate gender barriers.
Developing leadership theories will give more people the opportunity to engage in the best leadership practice.
Weaknesses of the labyrinth
Leadership researchers should put greater emphasis on understanding the role of race, ethnicity, sexual orientation and other types of diversity in leadership processes.
Many findings do not generalize well across cultures.
The leadership gap will not be closed without a concurrent focus on closing the gender gap at home.