BIO II - Vertebrates
Terms in this set (83)
List the 4 key features of vertebrates
- Hollow, dorsal nerve chord
- Numerous Gill Slits
- Post anal tail
What are the 4 vertebrate adaptations have allowed vertebrates to successfully invade most habitats?
- Have a backbone composed of cartilage
- Endoskeleton that can grow and repair itself
- Paired appendages
- Increased size and complexity of the brain and sensory structures
Which group was the first vertebrate to evolve?
What are 8 characteristics of fish?
Chambers in the heart
Describe the gills of a fish?
Branched from arches covered by the operculum; 4 gill arches
Describe the jaws of a fish?
with teeth (in most)
Describe the intestines of a fish?
Simple; no spiral valve
Is the circulatory system of a fish open or closed?
How many chambers are in the heart of a fish?
What does the swim bladder in a fish do?
Describe the reproduction of a fish
Most are egg-laying
Describe the locomotion of a fish
Move by contracting opposite muscles (S-shaped)
What are the 3 major classes of fish?
Jawless fish have ______-shaped bodies and smooth skin that lacks ________.
What are the two types of fish in Superclass Agnatha?
Are hagfish freshwater or marine?
Are the eyes in a hagfish present or not?
Describe the diet of a hagfish
Dead or decaying fish and small investments with a rasping tongue
What is the function of slime (mucus) in a hagfish?
The spinal cord of lamprey are protected by ____________________________
What kind of water do lamprey live in?
Fresh and salt water
Lamprey return to fresh water to _________. When young are mature they return to the ______ environment.
What is unusual about the lamprey's feeding habits?
Some are parasitic and use their rasping teeth to suck blood and body fluids
Why are lamprey a problem in the Great Lakes?
They prey on important fish species such as the lake trout and feed on their blood and body fluids
What kind of fish are in Superclass Agnatha?
What kind of fish are in Class Chondrichthyes?
Describe the habitat of Class Chondrichthyes (freshwater or marine)
The skeleton of Class Chondrichthyes is composed of __________
The skin of Class Chondrichthyes is leathery with _______________ embedded on them
How many chambers does the heart of a cartilaginous fish have?
The Cartilage Fish lack a ______ ________ to help keep them afloat.
What are some example of Class Chondrichthyes?
Sharks, Rays, Skates
Sharks have many rows of sharp ________ that are replaced from the back
Sharks use _______ to detect weak magnetic fields produced by other fish.
What is unique to the ray that allows for defense?
Delivers venom through the spine
Does the Giant Manta Ray use venom for eating, if not how do they eat?
What is unique about electric rays?
Generate electrical currents to stun their prey
What makes a skate different from a ray?
Do not possess a venomous spine; lay eggs in leathery capsules
What kind of fish are in Class Osteichthyes?
What two types of fish are bony fish?
Lobe-finned and Ray-finned
What are some examples of lobe-finned fish?
Coelacanths and lungfish
List 6 characteristics about Coelacanths
3 lobed tail
Hollow, and fluid filled backbone
True enamel teeth
Lungfish have both _____ and ______
When the weather turns dry lungfish bury themselves in the _______. This mud chamber is lined with mucus. The lungfish uses its ________ to breathe while buried in the mud.
What are some examples of ray-finned fish?
Tuna, cod, eels, and seahorses
What are 6 characteristics of ray-finned fish?
- Bony skeleton
- Skin covered w/ interlocking scales
- Fins are webs of skin supported by spines - "rays"
- 2 chambered heart
- Swim bladder allows them to float
Female seahorses deposit eggs in male pouch, eggs are fertilized in the pouch of the ______. Male seahorses then carry their _______ in the pouch. Male and female seahorses mate for ______.
Male; young; life
What are some examples of amphibians?
Frogs, toads, Salamanders, and Newts
What are some characteristics of amphibians?
- 3 chambered hearts
- Most adults respire through lungs and moist skin
- 4 limbs
- Return to the water to reproduce
What is the frog life cycle?
Frog VS Toad
- Long jumping legs
- Eggs laid in clusters
- Moist habitats
- Have teeth
- Short walking legs
- Eggs laid in long chains
- Dry habitats
- No teeth
Frogs have __________ fertilization. Male frogs stimulate the release of the female eggs during ___________. Jelly is released with the sperm directly onto the eggs to keep them from _____________.
External; amplexus; drying out
What is the difference between a salamander and a newt?
Salamander- moist habitats
Newt- type of salamander
A caecilian is a ___________ amphibian.
What are some characteristics of reptiles and birds?
Adapted for life on land
3 chambered heart
Respire through lungs
Skin is less permeable
Crocs and birds- 4 chambered heart
Cold blooded- reptiles
Warm blooded- birds
What are some characteristics of Class Reptilia?
Tough, scaly skin
Fertilize eggs internally
Scales made of keratin
What is an amniote egg?
Shell encapsulates embryo in a liquid filled membrane - amnion
Examples of Reptiles (including birds)
What is the difference between an alligator and crocodile?
- Upper jaw wider than lower law; overlaps it
- Wide "U-shaped" rounded snout like a shovel
- Longer, more pointed "V-shaped" nose
What is the difference between a tortoise and a turtle?
- Lives in and around water
- Webbed feet
- Stream-lined shape
- Land dwelling
- Larger and heavier than a turtle
- Stubby feet w/ sharp claws
What two birds are a link between dinosaurs and the true birds?
Archaeopteryx and Microraptor Gui
Feathers provide _______, ________, and ________
Lift, control, insulation
The bones of birds are ________________
Females have a ________ ovary
Birds have an ____________ egg
Beaks of birds grow ___________ and are covered with _________
Birds have air sacs called ___________ in addition to their lungs in order to provide plenty of oxygen for flight.
Birds are _______ blooded unlike the rest of the reptiles.
The largest bird is the __________
Mammals are _______ blooded
Mammals have a ______ chambered heart
Mammals have ________ that help to protect and insulate the body.
Most mammals have _______ for running.
Mammals have specialized glands including the ______, ______, and ______________.
Sweat, scent, sebaceous
Female mammals have ________ glands to produce milk for their young. Mammals care for their young for an extended time.
Mammals have highly developed __________
What are the two examples of monotremes?
Platypus and spiny anteater
What are the characteristics of a monotreme?
Lay leathery eggs; egg is retained within the mother; lactate but have no nipples
What are the characteristics of a marsupial?
- Live birth
- Short gestation periods
- Give birth early and the young animal climbs from the birth canal to the nipple inside of the pouch
What are some examples of marsupials?
Opossums, koalas, kangaroos, wallabies, wombats, and the Tasmanian Devil
What is the function of the placenta in a placental mammal?
Gas, nutrient, and waste exchange between circulatory systems of mother and embryo
What is the difference between a porpoise and a dolphin?
- Shorter nose, smaller mouth, less curved dorsal fins, shorter/thicker bodies
- Longer nose, larger mouths, more curved dorsal fins, longer/leaner bodies
What is the difference between a manatee and a dugong?
- Forked shark-like tail
- Broad, flat, flipper-looking tail
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