5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Factors affecting bone growth (8)
- central canals contain
- central or Haversian canal
- a blood vessels, lymphatic vessels & nerves
- b blood vessels, lymphatic vessels
- c 1. Deficiency of Vitamin A - retards bone development
2. Deficiency of Vitamin C - results in fragile bones (collagen/fiber in connective tissue)
3. Deficiency of Vitamin D - rickets, osteomalacia - softening of bones, vit D makes bones solid
4. Insufficient Growth Hormone - dwarfism
5. Excessive Growth Hormone - gigantism (beofre fusion), acromegaly (after bone fusion)
6. Insufficient Thyroid Hormone - delays bone growth
7. Sex Hormones - promote bone formation; stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates
8. Physical Stress - stimulates bone growth (b/c of remodeling)
- d around
- e specialized repair tissue that binds the broken ends of the fracture together.
5 Multiple choice questions
- layers, rings, aka matrix
- to make RBCs
1. Support (ex. to stand up)
2. Protection (ex. cover vital organs)
3. Movement - muscles covers - movement
4. Mineral storage - calcium, 98% of calcium is stored in bone. (too much calc. in blood, then store in bones - like a bank, can add to bank until 30-35)
5. Hematopoiesis (blood formation) - formation of blood cells, RBC, WBC, Platelets
can't live w/o calc.
- 1. Normally 8 - 12 weeks (longer in elderly)
2. Stages of healing
a. Fracture hematoma - clot forms, then osteogenic cells form granulation tissue
b. Soft callus
i. Fibroblasts produce fibers and fibrocartilage
c. Hard callus
i. Osteoblasts produce a bony collar in 6 weeks
d. Remodeling in 3 to 4 months
i. spongy bone replaced by compact bone
- connective tissue
1. Matrix dominates (calcium, calcium phosphate, sodium...)
2. Inorganic salt - hydroxyapatite
calcium phosphate (gives bones hardness)
3. Organic matrix - protein fibers = gives you flexibility
Note 1: need both organic and inorganic btw cells.
Note 2: if calcium phosphate is the only thing in the bones then brittle bones and they shattered.
Note 3: is only organic then osteoporosis
- bone absorbing cell
breaks down the matrix
5 True/False questions
canaliculi → specialized repair tissue that binds the broken ends of the fracture together.
parts of long bone (7) → 1. Diaphysis - shaft
2. Epiphysis - bulby ends, where muscles attach
3. Epiphyseal plate or disk - cartilage, plate=still growing, line=stopped growing (white line)
4. Medullary or marrow cavity - hollow, living bone has marrow
5. Periosteum - around the bone
6. Endosteum - lines the cavity, inside
7. Articular cartilage - covers head & bottom
osteoblasts & osteoclast & calcium → 1. during bone formation osteoblasts remove calcium from blood, lowering its circulating levels
2. when osteoclasts are active and breakdown of bone predominates, calcium is released into blood & circulating levels will increase.
stages of ossification → cartilage gets blood flow from surface.
ossified the ends - so you can walk
ossified at shaft & cartilage is in between.
(see slide #16)
myelo → inside