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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Bone marrow (3)
  2. osteoclasts stimulates
  3. central canals contain
  4. endochondral ossification 1/2
  5. Factors affecting bone growth (8)
  1. a osteoclasts, if the level of calcium in the blood is low & vitamin D systhesis (which increases the efficiency of absorption of calcium in the intestines)
  2. b 1. Deficiency of Vitamin A - retards bone development
    2. Deficiency of Vitamin C - results in fragile bones (collagen/fiber in connective tissue)
    3. Deficiency of Vitamin D - rickets, osteomalacia - softening of bones, vit D makes bones solid
    4. Insufficient Growth Hormone - dwarfism
    5. Excessive Growth Hormone - gigantism (beofre fusion), acromegaly (after bone fusion)
    6. Insufficient Thyroid Hormone - delays bone growth
    7. Sex Hormones - promote bone formation; stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates
    8. Physical Stress - stimulates bone growth (b/c of remodeling)
  3. c 1. Most bones develop this process
    2. Formation of primary ossification center and marrow cavity in shaft of model
    a. Bony collar developed by osteoblasts
    b. Chondrocytes swell and die
    c. Stem cells give rise to osteoblasts and clasts
    d. Bone laid down and marrow cavity created

    epiphysis - needs to be remodeled (reshaped)
    bone grows on the outside and then an inner layer disappears by osteoclasts. this is so the bones don't get too heavy
  4. d 1. Myeloid (myelo=bone marrow) tissue
    2. In medullary cavity (long bone) and among trabeculae (spongy bone)
    3. Site for the production of blood cells
    a. Red marrow
    i. In vertebrae, ribs, sternum, pelvic girdle and proximal heads of femur and humerus in ADULTS
    b. Yellow marrow
    i. Fatty marrow of long bones in adults

    Note: kids have RBC in marrow in long bones b/c still growing
  5. e blood vessels, lymphatic vessels & nerves

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. inside
  2. high blood calcium levels results in stimulation of osteoblasts and inhibit osteoclasts
  3. combined action of osteoblasts & osteoclasts to mold bones into adult shape
  4. 1. Bones grow in length at epiphyseal plate
    2. Bones grow in diameter by the combined action of osteoclasts and osteoblasts
    3. Osteoclasts enlarge the diameter of the medullary cavity
    4. Osteoblasts from the periosteum build new bone around the outside of the bone
    5. Bone formation = bone destruction in early to middle years
    6. Remodeling activity important in homeostasis of blood calcium levels.
    7. Remodeling occurs throughout life

    women stop growing around the time of the start of their period, in case they get pregnant. don't want to compete w/baby for calcium.
    males have denser bones
  5. 1. Fracture tears and destroys blood vessels that carry nutrients to osteocytes
    2. Vascular damage initiates repair sequence
    3. Callus - specialized repair tissue that binds the broken ends of the fracture together
    4. Rapidly growing callus tissue effectively collars broken ends and stabilizes fracture so healing can proceed.

5 True/False questions

  1. callusair pocket in the bone

          

  2. osteoclastbone forming cell
    Builds matrix

          

  3. hemopoiesisno calcium. deterioration of vertebral support.

    1. Bones lose mass and become increasingly brittle and subject to fractures
    2. More prevalent in women - postmenopausal
    3. Men develop later in life - senile

    genetics, diet & exercise

          

  4. Bone cells (3)1. Osteoblasts - not trapped by matrix (under endosteum or periosteum
    2. Osteocytes - trapped by matrix
    3. Osteoclasts - break down
    a. Multinucleated
    breaks down matrix thru lysosome (which breaks down enzymes)

    If you break bone you can rebuild matrix

          

  5. appositional growthgrowth in length