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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. callus
  2. Factors affecting bone growth (8)
  3. central canals contain
  4. peri
  5. central or Haversian canal
  1. a blood vessels, lymphatic vessels & nerves
  2. b blood vessels, lymphatic vessels
  3. c 1. Deficiency of Vitamin A - retards bone development
    2. Deficiency of Vitamin C - results in fragile bones (collagen/fiber in connective tissue)
    3. Deficiency of Vitamin D - rickets, osteomalacia - softening of bones, vit D makes bones solid
    4. Insufficient Growth Hormone - dwarfism
    5. Excessive Growth Hormone - gigantism (beofre fusion), acromegaly (after bone fusion)
    6. Insufficient Thyroid Hormone - delays bone growth
    7. Sex Hormones - promote bone formation; stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates
    8. Physical Stress - stimulates bone growth (b/c of remodeling)
  4. d around
  5. e specialized repair tissue that binds the broken ends of the fracture together.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. layers, rings, aka matrix
  2. to make RBCs
    1. Support (ex. to stand up)
    2. Protection (ex. cover vital organs)
    3. Movement - muscles covers - movement
    4. Mineral storage - calcium, 98% of calcium is stored in bone. (too much calc. in blood, then store in bones - like a bank, can add to bank until 30-35)
    5. Hematopoiesis (blood formation) - formation of blood cells, RBC, WBC, Platelets

    can't live w/o calc.
  3. 1. Normally 8 - 12 weeks (longer in elderly)
    2. Stages of healing
    a. Fracture hematoma - clot forms, then osteogenic cells form granulation tissue
    b. Soft callus
    i. Fibroblasts produce fibers and fibrocartilage
    c. Hard callus
    i. Osteoblasts produce a bony collar in 6 weeks
    d. Remodeling in 3 to 4 months
    i. spongy bone replaced by compact bone
  4. connective tissue
    1. Matrix dominates (calcium, calcium phosphate, sodium...)
    2. Inorganic salt - hydroxyapatite
    calcium phosphate (gives bones hardness)
    3. Organic matrix - protein fibers = gives you flexibility

    Note 1: need both organic and inorganic btw cells.
    Note 2: if calcium phosphate is the only thing in the bones then brittle bones and they shattered.
    Note 3: is only organic then osteoporosis
  5. bone absorbing cell

    breaks down the matrix

5 True/False questions

  1. canaliculispecialized repair tissue that binds the broken ends of the fracture together.

          

  2. parts of long bone (7)1. Diaphysis - shaft
    2. Epiphysis - bulby ends, where muscles attach
    3. Epiphyseal plate or disk - cartilage, plate=still growing, line=stopped growing (white line)
    4. Medullary or marrow cavity - hollow, living bone has marrow
    5. Periosteum - around the bone
    6. Endosteum - lines the cavity, inside
    7. Articular cartilage - covers head & bottom

          

  3. osteoblasts & osteoclast & calcium1. during bone formation osteoblasts remove calcium from blood, lowering its circulating levels
    2. when osteoclasts are active and breakdown of bone predominates, calcium is released into blood & circulating levels will increase.

          

  4. stages of ossificationcartilage gets blood flow from surface.
    ossified the ends - so you can walk
    ossified at shaft & cartilage is in between.

    (see slide #16)

          

  5. myeloinside