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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. lacunae
  2. Development of bone (3)
  3. Volkmann's or perforating canals
  4. stages of ossification
  5. types of bone (6)
  1. a mainly blood vessels. connect central canals (ex. if one central canal gets clogged then get from here)
  2. b cartilage gets blood flow from surface.
    ossified the ends - so you can walk
    ossified at shaft & cartilage is in between.

    (see slide #16)
  3. c dimples, osteocyte sits in lacunae
  4. d 1. Osteogenesis
    2. Intramembranous ossification - replaces membrane
    a. Occurs within a connective tissue membrane
    b. Apposition growth
    i. Adds bone tissue to outer surface (inside to outside) "suture" is where the bones grew together w/bone cells.
    3. Endochondral ossification - replace cartilage
    a. Occurs within a cartilage model
    b. Bone is deposited by osteoblasts
    c. Appositional and Interstitial growth
    i. Increases in diameter and length
  5. e 1. Cancellous (Spongy) Bone - inside bone
    2. Compact Bone - outside
    3. Long Bones - femur, tibia & humerous
    4. Short Bones - carpals, tarsals
    5. Flat Bones - skull, sternum
    6. Irregular Bones - pelvis

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. combined action of osteoblasts & osteoclasts to mold bones into adult shape
  2. 1. Fracture tears and destroys blood vessels that carry nutrients to osteocytes
    2. Vascular damage initiates repair sequence
    3. Callus - specialized repair tissue that binds the broken ends of the fracture together
    4. Rapidly growing callus tissue effectively collars broken ends and stabilizes fracture so healing can proceed.
  3. 1. Bones grow in length at epiphyseal plate
    2. Bones grow in diameter by the combined action of osteoclasts and osteoblasts
    3. Osteoclasts enlarge the diameter of the medullary cavity
    4. Osteoblasts from the periosteum build new bone around the outside of the bone
    5. Bone formation = bone destruction in early to middle years
    6. Remodeling activity important in homeostasis of blood calcium levels.
    7. Remodeling occurs throughout life

    women stop growing around the time of the start of their period, in case they get pregnant. don't want to compete w/baby for calcium.
    males have denser bones
  4. 1. Diaphysis - shaft
    2. Epiphysis - bulby ends, where muscles attach
    3. Epiphyseal plate or disk - cartilage, plate=still growing, line=stopped growing (white line)
    4. Medullary or marrow cavity - hollow, living bone has marrow
    5. Periosteum - around the bone
    6. Endosteum - lines the cavity, inside
    7. Articular cartilage - covers head & bottom
  5. 1. Normally 8 - 12 weeks (longer in elderly)
    2. Stages of healing
    a. Fracture hematoma - clot forms, then osteogenic cells form granulation tissue
    b. Soft callus
    i. Fibroblasts produce fibers and fibrocartilage
    c. Hard callus
    i. Osteoblasts produce a bony collar in 6 weeks
    d. Remodeling in 3 to 4 months
    i. spongy bone replaced by compact bone

5 True/False questions

  1. osteocytebone cell (mature bone cells)

    Maintains matrix


  2. spinal disorder (kyphotic)thoracic curve (hunchback)


  3. Factors affecting bone growth (8)1. Deficiency of Vitamin A - retards bone development
    2. Deficiency of Vitamin C - results in fragile bones (collagen/fiber in connective tissue)
    3. Deficiency of Vitamin D - rickets, osteomalacia - softening of bones, vit D makes bones solid
    4. Insufficient Growth Hormone - dwarfism
    5. Excessive Growth Hormone - gigantism (beofre fusion), acromegaly (after bone fusion)
    6. Insufficient Thyroid Hormone - delays bone growth
    7. Sex Hormones - promote bone formation; stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates
    8. Physical Stress - stimulates bone growth (b/c of remodeling)


  4. canaliculilike like little cracks, actually canals


  5. osteoclasts stimulatesosteoclasts, if the level of calcium in the blood is low & vitamin D systhesis (which increases the efficiency of absorption of calcium in the intestines)