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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. structure of the osteon (3 & 5 components)
  2. Development of bone (3)
  3. osteoclast
  4. endochondral ossification 2/2
  5. Functions of bone (5)
  1. a 1. Secondary ossification centers and marrow cavities form in ends of bone
    2. Cartilage remains as articular cartilage and epiphyseal (growth) plates
    a. Growth plates provide for increase in length of bone during childhood and adolescence
    b. Disappear when growth stops
  2. b bone tissue can repair itself due to blood supply

    1. AKA Haversian systems
    2. Permit delivery of nutrients and removal of waste products
    3. Components
    a. Lamella - layers, rings, aka matrix
    b. Lacunae - dimples (osteon sits in lacunae)
    c. Canaliculi - like like little cracks, actually canals
    d. Central or Haversian canal - blood vessels, lymphatic vessels
    e. Volkmann's or Perforating canals - mainly blood vessels. connects central canals (ex. if one central canal gets clogged then get from here)
  3. c to make RBCs
    1. Support (ex. to stand up)
    2. Protection (ex. cover vital organs)
    3. Movement - muscles covers - movement
    4. Mineral storage - calcium, 98% of calcium is stored in bone. (too much calc. in blood, then store in bones - like a bank, can add to bank until 30-35)
    5. Hematopoiesis (blood formation) - formation of blood cells, RBC, WBC, Platelets

    can't live w/o calc.
  4. d 1. Osteogenesis
    2. Intramembranous ossification - replaces membrane
    a. Occurs within a connective tissue membrane
    b. Apposition growth
    i. Adds bone tissue to outer surface (inside to outside) "suture" is where the bones grew together w/bone cells.
    3. Endochondral ossification - replace cartilage
    a. Occurs within a cartilage model
    b. Bone is deposited by osteoblasts
    c. Appositional and Interstitial growth
    i. Increases in diameter and length
  5. e bone absorbing cell

    breaks down the matrix

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. high blood calcium levels results in stimulation of osteoblasts and inhibit osteoclasts
  2. 1. during bone formation osteoblasts remove calcium from blood, lowering its circulating levels
    2. when osteoclasts are active and breakdown of bone predominates, calcium is released into blood & circulating levels will increase.
  3. 1. Deficiency of Vitamin A - retards bone development
    2. Deficiency of Vitamin C - results in fragile bones (collagen/fiber in connective tissue)
    3. Deficiency of Vitamin D - rickets, osteomalacia - softening of bones, vit D makes bones solid
    4. Insufficient Growth Hormone - dwarfism
    5. Excessive Growth Hormone - gigantism (beofre fusion), acromegaly (after bone fusion)
    6. Insufficient Thyroid Hormone - delays bone growth
    7. Sex Hormones - promote bone formation; stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates
    8. Physical Stress - stimulates bone growth (b/c of remodeling)
  4. combined action of osteoblasts & osteoclasts to mold bones into adult shape
  5. mainly blood vessels. connect central canals (ex. if one central canal gets clogged then get from here)

5 True/False questions

  1. callusspecialized repair tissue that binds the broken ends of the fracture together.


  2. Bone growth & remodeling (7)1. Bones grow in length at epiphyseal plate
    2. Bones grow in diameter by the combined action of osteoclasts and osteoblasts
    3. Osteoclasts enlarge the diameter of the medullary cavity
    4. Osteoblasts from the periosteum build new bone around the outside of the bone
    5. Bone formation = bone destruction in early to middle years
    6. Remodeling activity important in homeostasis of blood calcium levels.
    7. Remodeling occurs throughout life

    women stop growing around the time of the start of their period, in case they get pregnant. don't want to compete w/baby for calcium.
    males have denser bones


  3. spinal disorder (lordosis)exaggerated lumbar curve


  4. Cancellous or spongy bone (3)helps the bone not be so heavy. Line up the points of stress, not across.

    1. Sponge like appearance formed by plates of bone called trabeculae
    2. Trabeculae have few osteons or central canals
    - No osteocyte is far from blood of bone marrow
    3. Provides strength with little weight
    - Trabeculae develop along bone's lines of stress


  5. lamellainside