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Ch. 3: Water and Fitness of the Environment
Terms in this set (33)
"A molecule (such as water) with opposite charges on different ends of the molecule"
"The binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds"
"The attraction between different kinds of molecules"
"A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. Water has a high surface tension because of the hydrogen bonding of surface molecules"
"The energy associated with the relative motion of objects. Moving matter can perform work by imparting motion to other matter"
"The total amount of kinetic energy due to ther random motion of atoms or molecules in a body of matter; also called thermal energy. Heat is energy in its most random form"
"A measure of the intensity of the heat in degrees, reflecting the average kinetic energy of the molecules"
"A temperature scale equal to 5/9 (F-32) that measures the freezing point of water at 0C and the boiling point of water at 100C"
"The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1C; also the amount of heat energy that 1 g of water releases when it cools by 1C. The ..., usually used to indicate the energy content of food, is a kilocalorie"
"A thousand calories; the amount of heat energy required to raise the temprature of 1 kg of water by 1C"
"A unit of energy: 1 J = 0.239 cal; 1 cal = 4.184 J"
"The amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of a substance to change its temperature by 1C"
heat of vaporization
"The quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state"
"The process in which the surface of an object becomes cooler during evaporation, owing to a change of the molecules with the greatest kinetic energy from the liquid to the gaseous state"
"A liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances"
"The dissolving agent of a solution. Water is the most versatile... known"
"A substance that is dissolved in a solution"
"A solution in which water is the solvent"
"The sphere of water molecules around a dissolved ion"
"Having an affinity for water"
"A mixture made up of a liquid and particles that (because of their large size) remain suspended rather than dissolved in that liquid"
"Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water"
"The sum of the masses of all the atoms in a molecule; sometimes called molecular weight"
"The number of grams of a substance that equals its molecular weight in daltons and contains Avogadro's number of molecules"
"A common measure of solute concentration, referring to the number of moles of solute per liter of solution"
"A single proton with a charge of 1+. The dissociation of a water molecule (H2O) leads to the generation of a hydroxide ion (OH-) and a hydrogen ion (H+)"
"A water molecule that has lost a proton; OH-"
"A water molecule that has an extra proton bound to it; H3O+"
"A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution"
"A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution"
"A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log [H+] and ranging in value from 0 to 14"
"A substance that consists of acid and base forms in a solution and that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution"
"Rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than pH 5.2"
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