Lamarch's ideas about evolution were wrong because he proposed that___?
acquired characteristics can be inherited
Lyell's "Principles of Geology" influnced Darwin because it explained how___?
The surface of the Earth changes over time
The ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its natural environment is called___?
What is an important concept in Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection
descent with modification
Why do DNA and RNA provide evidence of evolution?
In most organisms, the same codons specify the same amino acids
Study of biogeography helps scientists___?
make connections between where modern species and their ancestors lived
In vertebrates, groups of embryonic cells developing in the same order and in similar patterns result in ___?
homologous tissues and organs
The wing of a bird and the wing of an ancestor have similar functions, but they evolved independently. This is an example of___?
Within a species, great heritable variation___?
increases the likelihood of a species' adapting to and surviving environmental changes
Darwin's theory of descent with modification refers to ___?
the process of species evolving from common ancestors
Dawrin realized that Malthus' ideas about human population growth applied even more to other organisms, such as why ___?
oysters produce millions of eggs but only a few survive
How did Darwin explain his observation of fossils of marine animals found several thousand feet above sea level?
geological events caused the ancient seafloor to move to a higher elevation
Selective breeding of domesticated organisms by humans to enhance useful traits is known as ___?
Darwin observed that different habitats within a local area contained animal species that were ___?
different yet cloesly related
On his voyage, Darwin noticed that similar habitats in different parts of the world contained
different but ecologically similar plants and animals
Darwin drew support for his theory of evolution from the observation that fossils ____?
of some extinct animals are similar to living species
In what year did Darwin begin his voyage? How long was it? Where was it?
1831; 5 years; along the coastline of South Africa
What 3 distincitve patterns of biological diversity did Darwin notice as he travelled?
1. species vary globally
2. species vary locally
3. species vary over time
Natural selection occurs in any situation in which:
1. more individuals are born than can survive
2. there is natural heritable variation
3. there is a variable fitness among individuals
What were Hutton's and Lyell's ideas about the age of Earth and the processes that shape the planet?
Earth is extremely old and the processes that changed Earth in the past are the same processes that operate in the present.
What is an acquired characteristic? What role did Lamarck think acquired characteristics played in evolution?
Traits altered by an individual organism during its life are called acquired characteristics. Organisms could use or not use organisms/resources to acquire or not acquire certain characteristics.
What parts of Lamarck's hypotheses have been proved wrong? What did Lamarck get right?
wrong= organisms don't have an inborn drive to become perfect; evolution does not mean that a species becomes "better" or "worse". right=species are not fixed
What three kinds of variations among organisms did Darwin observe during the voyage of the Beagle?
Rheas, Galapagos Islands, and fossils
The preserved remains of organsims that loved long ago, often found in rocks and typically resemble parts of living organisms
through ____ evolution, unrelated species in similar environments evolve similar body functions from dissimilar underlying structures called ___
through ___ evolution, cloesly related species living in dissimlar environments evolve dissimlar body functions from similar underlying structures called ___
some species of organisms have _____ with no apparent purpose, which are homologous to functional structures in other species
Who proposed that an internal drive toward complexity within cells is the driving force of evolution?
What proposes that living organisms inherited body parts modified through use or disuse
inheritence of acquired characteristics
Evidence for evolution
3. comparative anatomy
4. domestication of plants and animals
the movement of alleles from one population to another owing to the migration of individual organisms
natural selection is primarily an issue of ____
differential reproduction: organisms with favorable alleles leave more offspring that do other individuals with less favorable alleles
directional selection favors ____ against both average and large individuals of population
directional selection favors individuals at ___ of a distribution range for a trait and selects against ___
one end; average individuals
2 or more alleles areb maintained in a population because each is favored by a separate environmental force
disruptive selection favors individuals at ____ of the distribution of a trait and selects ____ average individuals
the evolution of adaptions in different species due to extensive interactions with each other