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44 terms

AP U.S. History Chapter 3

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John Calvin
formed Calvinism- believed in predestination
Predestination
doctrine of John Calvin that adhered to the idea that each person's fate is predetermined by god
Visible Saints
people who had seen their conversion and lived lives of holy behavior
Puritans
English religious reformers who wanted to break all ties with Rome and follow Calvinism
Separatists
Puritans who only wanted visible saints in the Churches and wanted to leave the Church
Mayflower
boat the Separatists used to go to New England
Captain Miles Standish
soldier who turned out to be a good Indian fighter and negotiator
Mayflower Compact
Precedent to further constitutions- establishment of self-government
William Bradford
governor of Plymouth- worried about non-Puritan settlers
Massachusetts Bay Colony
colony formed by the Puritans to get away from attacks from conservatives in England
Great Migration
1630s- 70,000 refugees left England for New World
John Winthrop
1st governor of Massachusetts colony
City Upon a Hill
name of Massachusetts colony symbolizing how it will be a Puritan example that others will look up to
John Cotton
Puritan- enforced the religious rules
Blue Law State
nickname for Connecticut- had strict Puritan laws (no kissing in public)
Michael Wigglesworth
poet who wrote a very detailed description of Puritan Hell
Anne Hutchinson
Puritan woman who challenged predestination- antinomianism
Antinomianism
couldn't be saved by good actions, so the truly saved need not obey the laws of God or man
Roger Williams
Extreme separatist- condemned Bay colony for taking land from Indians- thought government should not regulate religious behavior
Rogues Island
nickname for Rhode Island- founded by Roger Williams for outcasts- freedom of religion
Thomas Hooker
Reverend who led a group of Puritans west to Connecticut
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
modern constitution- established a more democratically controlled government- written by Connecticut River settlers
Squanto
Wampanoag indian who learned English- helped keep peace w/ settlers
Wampanoags
indian tribe that tried to be peaceful
Massasoit
wampanog chief who signed a treaty w/ the Pilgrims and celebrated Thanksgiving
Pequot War
1637- war between the colonists and the Pequot tribe- ended in destruction of the tribe and uneasy peace
Metacom (King Philip)
Indian who united the tribes and defeated 52 Puritan towns
King Philip's War
1676- united tribes and attacked Puritans- slowed Western expansion- killed Indians
New England Confederation
1643-1686- 4 colonies banded together- all Puritan- step toward American unity
Dominion of New England
1686- 1688- created in London- regulated trade (Navigation Acts) and increased defense against Indians in colonies
Sir Edmund Andros
head of new Dominion- open affiliation w/ Church of England, decreased the power of local authority- hated in the Puritan colonies
Navigation Laws
laws that restricted American trade with other countries
Glorious Revolution
event in England that dethroned James II and throned William III- caused the collapse of the Dominion in the colonies
Salutary Neglect
period of time where the Navigation Laws were weakly enforced
Henry Hudson
English explorer- employed by the Dutch to explore the New World- claimed Hudson Bay
Dutch East and West India Companies
companies controlled by the Dutch to explore
New Netherlands
Hudson river area
New Amsterdam
New York City area- bought for a small amount- run for Dutch company- harsh rules
Patroonships
big feudal estates granted to promoters who would settle 50 people on them
Wall Street
derives name from wall built on Manhattan that protected them from Indians
Peter Stuyvesant
general in New Netherland- fought the Swedish and was forced to surrender New Amerterdam
Religious Society of Friends
official name for the Quakers
William Penn
founded the Pennsylvania colony for the Quakers
Tammany
indian chief who sold Pennsylvania to William Penn