36 terms

COMM 323 Exam 1

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

The Study of Significant Speeches (Introduction)
Authors- Andrews and Zarefsky
Context
an understanding of the events and ideas that surround the speeches and interact with them
Ethos
describes the force of the speakers personality on the imagination and action of the audience
Audience (Significance of Speech)
who is physically listening to the speech
Message
features of the speech work together to promote the speaker's purpose within the situation, the way the speaker argues, how her or she organizes the ideas and supporting material of the speech and the speaker's style
Argument (Logos)
The consistency of the reasoning and the justification for the conclusions the speaker reachers
Organization
the relationships between the pattern of arrangement and the speaker's and audience's ideas and assumptions, locating and identifying the important ideas in the speech, this leads to better understanding the speaker's motives and goals
Style
the use of language in the speech, their "clothes"
Columbus, the Indians, and human progress
Author- Howard Zinn
-Difference between traditional assumptions of history and his own rhetorical project
--Assumption that truth can be discovered (for any event in history)
--Omiscience (the historian knows the whole, true story - objective)
--Good history does not involve interpretation
-Focus of historians = evidence of what happened during the event (names, dates,
archives, laws, etc.)
-Top-down approach people at the top are important in history
--all the good stuff
o His approach there is no neutral way of describing history - history depends on who is
telling it
-Objectivity is a myth (what is considered "fact" is simply what has been saved/written
down)
-Histories can be used to manipulate
-The goal is to tell a bottom-up story about what people's lives were like
-Historians make choices - those choices persuade us to see one thing rather than another
Bitzer's- The Rhetorical Situation
Exigence
Audience
Constraints
Exigence
-A need in the environment for a speech
-History
-Text
Audience (Bitzer)
Those who can affect change
Who speaker is adressing
Constraints
What could be used against the speacker

Anything that can get in the way of the audience believing the speaker
-Ethos- the ethical appeal, means to convince an audience of the author's credibility or character
-Pathos- The emotional appeal, means to persuade and audience by appealing to their emotions
-Logos- The appeal of logic, means to convince an audience by use of logic or reason
Kenneth Burke's The Pentad (The five key terms of dramatism)
The hero (Agent) with the help of a friend outwits the villain by using a file (agency) that enables him to break his bonds (act) in order to escape (purpose) form a room where he has being confined (scene)
1. Act
What?
What was done?
2. Scene
Where?
When or where it was done?
Background of the act
3. Agent
Who?
Who did it?
Protagonist/antagonist; how they're described
4. Agency
How?
How he did it?
How the agent performed the act
5. Purpose
Why?
Why he did it?
What does the speech tell us about the person and their motives
Rhetoric Notes
-Ethos- the ethical appeal, means to convince an audience of the author's credibility or character
-Pathos- The emotional appeal, means to persuade and audience by appealing to their emotions
-Logos- The appeal of logic, means to convince an audience by use of logic or reason
Boston Massacre Oration
John Hancock
Liberty or Death
Sir a lot
Patrick Henry
The Declaration of Idenpendence
Thomas Jefferson
First Inaugural (1776)
Public Good
Harmony
George Washington
To Governor William Harrison, Indiana Territory
Unity
Brother
Tecumseh
Speech to the Osages
Unite
Brothers- smoke the same pipe
Tecumseh
Case for the Indian Removal Act (The first annual message to congress)
President Andrew Jackson
Surrender Speech
Sarcastic
Black Hawk
Slavery a Positive Good
For Slavery
John C. Calhoun
The Murder of Lovejoy
Wendell Phillips
What to the Slave is the Fourth of July
Frederick Douglass
No Compromise with the Evil of Slavery
God a lot
William Lloyd Garrison
Declaration of Sentiments
William Lloyd Garrison/American Anti-Slavery Society
A House Divided
half and half
Abraham Lincoln
First Inaugural
For confederacy is being formed
North are Hypocrites
For slavery because of economy
Jefferson Davis
Second Inaugural
Somber
War
Fondly do we hope
Abraham Lincoln