An agricultural activity associated with the raising of domesticated animals, such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats.
Planting large amounts of profitable crops for mass production and sell.
Corporate Agriculture (Agribusiness)
System of food production involving everything from the development of the seeds to the marketing and sale of food products at the market.
A crop grown for direct sale rather than for livestock feed.
Domestication of Plants
Domesticating plants for human use, one of the first steps to a full fledged agricultural economy.
Planting and harvesting a crop on a field more than once a year.
When farmers grow crops in a clear field for only a few years until the soil nutrients are depleted. The farmers then have the soul empty for a few years so the nutrients in the soil can be restored; uncropped land.
Foods that are mostly products or organisms that have their genes altered in a laboratory for specific purposes, such as disease resistant, increased productivity, or nutrients value; Genetically Modified Organisms.
Subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relative large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a pared of land.
Includes fruits, garden vegetables, herbs, and anything requiring constant tending or wielding.
Animals that require constant tending, includes dairy cow and poultry for eggs.
Dependence on a single agricultural commodity.
In agriculture, the replacement of human labor with technology or machines.
Small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers, Distinguishable by the large diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, during a single growing season. Labor is done manually.
Any economic activity pertaining to the collecting, harvesting, and obtaining of raw materials.
Raising a large amount of a 'cash crop' for local sale or export.
A suitcase farm is a farm in which no one reside permanently, they go against the grain of traditional farming. In the US migrant workers provide a cheap, abundant labor source; they work on the farm during the day and leave at night. There is no residence on the site.
Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer.
Rate of crop production that can be maintained over time.
Movement of animal herd to cooler highland areas in the summer to warmer lowland areas in the winter.
Wheat plated in the fall and harvested in the early summer.
Von Thunen Model
Theory that a commercial farmer wull decide which crops to grow and which livestock to raise depending on the proximity to market.
An outgrowth of the 3rd agricultural revolution, this effort began in the 1940s and developed new strains of hybrid seeds and fertilizers that dramatically increased the crop output possible from each farm.
A group of people living together and sharing processions.
Nomadic herders to sedentary lifestyle and intentional farming
1st Agric Revo Impact
Birth of civilization Birth of urban areas Birth of government Birth of class structures(social stratified) Before this egalitarian Created irrigation Created farmers,slaves, government officials, merchants Surplus of food Led to writing Began trading which led to system of defense Towns located on high ground(acropolis) and water
Improved methods Improved plows and draft-animals (Leesdale and ox) New crops Potato and Corn since both can be grown in marginalized land(Not-so fertile land) Government policies British Enclosure Act Crop rotation and consolidated/fenced off land In same year and plot, rotate crops to maintain soil fertility Improved soil fertility Canals
3rd Agric Revo Defintion
new strains with higher yields through genetic manipulation to increase yield through the use of herbicides and fertilizers
How to increase GMOs
1. Purchase artificial fertilizer Chemicals 2. Irrigation system 3. Purchase herbicides/pesticides 4. Purchase machines to keep up with production 5. Need a receptive environment 6. Need receptive commodity markets 7. Barriers to implementation Poor, unreceptive environment river water
Shifting Cultivation Location
Subtropics and Tropics
Shifting Cultivation Steps and Characteristics
Steps: Clear land Plant land Fallow(not planting anything so soil can replenish itself) Come back to land when it is full of nutrients
Characteristics: Low quality land Low population density
Slash-and-Burn is also know
Patch agriculture Milpa(Yucatan peninsula) Swidden(Indonesia) Chitemene (Nambia) Ladang(Old english meaning to farm)
Dry Areas Same climate as livestock ranching(commercial farms in MDCs) Marginalized land
Commercial Farming Positives
Increase yield Keeps food costs low
Commercial Farming Negatives
Use of chemicals Human health Younger age of puberty Cancer increase Environment Rainforest destruction Desertification Rise in sustainably sourced farming Local and organic Blue zone where business collaborate to show thi
Raising of domesticated animals for food or items like leather Climate: Dry Growing industry As countries develop, meat eating increases Standard of living increases Not near market Bulk-reducing industry
Climate: Cold Perishable Area surrounding dairying is milk shed Closer to market North Latitude Bulk-gaining Bottling fluid
Mixed livestock and grain
Raise domesticated animals and growing feed
Commercial Grain Farming
Wheat belt Bread-basket US Corn belt
Items people garden Near market since items are perishable Suitcase farms Rely on migrant labor
Dry summers High rainfall needed France, Spain, Greece, North Africa, Australia, Chile, California Produce grapes, citrus, etc. Wine production
Tropics In LDCs Owned by MDCs Cash crops
Cash Crop Examples
Worldwide Cotton Rubber Amazon Rice India Sugar from Caribbean
Ethiopian Origin US #1 consumer Central America and Africa produce it
Most production in Asia China British own most tea plantations
Marijuana, Poppy seeds Core are demanders Periphery grows them Takes processing
What two factors influenced Von Thunen model?
Perishability and Transport Costs
Von Thunen ring outside city(1)
Market gardening/dairying/feedlot Feedlots fatten livestock before slaughter Skinny before sent near market
Von Thunen ring (2)
Forestry and growing feed grains Wood: Fuel and building materials Feed: Food for livestock
Von Thunen ring (3)
Food grains and cash crops
Von Thunen ring (4)
Livestock ranching Low land cost and marginalized land
Von Thunen assumptions
Flat terrain---Similar climate/soil---no barriers to transportation
Von Thunen factors that decrease the model
Refrigeration Food preservation Global markets/corporate decision making New alternatives for fuel New ways grains are used
Companies buy out companies Allows for them to set prices No quality for consumers Aka Monopoly Laws created in 1900s that makes monopoly illegal Multiple like industries
One industry that eliminates the middleman Control supply chain Food is homogenous Farm production becomes aggregated Create more commercial agricultural No more small farms Harmful effects on people and environment
Harvesting twice in one year Employ crop rotation
Harvesting 3 times in one year Employ crop rotation
Urban, crowded, squatter areas Takes up less space
Based on agriculture Mesopotamian, River valley, Primary sectors
Care of domesticated animals
Type of subsistence farming Village farms the land Ejiado
Food crops used only by family or local market trading
o extracts farmers from big corporations o environmental=reduce synthetic chemicals in soil/water farming and ranching without the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other synthetic inputs. o sold in 54% of US grocery store
Farm where farmers produce fruits for the market Use mechanization to produce large quantities of fruits and veggies
wheat, barley, rye, maize, or rice; potatoes, yams, taro, arrowroot, or cassava